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Michael Linton's Bayeux Tapestry: 1066 - A Medieval Mosaic and Puzzles

Medieval Mosaic

THE
BATTLE ABBEY ROLL.

WITH SOME
ACCOUNT OF THE NORMAN LINEAGES.

BY THE
DUCHESS OF CLEVELAND.

IN THREE VOLUMES.—VOL. III

LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.
1889.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

This electronic edition
was prepared by
Michael A. Linton, 2007
www.1066.co.nz

THE BATTLE ABBEY ROLL.
--------*--------

Peuerell :

This family is said to have been possessed of Tinchebrai in Normandy : but the name is clearly not territorial, as we never find the Norman de prefixed to it. "Sir William Pole, speaking of the branch settled in Devonshire, says it was Peverell, or Piperell; and in Domesday we find it continually spelt Piperellus: Terra Ranulfi Piperellus. This does not, however, illustrate its derivation. I have a fancy—I confess that it is but a fancy—that, like Meschinus and similar appellations, it had a personal signification; and that it is a corruption of Puerulus, which is almost identical with Peuerellus, as we find it written in the Anglo-Norman Pipe and Plea Roll."—J. R. Planche.

Ralph and William Peverel are both found among the tenants in capite of Domesday, but very unequally portioned. While Ralph's barony comprised sixty-four knights' fees, William held one hundred and sixty-two, including the Honour and forest of the Peke in Derbyshire, with the greater part of the town of Nottingham. He was likewise entrusted with the custody of its castle, then newly built "on the site of the old Danish fort that had previously crested 'the dolorous rock' (as it is called by an ancient writer) overhanging the river Lean."—Ibid.

The Conqueror's singular favour towards him is easily explained. He was, by all accounts, his son [1] by a noble and beautiful Saxon lady, the daughter of Ingelric, whom he had given in marriage to Ralph Peverel, on condition that her base-born child should bear her husband's name. Another and more probable version makes her already Ralph's wife at the time this son was born. "Ingelrica (as Leland calls her), to atone for past vices, founded at Hatfield Peverell a college of secular Canons, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene. Here she spent the remainder of her days, till her death in 1100, and was buried in the chancel, where her effigy, cut in stone, was to be seen (in Weever's time) under one of the windows. Her legitimate son by Ranulph, William Peverell, converted, in the time of Henry I., this college into a Priory of Benedictines, as a cell to St. Albans Abbey."—Morant's Essex. Besides this second William—styled William of Dover—Dugdale asserts that she had two other sons born in wedlock, Hamon, and Pain. But we will first pursue the fortunes of the bastard brother.

William Peverell of Nottingham, as he was termed, chose the site of his caput baronies as an eagle in the air might have done, in one of the wildest and most inaccessible recesses of the Peak. He built his castle on the brink of a threatening precipice overhanging the yawning chasm known as the Devil's Cavern, from whence a mountain torrent bursts forth in showers of spray. On all sides but one the rock is impracticable; and the single passage by which it can be approached is a narrow ridge, guarded on either side by a bold escarpment, which, in these degenerate days, few people are found adventurous enough to cross. This Castle of the High Peak—"the true vulture's nest of a robber knight"—gives its name to the neighbouring town of Castleton. Peverell's usual residence was riot, however, in this lofty eyry, but in the important Midland fortress that had been committed to his charge. Nothing more remains to be told of him, except that he was the founder of Lenton Priory, and died in 1113.

His son—a second William—led the men of Nottingham at the famous battle of the Standard, and was through life the firm friend and champion of King Stephen, with whom he was taken prisoner at Lincoln in 1141. His castle of Nottingham was delivered into the hands of William Painell. But in the year following, he was again at liberty, and had surprised and re-captured his castle, his soldiers stealing in through the underground passage since known as Mortimer's Hole. It was Henry II. that finally dispossessed him of his inheritance. He was accused of having, with the connivance of the Countess of Chester, poisoned her husband, Ralph Gernons, and "fearing," says Dugdale, "the severity of, the King for that foul crime, he fled to a Monastery of his own Patronage (which doubtless was Lenton), where he caused himself to be shorn a Monk; but being privily advertised of King Henrie coming that way from York, he quitted his habit, and privily fled away, leaving all his Castles and possessions to the King's Pleasure." This story, with the date 1155, is circumstantially given by Matthew of Paris, Matthew of Westminster, and several other authorities. "But how are we to reconcile it with the fact, that Henry, before he ascended the throne, most probably in 1152, and certainly not later than 1153 (the year" of Ranulph's death), gave to this Ranulph, Earl of Chester, the very man Peverell is accused of poisoning, the castle and town of Nottingham, and the whole fee of William Peverell (with the exception of Hecham) unless he, William Peverell, could acquit and clear himself of his wickedness and treason. This important document is printed at length by Sir Peter Leycester in his Prolegomena (v. Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. i.). Should we not therefore be justified in believing, upon this evidence, that Peverell was dispossessed of his estates, not for assisting to poison the Earl of Chester, but for supporting Stephen manfully and faithfully against Henry and his mother?"—J. R. Planche.

Hecham or Higham in Northamptonshire, the one estate excepted from the general confiscation, was, with some other lands, suffered to pass to William Peverell's daughter and heir, Margaret; and still, as Higham Ferrers, retains her husband's name. So far Dugdale; but here again Mr. Planche tries to prove that no such person as Margaret ever existed, and that Earl Ferrers entered into possession of this part of Peverell's property by less lawful means.

I have said that Dugdale furnishes William Peverell with three legitimate half-brothers, Hamon, William of Dover, and Pain. Eyton, in his History of Shropshire, maintains that they were not his brothers, but "of unknown origin"; and on the authority of the Monasticon, adds a fourth to their number, Robert, the last born. All (except this rather problematical youngest brother, of whom we know nothing but the name) were richly endowed.

Hamon, the eldest, married a great Shropshire heiress, Sibil, daughter of Gerard de Tournai, and was one of the barons of Roger de Montgomery; but left no legitimate children; and at his death (before 1138) appointed his brother's son, William Peverell the younger, and Walchelin Maminot his heirs, "though we have not," says Eyton, "a hint as to his relationship with the latter." He is conjectured to have been the son of his sister.

William of Dover was so named as castellan of the renowned fortress, always spoken of by old writers as "the lock and key of the kingdom." He, too, according to Eyton, had no heir to his barony but the nephew already mentioned. Dugdale gives him a son of the same name, styled "of Essex": but it is doubtful whether this was not the same person that he elsewhere enters as William Peverell of London, holding a separate barony.

Pain [2] was a celebrated soldier, "highly famed for his martial enterprises," who was standard-bearer to Robert Court-heuse in the Holy Land, and received from Henry I. the great Honour of Brunne in Cambridgeshire, that had been forfeited by Robert Fitz Picot for conspiring against the King's life. His wife, it is said, was Robert's sister; and he is generally believed to have been the father of the younger William Peverell (who became the heir of his two uncles), and of four daughters. But Eyton declares he was but another uncle, and that William and his sisters were the children of Robert Peverell, the youngest of the four brothers, and of his wife Adelicia (v. Mon. Angl., vol. ii. p. 601, No. viii.).

Whether son or nephew, on this fortunate heir, William, styled of Dover and of Brunne, centred all the possessions of the family, for in 1138 he held the three baronies of Hamon, William of Dover, and Pain. He is described as "a man of military genius, crafty and fierce," and very powerful in Shropshire and the Marches. "He had," says Ordericus, "four castles, namely Bryn, Ellesmere, Overton, and Geddington; and elated at this, he augmented the force of the rebels." This was when he raised his vassals in Shropshire and Cambridgeshire, and joined the first outbreak against Stephen. "After this, and in 1144 (as I suppose), William de Dovre appears in Wiltshire. He built a castle at Cricklade, subdued the country north and south of the Thames; harassed Stephen's partisans in every direction, especially those who occupied Oxford and Malmesbury. Similar was his work in the year 1145, when he caught the Castellan of Malmesbury, one of Stephen's ablest Lieutenants, in an ambuscade, and handed him over a prisoner to the Countess of Anjou, as the Stephanite Chronicler calls the Empress."—Eyton.

Two years after this, "sickened with civil war," he took the cross, and after performing many glorious deeds in the Holy Land, there fell in battle against the Moslem. He left no children, and his inheritance was shared by his four sisters, Maud, wife of Hugh de Dovor of Chilham, Kent; Alice, wife of Hamo Peche; Roisia, wife of Rollo de Harcourt; and Ascelina, wife of Geoffrey de Walterville.

Of William Peverell of London (who, by the way, is the only son conceded by Eyton to Ralph Peverell), Dugdale tells us only that William de Tregoz farmed his lands under Stephen, and that in 1186 they were in the King's own hands.

There must have been many collateral branches of this mysterious family. The name certainly continued in Shropshire for two hundred years. Hugh Peverell occurs in the reign of Coeur de Lion: Peter Peverell in 1255: and in 1331 Edmund, son of Robert Peverell of Pitchford, died, leaving his son John, then a year old, as the last male heir. Margaret, sister and heiress of this John, then of Castle Ashby in Northamptonshire, married William de la Pole. In Devonshire, the last Baron of Dover and Brunne and his eldest sister, Maud de Chilham, "did enfeoff the ancestor of Hugh Peverell of Sandford in the Lordships of Sandford, Haure, and Carswell." This was Samford-Peverell, "the auncyent dwelling" of William Peverell 8 Hen. II.—Pole's Devon. "Hugh Peverel de Saunford" was summoned to parliament in 1260. "Thomas Peverell of Park, who was also of Ermington and Sandford in Devon, was Sheriff of Cornwall 13 Richard II, and Sheriff of Devon 20 Richard II.; Richard, his son, was Sheriff of the same county 14 Henry IV.; and dying without issue male, his lands went in marriage with his daughter to Basset of Umberleigh, Botreaux, and others. These Peverells are especially memorable here by two crosses of moorstone in the highway, set up by them, still extant, and called Peverell's Crosses."—Gilberts Cornwall. Another Devonshire manor, Aller-Peverell, keeps the name, and in Hampshire we find Burton-Peverell. Andrew Peverell was one of the Hampshire knights summoned to serve against Llewellyn in 1264. "A family of Peverell held Bradford-Peverell in Dorsetshire of the Honour of Boulogne from the time of Edward I. till Henry VIII.: but bore different arms from those of the baronial Peverells.—Hutchins' Dorset. Finally, in Sussex, Tarrant-Peverell, and Sompting-Peverell, till late in the fourteenth century, belonged to the owners from whom they received their name.

Perot :

The genealogy of this family, as given by Burke, is among the choicest curiosities of its genus: and Banks very justly apprehends it to be "the fruit of a disordered mind." It is taken from a pedigree drawn up c. 1650 by a Welsh herald named Owen Griffiths; and prefaced by the amazing assertion that it had been "collected from the British Annals, which will bear record of the truth, and that it is no fiction, to latest posterity."—It is further dedicated "To the most Noble and Puissant Prince, Sir James Perrot, Marquess of Marbeth, Earl and Viscount Carew, and Baron Perrot:"—titles that never had any existence except in Owen's own deluded brain; and commences with William de Perrott, who built "Castel Perrott" near a town of that name in Brittany, and came over to England a.d. 957. He obtained some lands in Somerset, where he gave his name to the river Parrott (now the Parret) and laid the foundations of North and South Perrot. He was "constrained to leave the infant city" and return home; but his grandson accompanied the Conqueror, having married the latter's "nearest relative, Blanche, daughter of Ramiro, King of Arragon," recovered the estate in Somersetshire, and completed the long-interrupted building. In the next generation, Sir Stephen had to wife "the celebrated Princess Ellyn, daughter of Howell Dha, King of Wales, the Lycurgus or lawgiver of that land;" and their son Andrew, as "the descendant of a numerous race of kings, monarchs of Britain," claimed the kingdom, but graciously consented to cede his rights to the King of England, on receiving a sum of money, and the grant of a tract of twenty miles of country. He married "Jonet, daughter of Ralph, Lord Mortimer by Gladdis Dee, daughter of Llewellyn:" and "Lord Mortimer's mother was Maud, daughter of William the Conqueror." As Ralph, Lord Mortimer, died in 1246, this princess, at the time of his birth, cannot possibly have been less than one hundred and twenty or one hundred and thirty years of age. His only daughter Isolda was twice married, but on neither occasion to Sir Andrew Perrott.

The etymologists declare that Perrott simply represents the French diminutive of Peter. "Prince Edward used to call the favourite, Piers Gaveston, by the familiar title of 'Perot.' Perot Gruer is mentioned in the Rolls of Parliament. Henry Perot in the Writs of Parliament."—Bardsley's English Surnames. See also Lower. "Peret forestarius" is written in Domesday as the name of a Hampshire baron, but apparently only the Christian name. No Perrots occur in the county history of Somerset, where I only find that the river Parret "was anciently called the Pedred."—In Norfolk, Alan Pirot held six knights' fees under William de Albini; and in 1165 Ralph Pirot (no doubt his son) was the tenant of Robert de Albini of Cainho. (Liber Niger). At the same date, a Ralph Pirot held two knights' fees of the Bishop of Ely in Cambridgeshire, four of Geoffrey de Vere, and four of Henry Fitz Gerald in Essex. "If these knights' fees, amounting in the aggregate to fifteen, were holden by one and the same person, they point him out as one of considerable estate and consequence."—Banks. His descendant of the same name still held land in Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire of the barony of Cainho in the time of Henry III; as well as Lindsell Hall in Essex; Sauston in Cambridgeshire; and two knights' fees in Kent. One of his sons, Henry Perot, had the custody of the county of Kent 6 Ed. I: "to hold during the King's pleasure:" and Henry's nephew Ralph was among "the Barons made att the Parliament holden at Salesbury 25 Ed. 1." But it does not appear that Ralph's son and heir Simon, who succeeded him 33 Ed. I., ever was summoned to parliament; nor can I find any further notice of his posterity. A Reginald Perrot held Plateford and some other manors in Wiltshire in 1370.

This baronial house is never alluded to in the preposterous pedigree already quoted, which treats exclusively of the Welsh family of this name. It was seated at Iystington in Pembrokeshire, till Hester, daughter and heir of Sir Herbert Perrott of Haroldstone, brought the estates to her husband Sir John Pakington, of Westwood in Worcestershire, who died in 1727. Two junior branches remained; one in Brecknockshire; the other at Gellygare in Glamorganshire; and this latter only became extinct in 1779.

One of this Pembrokeshire house, Sir John Perrott, Lord Deputy of Ireland 1583-88, is supposed to have been an illegitimate son of Henry VIII. "If," writes Sir Robert Maunton, in his Fragmenta Regalia, "we compare his picture, his qualities, gesture and voice, with those of the King, they will plead strongly" in favour of this suggestion. "His first appearance at Court was early in the reign of Ed. VI. He was arraigned of high treason at Westminster in 1592, and received sentence of death, but did not suffer, for he died five months after in the Tower. He left one son, Sir Thomas, who married Dorothy, sister to the favourite Earl of Essex, by whom he had one or more daughters."—Nash's Worcestershire. He had governed Ireland victoriously and successfully; and was "brought unawares to ruin," says Camden, "by some envious persons, who were too powerful for him, together with the licentiousness of his own tongue, for he had thrown out some words against his Sovereign." Leland includes in this family the celebrated William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High Chancellor under Edward III., the priest "who was so in favour with the King, that everything was done by him, and nothing was done without him." He says in his Notes concerning William of Wickham: "William Perrot, alias Wikam, because he was born at Wikam in Hampshire. Some suppose that he was a Bastard, Perot the Parish-Clark's Son of Wikam." His biographers, I observe, do not accept this statement, but assert that "his patronymic, if such indeed he had, was Longe." At all events, he was of humble origin.

Picard :

This name, which, like Le Gascon, L'Angevin, Le Poitevin, and others, plainly denotes the nationality of the bearer, occurs half a dozen times in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180-95. There is a Robert Pichard of about the same date to be found in the Rotuli Curiae Regis, and the family is said to have been settled in Herefordshire during the preceding century. "That part of Ocle called Ocle Pichard derived its additional name from a family holding it soon after the Norman Conquest. Roger Pichard is mentioned in the Book of Fees made in the reign of Henry III. as holding of the honour of Webbeley; and in 1232 was a pledge for the fidelity of Walter de Laci, until the kingdom should be settled in peace."—Duncumb's Herefordshire. Miles Picard was uninterruptedly Sheriff of the county from 1300 to 1306, and twice served as knight of the shire. It was he who, according to Nash, gave its name to Sapy-Pychard in Worcestershire, which he held of Stuteville. Roger Picard, probably his son, was Sheriff in 1318 and 1327, and must have been the last of the name at Ocle Pychard, where Peter de Clavenhogh (Clanowe), who succeeded him, had a grant of free warren in 1334. Another Picard served as Sheriff in 1348 and 1349; and in 1356 Sir Henry Picard, Vintner and Lord Mayor of London, gave a great banquet in honour of the battle of Poitiers, at which both the Black Prince and his Royal captive were present. At a second and still more august entertainment, of even greater splendour, he feasted four crowned heads—his own Sovereign, and the Kings of France, Scotland, and Cyprus, with a great assemblage of the nobles of the realm. "And after," says Stowe, "the said Henry Picard kept his hall against all comers whosoever that were willing to play at dice and hazard. In like manner, the Lady Margaret his wife did also keep her chamber to the same effect." It seems that "the King of Cyprus, playing with Sir Henry Picard in his hall, did win of him fifty marks; but Picard, being very skilful in that art, did after win of the same King the same fifty marks, and fifty marks more; which when the same King began to take in ill part (although he dissembled the same) Sir Henry said unto him, "My Lord and King, be not aggrieved; I court not your gold, but your play; for I have not bid you hither that you might grieve;" and giving him his money again, plentifully bestowed of his own amongst the retinue. Besides he gave many rich gifts to the King, and other nobles and knights which dined with him, to the great glory of the citizens of London in those days." The Picards gave their name to Picard's Manor, near Guildford, where they were living at this time.—Manning and Bray's Surrey.

The name, however, continued in Herefordshire. "John Pichard was vicar of Ocle Pichard in 1446; the name also of John Pichard was returned amongst the gentry of this county 12 Hen. VI., and a branch of this family resided during several generations in the parish of Cradley; they bore arms Gules, a fesse Or, between three escallops Argent."—Duncumb. In Suffolk the Pykards were tenants of the Earls of Oxford. "Gilbert, son of Walter Pykard, 31 Hen. II., was in the custody of Gilbert de Vere, by grant from the Crown, of whom they held in chief Great Wratting, and was of the age of twenty years. Walter Pykard of Wratting, 14 Ed. I., held one hundred acres of land of the King, by the serjeantry of finding for him one footman, with a bow and four arrows, as often as he went into Wales with his army."—Page's Suffolk.

Pinkenie :

from Pinkeny, Pinkenay, or Pinquigny, now Picquigny, a town in Picardy, in the neighbourhood of Amiens, that in later times was erected into a Duchy for the honour of Chaulnes. A castle that had existed there as early as the eighth century became the head of a barony that gave its name to one of the greatest houses in the North of France, maternally derived from Charlemagne (Bouquet, Ord. Vit). Many of the nobles of Picardy followed the Conqueror, and among them were several of the De Picquignys. William Fitz Ansculph is one of the great landowners of Domesday, holding eleven baronies in different counties, comprising one hundred manors; many of them inherited from his father Ansculph, Viscount of Surrey, who had died before 1086: and from two other passages in the same record, it is ascertained that their name was "Pinchingi." Some say that William left no posterity; others, that he had one daughter named Beatrice, who married Fulk Paynell. The arms of this family are Or two lions passant in pale Azure. "Gilo frater Ansculfi," is also entered in Domesday as holding in capite in four counties; in Northamptonshire his barony of Wedon was called from him Wedon-Pinkney, and in the time of his grandson Gilbert was certified to consist of fourteen and a half knights' fees. He founded a cell to the French monastery of St. Lucien at his caput honoris of Wedon. His descendant Robert de Pinkeney incurred forfeiture by taking part in the rebellion against King John, who bestowed his barony on Waleran Tyes; but, like most of the other malcontents, was restored to favour and fortune on the accession of Henry III. Henry de Pinkeney and his son Robert were both engaged in the Welsh wars; the former had a writ of military summons to serve against Llewellyn in 1264; and the latter, "being in the King's service in Wales 10 Ed. I., had scutage of all his tenants by military service in the counties of Northampton, Bucks, Bedford, Essex, Herts, Warwick, Oxford, Berks, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Somerset:"—implying a wide range of possessions. He afterwards followed the King on his expedition to Gascony. We next come upon a blot on the family escutcheon. "Sir John de Pinkeney was hanged in 1292 for certain thefts and depredations, and his lands seized by the King, and delivered to Sir Robert de Pinkeney, against whom Hugh de Odingsells claimed them, together with half the manor of Long Itchingham in Warwickshire, by gift of Sir John. This Sir Robert has been generally considered the son of Sir John, but there is abundant evidence to prove that he was Sir Robert Pinkeney of Wedon, the Lord of the Fee."—Baker's Northamptonshire. He died about 1295, and was succeeded by another brother named Henry, who fought against the Scots, and had summons among the barons of the realm in 1296. Four years afterwards, we find his seal attached to the famous letter that was addressed to the Pope by the barons in the parliament of Lincoln, when he was designated "Henricus de Pynkeney Dominus de Wedon." But his barony expired with him. He was childless; and electing to make the Sovereign his heir, surrendered the whole of his lands in 1301 to Edward I: "Who, being an excellent Prince, many ill men made him their heir; whereas, according to Tacitus, a good father makes no Prince, but a bad one, his heir."—Camden. This would seem to include Lord Pinkeney in an ugly category. He certainly committed an act of injustice in the disposal of his property; for he passed over the claims of a younger branch of his house, that remained in Northamptonshire, and was then seated at Siresham. These De Pinkeneys derived from a second Ghilo, who held a fee and a half of the barony of Gilbert de Pinkeney in 1167. "In the Testa de Nevill, Simon de Pinkeney was found to hold two fees in Morton Pinkeney, and two fees in Sulgrave, Siresham, &c, of the barony of Henry de Pinkney; and in 1303, after the barony had been alienated to the King, Robert, son of William de Pinkeney, did homage and acknowledged to hold the manors of Morton and Siresham of that barony."—Baker. In 1337—probably on the extinction of the male line—they had passed to John de Elington.

Sherston-Pinkney preserves the name in Wiltshire. It is also found in Yorkshire. Dugdale, in his Visitation of the county, gives a pedigree of five generations of the Pinkneys of Silton-Paynell, commencing with Lancelot, and ending with Francis Pinkney, who in 1666 was thirty years of age. Their coat differed from that of the baronial line, for they bore Argent five fusils in pale within a bordure engrailed Sable.

Pomeray :

Castellans of La Pommeraie, Normandy (De Gerville, Anciens Chateaux de la Manche). "A fragment of this Norman stronghold still remains in the Cinglais, not far from Falaise. It is there called Chateau Ganne—Ganelon's Castle—a name given in Normandy to more than one such ruin, and commemorating the famous traitor of romance, who betrayed the Christian host

'When Charlemagne with all his peerage fell
By Fontarabia.'

It is really the Chateau de la Pommeraie, and here, no doubt, was the original 'pomeraie' or orchard which gave name to the stronghold and the family."—

Handbook for Devon. Two of the name—Hugue and Raoul de la Pomeraie—are on the Dives Roll. Of Hugh I can find no mention in Dugdale; but Ralph appears in Domesday holding sixty manors de capite; all of them, with only two exceptions, in Devonshire, where Berry Pomeroy became the head of his barony. He first built the castle whose ruins nobly crown its precipitous hill. His successor, William, had a younger son named Ethelward, who founded Buckfast Abbey in the time of Henry I., and whose name suggests an alliance with some Saxon house, but the earlier intermarriages are not given.[3] The elder brother, Henry, "taking heart at the imprisonment of Richard I. by the Duke of Austria," declared for Prince John, garrisoned his castle of Berry-Pomeroy, and chased the monks from the famous Cornish monastery of "St. Michael of the danger of the sea," which had been granted by the Earl of Mortaine in 1070 as a cell to its namesake in Normandy.

"Who knows not Michael's mount and chair, the pilgrim's holy vaunt;
Both land and island twice a day, both fort and port of haunt?"

This formidable natural citadel was strengthened and fortified by Henry de la Pommeraie, "that there he might be," says old Fuller, "a petty Prince by himself. But being ascertained of his Soveraigne's enlargement, and fearing deserved death, to prevent it, he laid violent hands on himself, as Roger Hovedon doth report.

"But the Descendants from this Pomeroy make a different relation of this accident; affirming that a Serjeant of Armes of the King's came to this Castle of Berry Pomeroy, and there received kind entertainment for certain days together, and at his departure was gratified with a liberal reward. In counterchange whereof he then, and no sooner, revealing his concealed errand, flatly arrested his Host, to make his immediate appearance before the King, to answer a capital crime. Which unexpected and ill-carried Message, the Gentleman took in such despight, that with his Dagger he stabbed the Messenger to the heart.

"Then, despairing of pardon in so superlative an offence, he abandoned his home, and got himself to his Sister, then abiding in the island of Mount Michael in Cornwall. Here he bequeathed a large portion of his land to the religious people dwelling there, to pray for the redeeming of his soul; and lastly (that the remainder of his estate might descend to his heirs) he caused himself to be let blood unto death." A local legend, on the other hand, asserts that he never left Berry Pomeroy, and when the King's pursuivant came to arrest him, mounted his horse and leaped from the battlements into the valley below:

"Out over the cliff—out into the night—
Three hundred feet of fall.

"They found him next morning below in the glen,
With never a bone in him whole—
A mass and a prayer now, good gentlemen,
For such a bold rider's soul!"

The same story is told of more than one German robber-knight, beleaguered in his lofty eyry by his infuriated serfs during the peasants' war.

But, though Henry de la Pommeraie thus forestalled his trial, Leland tells us he "lost the most part of his Enheritance." His grandson and namesake twice changed sides in the baronial war; but at one time was found actively engaged for Simon de Montfort, and according to the Miracula Simonis (App. to Rishanger's Chronicle, Camden So. Edition) the great Earl appeared after his death to this second Henry. In the following generation, another Henry was found in 1298 to be one of the next heirs of Roger, the last of the great house of Valletort (his grandmother having, as I conceive, been Alice de Valletort), and thus added to his possessions the barony of Harberton, and the castle of Tremarton in Cornwall. Harberton, however, with Brixham and another barony, Stokeley-Pomeroy in Devon, passed away to the two sisters of Sir John Pomeroy in 1422. An heir male remained to carry on the line; but "as to the Barony, whereof this Family was antiently possessed; I do not find," says Dugdale, "that after King Hen. III.'s time, they ever had the benefit of Peerage, or place in Parliament by it; though the Capital seat thereof, viz. Birie, so held by that service, continued to them; it being evident, that in 11 Hen. VI. Edward Pomerei Esquire was then seised thereof."

For more than a century after this, the Pomeroys were to be found at Berry-Pomeroy; till, in the reign of Edward VI., Sir Thomas Pomeroy wrought the utter downfall of the family by engaging in the Devonshire rebellion of 1549. He is described as "a symple gente," and his life was perhaps spared on account of his feeble intellect; but no mercy was shown to the estate. He was involved in ruin; and after a short struggle, was forced to relinquish the stately home that had been the head of the honour since the days of the Conqueror, and Berry Pomeroy was sold to the Seymours.[4]

The dispossessed family continued till the reign of Elizabeth, "when the heiress is said to have married Penkeville. Younger branches were of Sandridge and of Ingesdon in this county: a co-heiress of Pomeroy of Sandridge married Gilbert, ancestor of the Rev. Pomeroy Gilbert of Bodmin, about a century ago. About the middle of the seventeenth century the co-heiresses of Pomeroy of Ingesdon married Thomas and Ford. Arthur Pomeroy, Viscount Harberton, is supposed to be descended from a younger son of the Pomeroys of Ingesdon."—Lysons' Devonshire. They also held Tregony Castle (said to have been built by the same baron who revolted against Coeur de Lion) in Cornwall, till the extinction of the elder branch in the sixteenth century, when, according to Hals, the manor of Tregony-Pomeroy passed, with its heiress, to the Penkevilles. Yet, "in the parish church of Cuby is a memorial for Hugh Pomeroy of Tregony Pomeroy (of a younger branch, it is probable) who died in 1674."—Lysons' Cornwall.

Lord Harberton's ancestor, Arthur Pomeroy, first came to Ireland as chaplain of Arthur Capel Earl of Essex in 1672, and received from him the Deanery of Cork with other rich benefices. His son, again a clergyman, was the father of another Arthur, who married one of the co-heiresses of Henry Colley of Castle-Carbery in Kildare (the elder brother of the first Lord Mornington) and represented the county in parliament for twenty-three years. He received an Irish barony in 1783, and a Viscountcy in 1791, taking his title from the old Cornish barony of the Valletorts.

Pounce :

or De Pons; the ancestor of the Cliffords; from Pons in Saintonge. "The Lords of Pons in Acquitaine were one of the most powerful families in France, and are frequently mentioned in history. Pontius or Pons, who in 1079 granted a church to the Abbey of Cormery (Gall. Christ, xii. 14) had four younger sons who went to England, of whom Drogo Fitz-Ponce and Walter Fitz-Ponce held important baronies in 1086 (Domesd.) Their younger brothers were 1. Richard Fitz-Ponce; 2. Osbert Fitz-Ponce, ancestor of the Veseys and Burghs. The names of these sons are mentioned by Henry I. in his charter confirming their gifts to Malvern Abbey (Mon. Angl. i. 366) and from the Monasticon (i. 365, ii. 876) it appears that they also bore the name of "Pontium" or des Pons, from which it appears they were sons of Ponce "of Pons."

"Richard Fitz-Ponce witnessed, with Bernard de Neumarche', a charter of Brecknock Priory c. 1120 (Jones, History of Brecon ii. 75) and was, as is generally known, the ancestor of the De Cliffords."—The Norman People.

It certainly argues an unaccountable ignorance of his own pedigree in some one or other of the Cliffords, that he should have caused the name they had adopted temp. Henry II. to be inserted on the Roll (see Vol. 1, p. 278), when that of their first ancestor Pons was already there. Clifford Castle in Herefordshire, built in the Conqueror's time by William Fitz Osbern, the first Norman Earl of that county, passed through his daughter to Ralph de Toesni; and Margaret de Toesni, in her turn, brought it to Richard Fitz Pons' second son, Walter, thenceforward known as Walter de Clifford. Their eldest daughter was the Fair Rosamond—Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda, ("the rose of this world, but not the cleane flowre") as she is called in her monkish epitaph at Godstowe, who became celebrated as the mistress of Henry II., and the mother of one of the greatest soldiers of his time (see Vol. 1, p. 323). The Cliffords continued for several generations in the marches of Wales, fighting the Welsh, and once bringing home a Welsh princess as a bride,[5] till Roger, fourth in descent from Walter, by his marriage with a great Northern heiress, removed them to a fresh scene of Border warfare. Roger's wife was Isabel de Vipont, whose father was Baron and Hereditary High Sheriff of Westmoreland, by a grant of King John to her great-grandfather. She brought him four fair castles, probably all of them the work of Ranulph de Meschines: Brough, built to fortify the pass of Stainmore; Pendragon, that of Mallerstang; Appleby, the head of the honour, for its "central as well as strong and beautiful position in the barony;" and Brougham, to guard its Northern boundary. Her successors in this great inheritance continued to be for three hundred and twenty-six years High Sheriffs of Westmoreland; and her son Robert (one of the four knights of Aymery de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, whose portraits are on his tomb in Westminster Abbey) was summoned to Parliament in 1299. "He was educated," says Sir Matthew Hale, "in the schoole of Warre, under King Edward I., as great a master, for valour and prudence, as this worlde afforded;" who appointed him Constable of Carlisle, Chief Justice of the royal forests beyond Trent, and Earl Marshall of England. Several of his Scottish forays are on record. In 1297, "he entered Annandale with the power of Carlisle, and slew three hundred and eighty Scots near Annan Kirke"; and in 1306, he, with the Earl of Pembroke, defeated the newly-crowned King, Robert Bruce, at St. John's Town (Perth). He received from Edward I. the castle of Caerlaverock,[6] with all the lands of Robert Maxwell and William Douglas, but, "not willing to build any great confidence on these debateable acquisitions, caste his eye upon a more firme possession at a reasonable distance from Scotland, and this was the castle and honour of Skipton-in-Craven"; of which we find him possessed in 1314. He was killed at Bannockburn; the first often stout Lord Cliffords that successfully bore arms on the Border, and of one of whom it is recounted, as an exceptional case, that he died in his bed.

The seventh Lord married Hotspur's daughter; and their son and grandson both figure in Shakespeare's King Henry VI. The son—challenged by the King-maker on the field of St. Albans—

"Proud Norman lord, Clifford of Cumberland,[7]
Warwick is hoarse with calling thee to arms!"

was slain by the Duke of York's own hand in that stubbornly-fought battle; and the grandson was the savage Black-faced Clifford, who, "partly from the heat of youth, and partly in the spirit of revenge for his father's death, pursued the House of York with a rancour that rendered him odious even in that ferocious age." His hands were early dipped in blood, for he was little more than a child when he began to take part in the ruthless civil wars, and he was soon noted and dreaded for his brutality. At the battle of Wakefield, Leland says "that for slaughter of men he was called the boucher." It was then that he captured the Duke of York's youngest son, the Earl of Rutland; and when the poor terror-stricken lad fell on his knees before him, his lips frozen and speechless with fear, and with a mute gesture implored mercy, Clifford struck him to the heart with his dagger, crying, "By God's blood, thy father slew mine, and so will I do thee and all thy kin!" He was himself slain the year after, on the day before the rout of Towton, when, "having put off his gorget, he was struck in the throat by a headless arrow out of a bush." He had married Margaret Bromflete, who brought him the title of Vesci (derived from William de Aton, Baron Vesci 2 Richard II.) and the Londesborough estates in Yorkshire; but land and honours alike fell under attainder, and the life of his young son was only saved by means of a disguise. The boy was despatched to the wild fells of Cumberland, and entrusted to the care of some faithful hinds, with whom he grew up, and lived concealed for twenty-five years, keeping sheep and watching the sun and stars on the lonely mountain sides. Thus, when Henry VII., on succeeding to the throne in 1485, reversed the attainders of all the Lancastrian nobles, Henry, tenth Lord Clifford, emerged from his retreat with the manners and education of a shepherd. But, though almost altogether illiterate,[8] he had a good natural understanding, and was so keenly alive to his deficiencies, that he retired, depressed and humiliated, to Barden Tower in Craven, then a common keeper's lodge. Here he found the quiet and solitude to which he had been all his life accustomed, and applied himself to the only lore that had been familiar to him among his friendly mountains. "His early habits, and the want of those artificial measures of time that even shepherds now possess, had given him a turn for observing the heavenly bodies, and having purchased such an apparatus as could then be procured, he amused and informed himself by these pursuits, with the aid of the canons of Bolton, some of whom are said to have been well versed in what was then known of the science."—Whitaker. He also studied alchemy and astrology, and composed a "Treatise on Natural Philosophy" which he presented to Bolton Priory. But when, in 1513, the war-note sounded along the Borders, and the great Northern barons were summoned to gather their followers in defence of the country, the old martial spirit of his forefathers suddenly blazed out in the studious recluse of sixty, and the Shepherd Lord held "a principal command" in the army that fought at Flodden. He was followed to the field by the flower of Craven:

"From Penigent to Pendle Hill,
From Linton to Long Addingham,
And all that Craven coasts did till
They with the lusty Clifford came;
All Staincliffe hundred went with him,
With striplings strong from Wharledale,
And all that Hauton hills did climb,
With Longstroth eke and Litton Dale."

His son and successor was in every respect a contrast to him. While he had lived for nearly half his life as a simple hill shepherd, the heir had been brought up in all the splendour of Henry VIII's court; and in one of his letters he bitterly bewails the "ungodly and ungudely disposition" of this son, who had despoiled his houses and goods "for mayntayning his inordinate pride and ryot." He had come from court into the country "apparellyd himself and hys horse in clothe of golde and goldsmythe's worke, more like a Duke than a poore baron's sonne as he ys." He was soon deeply involved in money troubles, by what Whitaker indulgently calls "the extravagancies of a gay and gallant young nobleman, cramped in his allowance by a narrow father under the influence of a jealous step-mother;" and the method by which he relieved himself of them is characteristic of the age. "Instead of resorting to Jews and money-lenders, computing the value of his father's life, and raising great sums by anticipation, Henry Clifford turned outlaw, assembled a band of dissolute followers, harassed the religious houses, beat their tenants, and forced the inhabitants of whole villages to take sanctuary in their churches." One of the most pathetic of our North-country ballads is believed to refer to him.[9] It tells the tale of "am banyshed man," who woos and wins a bride of high degree. He can offer her nothing beyond an outlaw's rugged lot: the daily and hourly peril—

"Even as a thefe, thus must you lyve,
Ever in drede and awe;"

and the shelterless greenwood—

"The thornie wayes, the deep values,
The snowe, the frost, the rain;
And, us above, no other roofe
But a brake bush or twayne."

But she will heed no warning—she will hear nothing of danger or of hardship. Betide what may, she must fare with him—

"For in my minde, of all mankinde
I love but you alone."

This faithful "nut-brown maid" was Lady Margaret Percy, who became his second wife, and proved a great heiress. On the death of her childless brother, Henry sixth Earl of Northumberland, she succeeded, by a family settlement, to the entire Percy fee, "equivalent in extent to the half of Craven;" and from that time the whole country between Skipton and Brougham—a distance of seventy miles—belonged, with one solitary break, to the Cliffords. Her husband was early reclaimed from his evil courses, and his outlawry clearly did not stand in the way of his advancement, for in 1525, two years after his father's death, he was created Earl of Cumberland. He also received from Henry VIII. Bolton Priory and some other church lands as a reward for his loyalty during the Pilgrimage of Grace, when Skipton Castle, alone in Yorkshire, held out for the Crown. The second Earl married the King's niece, Lady Eleanor Brandon, daughter and coheir of Charles Duke of Brandon by Mary Tudor, Queen-Dowager of France, and her father-in-law built the great gallery and tower at Skipton in 1537 for her reception. Her only surviving child was, however, a daughter (Margaret Countess of Derby) and the heir was the son of a second marriage. This son, George, third Earl, was of some celebrity in his day as an intrepid and skilful navigator, who made "nine viages by sea in his own person, most of them to the West Indies, which he performed with great honour to himself and service to his Queen and countrie." He was one of the lover-like courtiers of Elizabeth, appointed her own peculiar champion at all tournaments, and wore a glove she had once given him, which he had richly adorned with diamonds, in front of his cap at all public ceremonies. But though he had first sailed under a royal commission, she withheld from him any more solid recompense; and, as he wrote in vain appeal, "Is it not as I have often told ye, Madam, that after I had throwne my lande into the sea, the sea would caste me upon the lande a wanderer?" He had to sell some of his property, and having "set out with a larger estate than any of his ancestors, in little more than twenty years he made it one of the least." At his death in 1605, "there fell a great division in the family," for he left only one child, the famous heiress Lady Anne Clifford. The title went to his brother Francis, fourth Earl; but (by right of an ancient entail of Ed. II.) his daughter claimed the estates as well as the baronies, and prosecuted her claim (at least to the former) with unflagging energy for thirty-eight years. James I. tried to compromise the difference by an award that satisfied both her husband and her uncle; but the indomitable lady positively refused to subscribe or to submit. She was twice married; first to Richard Sackville, Earl of Dorset, and secondly to Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, and was unfortunate in both her husbands. "The first was a spendthrift, who quarrelled with her because she prevented him from dissipating her estate; the second was a tyrant, who distracted her by the savageness of his humour:" and she complains in one of her letters that her stately homes at Knole in Kent and Wilton in Wiltshire were to her "oftentimes no better than the painted abodes of sorrow." Yet it may fairly be questioned whether so strong-willed and imperious a woman would ever have been fitted for the yoke of matrimony. Unquestionably the happiest years of her life were the twenty-five years of her widowhood, when, the dismal period of family discord having come to an end on the death of her cousin, the fifth Earl, without issue male, she travelled down in triumph to the North to take possession of her inheritance. She found it cruelly ravaged by the Civil War. Six of her houses were in ruins; Skipton Castle had been "slighted" or dismantled by the Rump Parliament in 1648, and Skipton Church was tottering to its fall; but, with two rich jointures added to her patrimonial estate, she set bravely to work to "repair the breach, and restore the paths to dwell in." She rebuilt her castles in almost open defiance of Cromwell; and placed over the gate of each (for she was given to self-laudation, and never missed an opportunity of putting up an inscription) a full account of what she had done. She lived to be eighty-five, inhabiting all these residences in succession, "diffusing plenty and happiness around her" wherever she went, and keeping a generous and hospitable house, that "was a school for the young, and a retreat for the aged, an asylum for the persecuted, and a pattern for all." Her high spirit was unquelled to the very end; and flashed out in full vigour when Sir Joseph Williamson, Secretary of in. 18

State to Charles II., wrote to propose a candidate for her borough of Appleby. She replied: "I have been bullied by an usurper; I have been neglected by a Court; but I will not be dictated to by a subject; your man shan't stand." She died in 1675, leaving two surviving children, both daughters of her first marriage; Margaret, married to John Tufton, Earl of Thanet, and Isabel, married to James Compton, Earl of Northampton. The latter had but one girl who died young; but the elder sister, on whom devolved the two great Honours of Skipton and Appleby, was the mother of twelve children. Four of her sons succeeded each other as Earls of Thanet; the last, Thomas, sixth Earl, claimed his grandmother's baronies of Clifford and Vescy; and that of Clifford was confirmed to him by the House of Lords in 1691. But an untoward fate pursued this unlucky barony. His three sons died; thus it fell at once into abeyance between his five daughters, and though the Crown then interposed in favour of one of them, it twice relapsed into a similar condition; and after passing through a variety of families, was at last granted to Mrs. John Russell in 1833. Her grandson is the present Lord De Clifford. The great Clifford estates, however, remained with the Earls of Thanet till 1849, when the last and eleventh Earl bequeathed them to an illegitimate son born and bred in France, who took the name of Tufton, received a baronetcy, and was the father of Lord Hothfield, the present possessor.

One half of Craven—the original Fee surveyed under "Terra Wil' de Perce" in Domesday—with Bolton, Barden, &c. (all now the property of the Duke of Devonshire) had descended, on the death of Henry, fifth and last Earl of Cumberland in 1643, to his only child Lady Elizabeth. She was the wife of Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork and Burlington, who, in honour of this succession, was created in the following year Lord Clifford of Lanesborough. This title became extinct with his great-grandson, who had, however, previously claimed and obtained another Clifford barony of earlier date (created by writ 3 Charles I.) which went to his daughter Charlotte. She brought it to the Cavendishes by her marriage with William, fourth Duke of Devonshire; but when the sixth Duke died s. p. in 1858, it fell into abeyance between his two sisters, Georgiana Countess of Carlisle and Henrietta Countess Granville.

Unlike most of its compeers, this renowned house still boasts of a descendant in the male line, Lord Clifford of Chudleigh. He derives from Sir Lewis Clifford, a Knight of the Garter under Richard II., who defended Carlisle against the Scots in 1467, and was twice sent Ambassador to France. Dugdale, and most other authorities, make him the son of Roger, fifth Lord Clifford by his wife Maud de Beauchamp; but Sir Harris Nicolas has proved, by a careful comparison of dates, that this is impossible, and he was probably, as Froissart calls him, Roger's brother. He was "a chief man among the Lollards," but made his recantation before he died, and in his will confesses that he was "fals and traytor to my Lorde God, and to all the blessed companie of Hevene, and unworthie to be clepyed a Cristen man." His descendants were seated at Boscomb in Wilts, till, in Queen Elizabeth's time, Anthony Clifford married the heiress of Sir Peter Courtenay of Ugbrooke, near Chudleigh, in Devonshire. They then removed to Ugbrooke, which has ever since been their residence. Anthony's great grandson, Thomas, became a Roman Catholic, and was a leading member of the "Cabal" in the reign of Charles II. He had begun life as a sailor, but in 1666 entered the King's Household, first as Comptroller, and then as Treasurer; from whence he was promoted in 1672 to the high office of Lord Treasurer of England, and in the same year—the year before his death—created Lord Clifford of Chudleigh.

Another family, sprung from the same stock, retained their ancestral name of Pons, which became Poyntz in the English tongue. Their pedigree is traced from Osbert Fitz Ponce or Fitz Ponz, whose descendant Hugh Pointz, temp. King John, married the co-heir of William Malet of Cory-Malet in Somersetshire, and also held land in Gloucester and Dorset. His grandson and namesake had summons to parliament in 1295. This barony fell into abeyance on the death of the fourth Lord in the fourteenth century; but there remained two other branches of the family, believed to be descended from a second marriage of Nicholas, second Lord Pointz, to a Gloucestershire heiress who brought him Iron-Acton. One was Poyntz of Iron-Acton; the other Poyntz of Midgeham in Berkshire, of whom the last male heir, Stephen Poyntz, married the only sister of Viscount Montague, and inherited Cowdray at his death. (See Browne.)

The first Lord Pointz had a controversy with the Fitz Alans of Bedale respecting his coat of arms:—

"Le beau Brian Fitz-Aleyne,
De courtoisie et de honneur pleyn,
I vi ov' banniere barrel
De or et de goules bien paree,
Dont le chalenge estort le poins
Par entre luy et Hue Poyntz,
Ki portoit eel ni plus ni moins,
Dont merveille avait meinte et moins."—Roll of Carlaverock.

The name is retained by Sutton-Poyntz, in Dorset.

Pauely :

from Pavilly near Rouen. "A monastery was founded here by Amalbert, Lord of Pavilly 664, which was restored by Thomas de. Pavilly, c 1090 (Neustria Pia, 328). Reginald de Pavilly died in the first Crusade at Acre (Des Bois). Ralph de Pavilly witnessed a charter of William Earl of Surrey, temp. Henry I."—The Norman People. "The Pavelys," says Banks, "were a very numerous family, and greatly divided, which renders a connected account most difficult to give with any accuracy to be depended upon." Contemporary with the above-named Ralph, according to Sir Richard Hoare, was Reginald de Paveley, Lord of Westbury in Wiltshire, where his descendants continued till 1361. Walter de Paveley, in the time of Henry III., held two knight's fees of the King in capite, at Broke and Westbury; and in 1251 had a license for free warren in his demesne lands at Westbury. His successor, Reginald, "in 1260 was summoned in the character of a baron to attend the King on urgent affairs, as well affecting the state of the nation as the King's crown and government, and two years afterwards had the like summons to attend at Chester, upon an expedition about to be made into Wales. He died about 1279, and was succeeded by Walter de Paveley, who imports to be the person summoned in 1295, in the capacity of a baron, to attend the King at Newcastle-on-Tyne. After him, another Walter de Paveley is noticed, as a very eminent soldier in the martial reign of Edward III., at which period he was one of the Knights of the Garter."—Banks. The last was Sir John, Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, who left two daughters as his heirs. "Of these, Alice married Sir John St. Lo, and Joan, Ralph Cheyne."[10]—Hoare's Wilts.

There was a flourishing branch seated at Bickenhall in the county of Somerset; and another in Hampshire; but this latter, according to Woodward, was founded by Walter de Pavilly, Mayor of Rouen, who was one of those who were banished from Normandy on account of their adherence to King John. He settled at Winchester, whence the name came into the county. Reginald de Paveley in 1264 was one of the Hampshire barons summoned to serve against Llewellyn. Robert de Paviliaco held Rodington in Notts in the time of Henry I., and founded a family that was seated there till the end of Edward III.'s reign.—Thoroton's Notts. The Paveleys were "among the earliest extinct families" in Bedfordshire, and were seated at Melchborn, where a brass plate is preserved in the church in memory of Robert Paveley, who died in 1377. "The St. Johns inherited a considerable property in Bedfordshire by a marriage with the heiress of this family; and since they have forsaken Bletsoe, Melchborn has been their chief residence."—Lysons. In Norfolk we find "the ancient family of De Pavilli, soon after the Conquest, enfeoffed of several lordships by the Earl Warren." Ralph de Paveley, son of Sir Philip, in the time of Henry I. gave the tithes of all his land at Dageney to the Abbey that his suzerain had founded at Castle Acre; and in 1199 "Ralph de Beauchamp had a grant of the custody of the heir of Reginald de Pavilli, with all the land he held in fee, the day he began his journey to Jerusalem, in which journey he died."—Blomfield. This heir was probably the Roger de Pavilli who, in the same reign, was a benefactor to Dereham Abbey and Castle Acre. They were seated at Ryburgh Parva, where Paveli's manor recalls their memory, and John Paveli, apparently the last of the race, was buried in 1522.

Paifrere :

variously entered in Domesday as Paisfor, Paisforere, and Pastforeire: once a considerable name in Kent. It has long since passed away, and is now only retained by Lullingstone Peyforer—the moiety of the manor that was held by Osbert Peyforer in 1086. He was, under Bishop Odo, the mesne lord of several other Kentish manors, and his descendants were of great note in the county. Fulk Peyforer, Sheriff of Kent in 1259, was seated sometimes at North Court, in Ealing, or sometimes at Colebridge in Boughton-Maleherbe, and with his son William was knighted at the siege of Carlaverock. His name constantly recurs in the county history. He was a man of ample possessions, and had married the heiress of Leverland: twice served as knight of the shire, in 1307 and 1313; obtained license to castellate his manor-house of Colebridge the following year, and died in 1316. In the south chancel of Colebridge Church there remains "a very ancient figure in Bethesden marble of a man in armour, with his sword and shield, lying cross-legged: and on the opposite side a woman, full as ancient and of the like marble:" supposed to represent Sir Fulk and his rich wife.—Hasted's Kent. He was succeeded by his son Sir William. I can find no further mention of the family after 1390. There is some hint of an heiress, Juliana de Peyforer; at all events their large estates passed into other hands about the end of the fourteenth century.

Plukenet :

or De Plugenet, from Plouquenet, near Rennes, in Brittany. Alan de Plugenoi occurs in Oxfordshire 1158 (Rot. Pip.) and Hugh de Plugenet, of the same county, in 1201 (Rot. Cancellarii). He married Sibill, daughter of Jose de Dinant, and acquired Lamborne in Berkshire: his son Alan in 1219 paid one hundred marks for livery of Lamborne. Another Sir Alan, his descendant, fought on the King's side at Evesham, and received as his reward one of the manors forfeited by the rebels, with the custody of Dunster Castle in Somersetshire. Of another promised recompense he was, however, disappointed. "Eustachia, the widow of Nicholas de Cantilupe, having married William de Ros, although the King had promised her to Alan Plunkenett, William de Ros was decreed to pay reasonable amends (rationabiles emendas) and two hundred marks was accordingly paid as the value of the lady."—Blaauw's Barons' War. In 1272 he succeeded his mother's brother, Robert de Waleraund, in the Herefordshire barony of Kilpeck, and had summons to parliament from 1295 to 1297. "He distinguished himself in the Welsh wars; nor was he less eminent in other ways. By his skill a large portion of the Haywood, hitherto uncultivated, was redeemed and bears to this day the name of Alansmore, and the Abbey of Dore (where he was afterwards buried) was enriched by a grant of the advowsons of Lugwardyne, with the chapels of Hentland, St. Weonards, Llangarren, and Little Dewchurch, appertaining to it. He died in 1299, and was succeeded by his son of the same name, a combatant in the Scottish wars, and in 1311 a Baron of Parliament. He obtained a charter for a weekly market and yearly fair at Kilpeck. On his death without issue in 1325 his sister Joan, wife of Edward de Bohun, became his heir; but she also died childless."—The Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords, by C. Robinson.

It was probably the nephew of this last Lord Plugenet that founded the family still existing in Ireland, though their pedigree declares that they are of Danish origin, and were seated at Bewley (Beaulieu) in co. Louth as early as the eleventh century. It must, however, be owned that there is a suspicious minuteness in the first dates given:—John Plunket, obt. August 3rd, 1082: Walter, or William, his son, obt. October 17th, 1085. They at all events bear the bend of the Lords Plugenet; and about 1332, John Plunket, presumed to be the nephew of the second Lord, was living at Bewley, and there founded a church with his wife Alicia. From his eldest son, John, descend the Barons of Louth; from the second, Richard, the Earls of Fingall and Lords Dunsany.

John's successors, seated at Bewley, and afterwards as Kilsaran, were frequently Sheriffs of the county; and in 1541 Sir Oliver Plunket received from Henry VIII. the title of Baron of Louth. His grandson Patrick was killed by Mac Mahon during a cattle foray in 1575; and the next heir, Oliver, "was appointed to have the leading of the shire of Louth," in 1593, when there was a great gathering of Plunkets at "the general hosting of the hill of Tara;" Lord Louth bringing, with the Plunkets of the barony of Ardee, six archers on horseback, and Lords Killeen and Dunsany twenty-four horsemen, for the barony of Skrine. In the ensuing century, Oliver sixth Lord, joined the rebellion in 1639 and was outlawed in 1642; whereas his son Matthew followed Charles II. in his exile, and received at the Restoration, in addition to his sequestrated Irish estates, "sundry other lands under the act of grace," and a pension from the Crown. Yet he, too, suffered outlawry in 1689, when loyalty to the House of Stuart had become treason to the new dynasty; and his successor Oliver could obtain no reversal of the sentence, and was incapacitated from taking his seat among the Irish peers. The next two heirs remained titular Barons of Louth; but the title has been since restored, and is now borne by the fourteenth Lord.

The younger branch was the more distinguished of the two. "These Plunkets in Ireland," says Camden, "have been very eminent ever since Christopher Plunket (a person of great valour and wisdom who was deputy to Richard Duke of York, Viceroy in Henry VI. time) was raised to the dignity of Baron of Killin, which came to him by his wife, as heir to the family of the Cusacks." Sir Christopher was Sheriff of Meath prior to 1442, and had married the only child of Sir Lucas de Cusack, Lord of Killeen, Dunsany, and Gerardstown in that county. All his three sons founded families. The eldest was the ancestor of the Earls of Fingall; the second, Sir Christopher, was the first Lord Dunsany; and the third, Sir Thomas, had to wife the heiress of Rathmore, which remained the home of his descendants. His son Sir Alexander "a person of great account," was appointed Chancellor of Ireland in 1492.

Of the Lords Killeen there were ten in regular succession; the last of these, Lucas, styled Lucas More, received the Earldom of Fingall from James I., in 1628. Yet, only thirteen years after that, all his three sons were in arms against their Sovereign; and Christopher, second Earl, having changed sides more than once during the Civil War, was seven times indicted and outlawed, and died a prisoner in Dublin Castle. His successor, pleading that he himself was only two years old when the rebellion broke out, recovered his rights; but Peter, the fourth Earl, was again outlawed for his loyalty to James II. This fresh outlawry was taken off in 1697, having lasted only six years; and since then the title has been transmitted in undisturbed sequence to the present time.

The barony of Dunsany certainly dates from 1438, in which year we find Sir Christopher styled Dominum de Dunsany; and, according to Camden, was conferred upon him for his "great worth and valour" by Henry VI. Dunsany, fifteen miles from Dublin, where he had his castle, is still the seat of his posterity, and had come to him from his mother. His descendant, Randall, eleventh Lord, was, like the rest of the Plunkets, outlawed for his adherence to James II.; and though restored to his estates by the treaty of Limerick, his seat in Parliament remained forfeit till the time of his grandson, who in 1791 claimed and was allowed it. He is now represented by the sixteenth Lord.

Another peerage was granted in 1827 to William Conyngham Plunket, a very eminent lawyer, who rose through every step in his profession to be Lord Chancellor of Ireland in 1830. He took the title of Baron Plunket of Newton, co. Cork, now borne by the fourth Lord. His coat of arms is differenced by a portcullis from that borne by the Lords Louth, Fingall, and Dunsany, which is—strangely enough—in all three instances precisely the same, without mark of cadency or distinction of any kind.

The old baronial name is retained by the village of Wearn-Plugenet, and Preston-Plucknett, in Somersetshire.

Phuars :

probably for Phaer, or Phayer, a Flemish name, still known in Belgium. "The Flemings were numerous in Norwich from an early period, and Flemings were planted in Pembrokeshire by Henry I." (Notes and Queries, 6th S. ii.) "Some of their countrymen had already settled in this country in the days of William the Conqueror, and we find them established about Downton at the period of the Domesday survey. An eruption of the sea into Flanders compelled the inhabitants to emigrate in great numbers. Many of the wanderers sought refuge in England, and were allowed to inhabit the borders of Scotland. Shortly afterwards, about 1107-8, the King removed this colony to the Welsh border, and gave them permission to settle at Rhos, near Tenby, which they were to take possession of for themselves. "And so it was," continues Florence of Worcester, "and these strangers settled there as loyal men to the King; and he placed English among them to teach them the English language; and they are now English, and the plague of Dyved and South Wales on account of their deceit and lies, in which they exceeded any settlers in any part of the island of Britain.'"—Bridgeman's Princes of South Wales.

Four Flemings, all of them tenants-in-chief, "Hugo, Odo, Walterus, and Winemarus Flandrensis," are entered in Domesday: but their Christian names only are given: and Phaire—as far, at least, as I know—is not found in any mediaeval record. The first of the family mentioned is Colonel Robert Phaire, the Regicide, Governor of Cork in 1654, who went over to Ireland with Cromwell, and was seated at Rostellan Castle. "There is a tradition that he was a Quaker: but he was in reality a Muggletonian, and is 'described as the corner stone of that faith in Ireland.'"—Notes and Queries, 6th S. 100. He was twice married, and left descendants settled at Grange, Killoughran, and Temple Shannon, Wexford. Robert Phaire of Temple Shannon married in 1761 Lady Richarda Annesley, eldest daughter of Richard, sixth and last Earl of Anglesey; and their son acquired Pallas, co. Cork, through an heiress. They are still seated at Killoughdrum Forest, co. Wexford, and bear Gules a cross moline Argent, over all a bend Azure. Their crest is a message of peace—the dove bearing the olive branch, wholly inappropriate to their regicide founder.

Punchardoun :

or Pontcardon, from Pontcardon, near Neauffla, in Normandy. Robert de Pontchardon is on the Dives Roll. "Robert de Pontcardon held lands in Devon 1083 (Exon. Domesd.). William de Punchardon in 1165 held six fees in Somerset and Devon: Roger de Punchardon in Lincoln, and Matthew in Northumberland or York (Lib. Nig.). William de Punchardon of Heanton-Punchardon, Devon, was living 1242 (Pole), and in 1261 Oliver de Punchardoun had a writ of military summons for the war in Wales."—The Norman People. Thickley-Punchardon, co. Durham, received its name from this family. "Sir Anthon Bek, Busshop of Dureme in the tyme of King Eduarde, the son of King Henry, was the maist prowd and masterfull Busshop in all England, and it was com'only said that he was the prowdest Lord in Christienty. It chaunced that among other lewd persons, this Sir Anthon entertained at his court one Hugh de Tountchardon, that for his evill deeds and manifold robberies had been driven out of the Inglische Courte, and had come from the South to seek a little bread, and to live by stalinge. And to this Hughe, whom also he imployed to good purpose in the Warr of Scotland, the Busshop gave the lands of Thikley, since of him caullid Thikley-Puntchardon, and also made him his chiefe huntsman. And after, this blake Hugh dyed afore the Busshop: and efter that the Busshop chasid the wild hart in Galtres forest, and sodainly there met with him Hugh de Pontchardon that was afore deid, on a wythe horse; and the said Hugh looked earnestly on the Busshopp, and the Busshop said unto him, 'Hughe, what makethe thee here?' and he spake never worde, but lifte up his cloke, and then he shewed Sir Anton his ribbes set with bones, and nothing more: and none other of the varlets saw him but the Busshop only: and ye said Hughe went his way, and Sir Anton took courage, and cheered the dogges; and shortly after he was made Patriarque of Hierusalem, and he saw nothing no moe. And this Hughe is him that the silly people in Galtres doe call Le Gros Veneur, and he was seen twice after that by simple folk, afore yat the forest was felled in the tyme of Henry, father of King Henry that now ys."

"Still, when Autumn shakes the forest sear
Black Hugo's voice upon the blast is borne.
Woe to the wight who shall his ire provoke
When the stern huntsman stalks his nightly round,
By blasted ash, or lightning-shivered oak,
And cheers with surly voice his spectre hound."
—Surtees' Durham.

It is clear, however, that Thickley cannot have been granted to this Wild Huntsman by Anthony Beke, who only became Bishop of Durham in 1283, for "Evayne de Punchardon demorants a Thikley" appears in the list of the knights of the "Franchise de Duresme demy Tyne et Teys" who fought at the battle of Lewes in 1264 (Hutchinson's Durham); and the family were seated in the county a hundred years before that. Richard de Punchardon witnesses a deed of Roger de Coigners during the shrievalty of Ralph Haget (1159-1181).

The name is found in several other counties. Lydiard-Puncherton, or Punchardon, a hamlet and manor in Somersetshire, took its name from Hugh de Punchardon, who held it temp. Hen. II., by knight's service, of the castle of Dunster. William his son was living there in the reign of Henry III., and left several daughters heirs to his estates. The Punchardons were of great account in Devonshire. "Heanton is surnamed Punchardon; the parish reserveth charily the old lord's name of long antiquity, and therewithall copious in some ages; for you shall peruse few ancient evidences in those parts whereunto the Punchardons have not been witnesses; yea, sometimes two or three of them. I will not avouch a remainder of them yet in being (but it is very probable): if there be, they have lost their don, and are now ycleped only by the name of Punchard."—Westcote's Devon. This was in 1630. They were first seated at Heanton Punchardon in the time of Henry II. The last of the name there was Sir John Punchardon, who lived in the reign of Edward I., and left only three daughters. We also meet with them in Hampshire. "The Ellingham family of Pont Chardon were of some note in the county so early as the thirteenth century. We find Roger, Robert, and Oliver de Punchardon holding lands under King John and Henry III. They were benefactors to Beaulieu Abbey. In the list of Hampshire gentry made out in 1433 by Cardinal Beaufort, we find Richard Punchardon, who died 1466.—Woodward's Hants.

Pinchard :

of very early date in co. Durham. John Pinsard occurs in Boldon Buke, the first survey made of the county (1153-1194): and ReginaldPinchard witnesses a charter to Finchale Priory not long subsequent to its foundation in 1180. This Reginald had to wife Petronilla, the daughter of Osmund de Gatesheved (Gateshead) and the heiress of Cocken, "one of the most romantic spots on the Wear," and both were benefactors to the monks of Finchale. (Surtees' Durham). Perhaps Peter de Penchere, who was a witness to Matthew de Lumley's charter to the same Priory (1189-1209) belonged to the family. In the 14th century John Pynchard held lands in Middle Herington; after this we hear of them no more. Albreda de Pinchard occurs in Buckinghamshire c. 1272.—Rotuli Hundredorum.

Placy :

for Placetis, a baronial family that became widely spread. But their name has no title to be here, for they descended from John de Placetis or de Plessetis, a Norman by birth, who, from being a domestic servant at the court of Henry III., rose high in his master's favour, was rapidly promoted to wealth and power, and at length became Earl of Warwick through his marriage with Margery de Newburgh. She was, as we have seen, a most unwilling bride; for though, after the death of her first husband, John Mareschal, the King issued his mandate that she should be "earnestly persuaded—not to say, commanded—to marry this low-born adventurer, he seems himself to have doubted her obedience;" and on Christmas day following promised to his favourite, in case she could not be induced to comply, the fine she would have to pay for marrying without the Royal consent.

Pugoy :

"Ogerus de Pugoys, a Norman knight, came into England with the Conqueror, and was one of the four knights of the Lord Malet, Lord of the Honour of Eye, in Suffolk; and had the manor of Bedingfield in Suffolk given him by that lord, and from that place assumed the name of Bedingfield."—Blomfield's Norfolk. Mr. Freeman throws discredit upon this descent. "It is patched up by a deed of which I have a copy before me, and which is plainly one of the class of deeds which were invented to make out a pedigree. Pedigree and deed together go down before the fact that there was no such person as Oger de Pugoys, and that Bedingfield had quite another owner. It appears twice in Domesday, at p. 368 and p. 428 b: and in neither case is any one of the name of Oger set down as past or present owner." The gift may have been subsequent to that date: and the name of Pugoys—possibly derived from Puchay, near Evreux—is at all events a genuine one, and reappears in various parts of England.

The Bedingfields migrated from Suffolk to their present home at Oxburgh in Norfolk during the early part of the 15th century, when Edmund (thirteenth in descent from Oger de Pugoys) married the heiress of Sir Thomas Tudenham. Their grandson, another Edmund, had a patent from Edward IV. to build the existing manor-house, "that very much resembles Queen's College at Cambridge," with a moat and fine Gothic hall. He was made a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Richard III.; yet was "so highly in favour with Henry VII. for his eminent Services, that he paid him a visit at Oxburgh, the room where he lodged being called the King's room to this day; and gave him some Yorkshire manors, forfeited by the attainder of Lord Lovell."—Blomfield's Norfolk. The next heir—again Sir Edmund—was the father of Sir Henry Bedingfield, who, with a following of one hundred and forty men, appeared at arms at Framlingham in Suffolk, to support Queen Mary's title to the crown. He was rewarded for his loyalty with part of Sir Thomas Wyatt's estate, and held the offices of Knight Marshal of the army and Captain of the Queen's Guard. Furthermore, as a fervid and austere Catholic, he was the appointed custodian of the Princess Elizabeth during her year's imprisonment at Woodstock, and proved a harsh jailor.[11] A short time afterwards, in October 1555, he was named Constable of the Tower, and a member of the Privy Council, as the recompense of his "laborious services. He was one of those whom Elizabeth dismissed with thanks when she came to the throne, adding a taunt to her farewell, and saying to him: 'God forgive you, as I do. Whenever I have one who requires to be safely and straitly kept, I will send him to you.' But it seems he did not think himself in disgrace during her reign, for he came from time to time to pay his respects to his sovereign. She herself went to visit him in 1578."—Wiesener's Youth of Queen Elizabeth. This was five years before his death.

His descendant and namesake, "the seventeenth Knight of this Family," joined the Royal Standard with his two sons in the Civil War, was taken prisoner and thrown into the Tower, where he was kept in durance for three years, and lost the whole of his estate, part of which was sold by the rebels, and the rest sequestrated. At the Restoration, Charles II. sent for the eldest surviving son, Henry, who, at the King's request, "laid before him an account of the losses their Family had sustained for his service, which appearing to be upwards of,45,000, His Majesty reply'd with Concern, That was too great for him to recompense, and advanced him to the Dignity of a Baronet."—Wotton's Baronetage. He is still represented in the direct male line.

The name of Pogeys occurs in the chartulary of Battle Abbey. The charter of John de Dreux, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, and Lord of the Rape of Hastings, confirming the grants of William de Echyngham to Robertsbridge Abbey in 1314, is witnessed by "Orgerus de Pogeyn, master of our household." In the preceding century Roger Pugoys of Rochester, in the county of Kent, appears in the Hundred Rolls of Henry III., and Richard Pogeys held the manor of Delce-Parva, in that neighbourhood, during the following reign. Imberic or Imbertus de Pugoys witnesses Henry III.'s charters to Kingston and Ivychurch Priory in 1256, and "held the manor of Gisag" (Gussage)

"All Saints, by service of one pair of gilt spurs; and the said Imbertus gave the said land to the Abbey of Tarrent."—Hutchins' Dorset.

Stoke-Poges, in Buckinghamshire, is named from Robert Poges, to whom Amicia de Stoke brought the manor in marriage. "He was chosen one of the knights of the shire in 1300: his grand-daughter and heiress Egidia married Sir John Molins, Knight Banneret, and Treasurer of the Chamber to King Edward III."—Lysons. It has since had a great variety of owners.[12] The existing manor house, built by Henry Hastings Earl of Huntingdon in the reign of Elizabeth, furnished the subject of Gray's "long story. The churchyard at Stoke-Poges was the scene of his well-known Elegy. The celebrated poet spent a great part of his youth in this village, and lies buried here himself under a tomb which he had erected over the remains of his mother and aunt."—Ibid.

Patefine :

for Poitevin. "Guillaume Le Poitevin" and "Roger Le Poitevin" are on the Dives Roll. The name speaks for itself. They both appear in Domesday as Pictavensis, or Peteuinus; William as an under-tenant in Kent, and Roger in Suffolk. It would seem that the former also held land in Yorkshire. "Burg (afterwards Burgh-Waleys) was held at the date of the Domesday Survey by William, who appears in a grant to St. Clement's, Pontefract, by the name of William Pictavus.

"The Pictavi, or Pictaviensis, or Peytevins, were a family (if one family, and not rather several), who emigrated here from Poitou in the train of the Lacis, and appear in several parts of the West Riding, where they had great possessions. They became extinct at too early a period to have left materials for any connected history of themselves; nor, when we find them ended in co-heiresses, is it easy to show particularly the marriages made by the heiresses or the issue from them. Robert Pictavus was the last who held the manor, and had seven daughters; Eva, married to Richard de Reecroft; Dionysia, mother of Richard le Wallis" (from whom Burgh took the addition to its name); "Galiena, Agatha, Matilda, Muriel, from whom descended Richard de Rockley, and Agnes, who married Elias de Midhope."—Hunter's South Yorkshire. Perhaps this was the same Robert Pictaviensis who was a benefactor to St. Peter's, York, and Nostel Priory (Mon. ii. 34, 393). They were also seated at Hedingley; "Walter Paytefen, Lord of Hedingley, came into England with William the Conqueror: he married Lettice, daughter of Hugh Morker, who by the Title of Lord of Normanton, Clayton, and Carlston, near Newark, gave him half of the town of Normanton with his Daughter in Frank Marriage, that is, to her, and her Husband, and the Heirs of her Body, without any Homage or Service to the Donor. They had Issue one Daughter named Berlet, married to Gilbert of Snythall, to whom she bore three sons, Hugh, Richard, and Robert; to her son Richard she gave four Oxgangs of Land in Normanton, which after her Decease William the son of Morker seiz'd upon: Robert, his Brother, thereupon brought a Writ of Right against the said William (temp. Hen. I.) and recovered the Land, because the said William had absented himself in the Day of Battle. I suppose, those five of his seven Sons proved better Soldiers, who went into Ireland at the Conquest thereof. The said William, to supplant his elder Brother, doubled the Rent of Normanton to William of Warren, Earl of Surrey."—Thoresby's Leeds. Elsewhere he tells us that, when Henry de Laci built Kirkstall Abbey in 1147, "William Pictavensis was Lord of the Soil, of whom it was rented at five Marks per Annum, and that he resided at Hedingley is probable from an ancient deed sans date in my Collection." Other scattered notices of them are given, for the name, under various forms of degradation, survived till the fourteenth century. "In 13 Ed. I. William Petunn (Patefine rather) held a knight's fee of the Earl of Lincoln; and 5 Ed. II. William de Patenn (I presume the same Family) held of the Abbott of Kirkstall in Hedingley. In a list of the Knight's Fees of the Wapentake of Skireake, William Patefyn (the second Person of the Jury who were all Persons of Quality) is said to hold half a Fee in Hedingley." Finally about 1325, "William Scott, or Calveley, had a sister (if not daughter) married to one Pattfyn of Hedingley, a man of great possessions, who, it should seem, left them to her or her brother, John de Calveley, and she and her brother gave all or most of them to the Abbey of Kirkstall." Hunter believes (though it is but a suggestion) that this family bore Paly of eight Gules and Argent.

The name is found in many other parts of England. Richard Payefyn and William Paynefyn held lands at Cornforth in the county of Durham at the time of Bishop Hatfield's Survey; Roger Peitivin (according to Sir Richard Hoare) was a benefactor of Todeputte Church in Wiltshire in 1297; and Credy-Peitivin in Devonshire (now called Credy-Wiger) was so named from its successive owners. "William Pictavensis was Lord thereof, and after him Robert Paytevin, anno 27 of King Henry III., whose daughter Grimond was wief unto Sir John Wiger."—Pole's Devon. "William Pictaviensis held of Ralph de Pomerai at the date of Domesday; but his manor—Odeordi—has not been identified."—Lysons.

Place :

or De Plaiz. "The noble family of De Playz were," says Blomfield, in his History of Norfolk, "soon after the Conquest, enfeoffed of several lordships by the Earl Warren." Ralph de Playz witnesses a charter of William, second Earl 1091-97, granting the church of Coningsburgh, in South Yorkshire, to the monastery that his father had founded at Lewes. "Sir Hugh was Lord in the time of King Stephen," and was succeeded by a second Ralph. "The family of De Playz had a considerable estate in Otringhythe; and in the reign of King Henry II. there was a church concerning the patronage of which there was a great controversy between Sir Ralph de Playz and others, which was adjusted by the Bishop of Norwich, when it was allowed to be the right of the said Ralph, and his heirs for ever, to present to the same."—Ibid. Among the adherents of the rebellious barons under King John we find another Sir Hugh, who held seven knight's fees at Ifford and Werpesburn in Sussex, and was twice married. From his first wife, Beatrix de Say, widow of Hugh de Nevill, he was divorced; but the second, Philippa, one of the co-heiresses of Richard de Montfichet, brought him a great estate in Essex, where the manor of Playz, in Beacontree Hundred, and the hamlet of Plaistow, near Stratford, are named from him. His great-grandson Giles was summoned to a great council held by Edward I. in 1293, followed him to Gascony in the ensuing year, and was a baron by writ in 1297. Sir Richard, the grandson of Giles, was, in 1334, found heir to Stansted Montfichet on the death of John de Lancaster; and the next heir, Sir John, called the fourth baron (though neither he not his predecessor were ever summoned to parliament) was the father of Margery, the heiress of the house, who carried the barony to the Howards.[13] Her granddaughter Elizabeth transferred it to the De Veres, and it fell into abeyance between the three sisters and co-heirs of the fourteenth Earl of Oxford.

According to an old deed (quoted by Blomfield) the last Sir John de Playz had a brother named Richard, living at Fettwell in Norfolk, but of him or his posterity we hear nothing more. A family of this name was seated at Halnaby in North Yorkshire, and afterwards (through a Surtees heiress) at Dinsdale in the county of Durham, continuing till the early part of the last century. William de Playz is mentioned in Yorkshire as early as 1189-90 (Rot. Pip.)

Pampilioun :

Pavillioun in Leland's list; from Pavelion, near Mantes, in Normandy. Thorold de Papelion is on the Dives Roll. He witnessed William the Conqueror's confirmation charter to the church of Durham; and is mentioned among those present at a great Council held at Westminster in 1082 (Mon. Angl.). Ralph Papelion, in 1214, was elected Abbot of Westminster. Halnadus or Havenald de Papelion was a benefactor of Selby Abbey, and a witness to the Bishop of Lincoln's grant to Thorney in Cambridgeshire (Ibid.). "Dominus Rydel Papillon" and Nicholas Papilioun of Lincolnshire are entered in the Hundred Rolls of Edward I.; and Geoffrey Pampilon was "one of the Procurators appointed by Simon Abbot of Croyland to appear on his behalf in the Parliament at York, 16 Ed. II."—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Then, again, we meet with the family in Kent and Sussex; three of the name, Henry, Thomas, and Laurence in Kent; Roger, in both counties; and William, in Sussex only; about 1272.—Rotuli Hundredorum. The two latter were seated at Bosham, where Roger held his land "by the service of carrying two white capons to our Lord the King, as often as he should pass by the gate of the said Roger." William, "one of King Edward I.'s faithful servants," was recommended by him to the Abbot of Leicester for a corrody in 1303.

The Papillons now of Crowhurst, in the same county, are of an entirely different origin. They belong to the French Huguenot families that came over to England at the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and acquired Crowhurst through a Pelham heiress.

Percelay :

or Percehaie, as Leland gives it. This name occurs several times in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of the twelfth century. Ralph Percehaie is one of the tenants in chief entered in Domesday, and held in Berkshire vii. hagae in burgo de Walingeford. No more mention of his posterity is to be found in that county; but in the Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1194-98 occur Roger Percehaie of Bedfordshire, and Reginald Percehaie of Norfolk. They are said to have been collaterals of the great House of Percy, though their coat has no resemblance to the five fusils in fesse of the latter. They bore Ermine on a chief Gules a lion passant crowned Azure. "It is worthy of remark that, in Yorkshire as in Wilts, there was a Percehaie neighbour of a Percy; and they may be of the same stock remotely, although their arms are different. There is a radical distinction between the two names; the prefixes may be the same, but hay (la haia, Latin = etum) means an enclosure; and y or ey (ac or aix, Latin = iacum) indicated a spring or running water (vide Mordacque's translation of Salverte's work, ii. 205)."—A. S. Ellis. To my ears it is obviously a nickname. The first Percehaie—it is never De Percehaie—may have been some adventurer who had stormed the guarded hate that surrounded some outlying hamlet or manor; or had cunningly stolen through to take it by surprise. Or he may have been simply a mauvaise fete given to breaking bounds in an altogether different sense.

This enigmatical name was very generally distributed throughout the country. We find it in Cheshire between 1172 and 1190, when Andrew Fitz Geoffrey Percehai granted to Adam de Dutton a bovate of land in Budworth, where he and his ancestors held eight bovates by knight's service under Gilbert Fitz Brito.—Ormerod's Cheshire. It is entered, temp. Stephen, in the chartulary of Garendon Abbey in Leicestershire, where Percenhaie de Sepenheve appears as a witness.—Nichols' Leicester. William Percehay and John his son held in Huntingdonshire about 1272 (Rot. Hundred.), and Walter Pertchay in Scotland under Robert Bruce. William Percehaye, joint Lord of Titherington in Wiltshire (can this have been the same William?) was fined and pardoned as an adherent of the Earl of Leicester in 1322.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. The Percehaies of Little Chaldfield, in that county, were close neighbours of the Percies of Great Chaldfield (see above): but this is all I know of them, as they are passed over in silence by Sir Richard Hoare. In Devonshire, "Kitton, that lyeth in the parish of Holcombe Rogus, was in Henry the Third's tyme the dwelling of Roger Percehay, to whom succeeded William, Henry, Sir Henry Percehay the judge, William, and William which died without issue, whose inheritance was divided anno 22 of King Richard II. betwixt Richard Warr and Alis, wief of Nicholas Heale, as cosens and next heyres. The said Richard Warr (to whom Kitton was assign'd) was sonne of Jone, daughter of Gonilda, one of the sisters of Sir Henry Percehaye, and ye said Alis Heale was daughter of Alis, the other sister."—Westcote's Devonshire. The longest-lived family was the one seated in Yorkshire. They held Ryton in Rydale, and Park in Lincolnshire, but the Sheriff of Lincolnshire reports them as non-resident in 1325. This was in the time of "Walterus de Perzhay," Persay, or Persay, a Commissioner of Array in the Wapentake of Rydale in the North Riding in 1322, who was summoned to the great Council at Westminster in 1324.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. William Percehaie was Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1375; and John Percehaie de Ryton occurs in 1433 among the gentry of the county. They intermarried with the Stricklands, Wyvills, Fauconbergs, &c. Matilda Fauconberg, who brought Whitton in Lincolnshire to Edmund Percehaie, was the great grand-daughter of Walter, fifth Lord Fauconberg. Her father had been the son of another county heiress, Margaret d'Arcy of Flixburgh. Leonard Percehaie, a cadet of this house, served in the Guard of Henry IV. of France. Dugdale, in his Visitation of Yorkshire, furnishes us with the pedigree of four generations, commencing with Leonard (grandfather of the above-named younger son) and ending with Christopher, then (in 1665) eleven years old. He was the son of an earlier Christopher, who had been one of Cromwell's Commissioners of Sequestration in Yorkshire, and proved the last of the line. His daughter and heiress, Barbara, was the wife of William Selby of Biddleston in Northumberland.

Perere :

"This family came from Periers, near Evreux, Normandy, where it remained in the fifteenth century (La Roque, Mais. d'Harcourt, ii. 1360, 1361). Hugo de Periers possessed estates in Warwick 1156 (Rot. Pip.). Geoffrey de Periers held a fief in Stafford 1165, and Adam de Periers in Cambridge (Liber Niger). Hugh de Perers, thirteenth century, held a fief at Sixtenby, Warwick, and Leicester, from Roger Mowbray (Testa). Sir Richard de Perers was M.P. for Leicestershire 1311, for Herts 1316-24; and Viscount of Essex and Herts in 1325."—The Norman People. He had been pardoned for his participation in the death of Gaveston in 1313: and was thenceforth constantly employed in the King's service. In 1314 he received a writ of military summons to serve against the Scots; in 1315 was empowered to raise one hundred archers in Essex; in 1322 was Commissioner of array and Leader of the levies in Hertfordshire: in 1324 employed to select and array the knights of the counties of Essex and Herts required to perform service in Gascony, and the same year summoned to the great Council at Westminster.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Holt-Perers in Norfolk preserves his name. His daughter and sole heir, Alice, an extremely beautiful woman, was the so-called "Abishaig of King Edward III." She had been one of the ladies of Queen Philippa's household, and is said to have married Sir Thomas de Nerford, who left her a widow in 1371. The Queen had died two years before, but she appears to have remained at Court, and exercised extraordinary influence over the aged King. In 1373 he granted her "all the jewels which belonged to Philippa his late Queen, with all her goods and chattels;" and bedizened in these, as Lady of the Sun, she paraded the streets of London in a dazzling blaze of splendour. She rode in great state from the Tower to a tournament held in her honour at Smithfield, followed by "many lords, knights, and ladies; each lady leading a lord or knight by his horse's bridle, till they came to West Smithfield, where presently began solemn justs, which held for seven days."—Barnes. Nor did she rest content with her authority and magnificence at Court. She aspired to be a power in the State. She liked to help and promote her friends, and even to interfere with a high hand in the administration of justice. She would, we are told, sit in Court by the side of the Judge, and dictate to him his verdict. She "was in such credit with Edward III. that she sat at his bed's head, when all of the Council, and of the Privy Chamber, stood waiting without doors; and moved those suits that they dared not. Yet," adds Sir Richard Cotton, "those two suits whereof she was condemned, seemed very honest; her mishap was, that she was friendly to many, but all were not so to her." When Parliament met in 1376, she was proceeded against as one of those by whom the realm "had been of long time evil guided;" and the Commons, through their Speaker, Sir Peter de la Mare, demanded her instant removal from the King. This request was allowed; and she, with the rest of the accused, and "others of their affinitie" was commanded to depart from Court. All duly obeyed; but she, at least, quickly returned, and was at Shene when the King died. Walsingham asserts that she drew the rings from his fingers as he lay powerless on his deathbed; and one of the counts against her in the new reign was that "contrary to that she had promised by oath in the last parliament, she had presumed to come within the Court and to obtain of the King whatsoever was to her liking." She was banished the realm, and all her goods declared forfeit to the Crown. Within two years, however, she was reinstated by Richard II., "being then the wife of Sir William de Windsor." She owed this act of grace solely and entirely to her marriage. In 3 Rich. II. Lord Windsor "was by Indenture retained to serve the King with one hundred men-at-arms for half a year; and in consideration thereof he had restitution of the Landes which were belonging to Alice Perers (sometime a Concubine to King Edward III.) then his wife, which were in the King's hands by reason of her forfeiture."—Dugdale. It has been urged on her behalf—though unfortunately there are many instances to the point—that Lord Windsor would never have married a woman who had been the King's mistress. There is no certainty that she deserved the ugly name with which she has been branded: and it is hard to believe that Edward III., on whom no breath of scandal had rested in the very heyday of youth, should have had a paramour in his infirm old age. Froude insists that the story "which throws a stain of dishonour on the end of our great English sovereign," rests on the unsupported authority of a priest, and is altogether unworthy of credit. "Lady Alice Perers was the wife of Lord Windsor, a nobleman attached to Edward's person, who had been a distinguished Viceroy in Ireland. Her family had for many years been involved in angry lawsuits with the Abbot of St. Albans; and long after this affair" (the death-bed scene) "which Walsingham describes so rhetorically, we find her still a great lady, her father's heiress, carrying on the controversy with the Abbey. She was evidently regarded there with bitter personal hostility, and charges from that quarter require to be scrutinized.

"Turning now to other evidence against her, we find from the Rolls of Parliament that she was complained of by the Legislature as presuming on the King's favour to interfere in the business of the courts of law. Although there is no hint in the Roll that she was the King's mistress, the complaint has appeared to harmonize so well with Walsingham's charge as at least to confirm it.

"The Speaker of the House of Commons, however, who presented the charge, was Peter de la Mare, the Abbot's brother or cousin; and thus again there is a suggestion of personal motive. The particulars when looked into amount to no more than this: Lord Windsor was a favourite with Edward, and an object of jealousy both with other noblemen, and with the popular party in Parliament. A hostile commission was to be appointed to inquire into Lord Windsor's conduct in Ireland. Lady Alice, who may have been a favourite with the King also without being a concubine, interceded with him successfully in her husband's defence to prevent his being sacrificed to his enemies." It will be observed that Froude chiefly rests his argument on the chronological error that Alice Perers married Lord Windsor during Edward's lifetime, whereas in reality she only became his wife about 1378. They had no children, but she left some daughters by her former marriage. One of them, Joan Skerne, is mentioned in her will.

Another family of the same name, but said to be of entirely different origin, and derived from Perieres in Brittany, existed in the West of England, where Philip Perer held of the Honour of Plympton, Devon.—Testa de Nevill. "The family of Perry, seated in that county in 1307 (see Pole) bears similar arms, and is believed to have the same origin."—The Norman People. These arms are Party per pale indented Or and Gules. Burke assigns them to the Perrys of Cornwall.

Pekeny :

repeated once again as Peukeney; for De Picquigny: (see p. 8).

Poterell :

for Poutrell: (see Putrill).

Peccell :

another duplicate: see Pershale.

Pinel :

Ralph Pinel, in 1086, held a barony in Essex and Suffolk. (Domesday). It is impossible to decide to which of the Norman families of the name he belonged. There were three, all bearing different arms, "maintained in their nobility" during the seventeenth century; the Sieur des Hayes, the Sieur de Bois-Pinel, and another near Rouen; and in 1789 four Pinels figured in the great Assembly of the Nobles. Three of them, the Seigneurs de Gouville, de Golleville, and du Quesnay, belonged to the Cotentin; the fourth, another Seigneur de Bois-Pinel, was seated near Rouen. Several of the name are found in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180-98.

A second Ralph Pinel—probably the grandson of the first—held four fees in 1165 of the Earl of Essex in Essex, and some land in Berkshire under Fitz Robert and Fitz Peter, another of whose tenants was Anchetil Pinel.—Liber Niger. The name continued in the former county for many generations: John Pinel occurs there about 1272.—Rot. Hundred. There is some hint of a previous scandal in the family. In the Pipe Roll of 12 John, "Robert Vanx owes five best palfreys, that the King may be silent regarding Henry Pinel's wife." The Oxfordshire fee of Warin Pinel (then deceased) is spoken of in the Testa de Nevill; and in 1278, Roger Pinel, Robert Pinel's widow, and Margaret, daughter of William Pinel, were all landowners in the county. Contemporary with them were Matthew Pinel of Suffolk, his brother Hugh, and Henry Pinel of Huntingdonshire.—Rotuli Hundredorum. Two coats are assigned to this name by Robson: Per pale, Argent and Or, an eagle displayed, standing on a billet raguly Azure: and Argent on a chevron engrailed Gules a lion rampant crowned Or.

Putrill :

Roger Poutrel and Galfrid Poterel are entered in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of the end of the twelfth century; and it is possible that their name was derived from the manor of Potereau, mentioned by Anselme. It dates from the Conquest in England. One of the charters of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, to St. Werburgh's, contains the following entry: "Robertus Pultrel dedit terram unicus carucae apud Masclefeld." Ormerod tells us that "Poynton, probably included, at the time of the Survey, in some part of the Earl's extensive domain in Macclesfield Hundred, after an intermediate grant to the family of Poutrell, had passed to the Stokeports when the place from which they derived their name was erected into a barony about the time of Randle Blundeville." Sir Galfrid Poutrell is mentioned in Cheshire during the reign of Henry VIII. In Leicestershire the Poutrells gave their name to Cotes-Poutrel, which they held of the Honour of Chester, and to Hoton-Poutrel, where they are found in 1235. "It appears," says Nichols, "that Poutrel the lord of Cotes held lands in Prestwould and Wimeswould, and that part thereof belonged to the monastery of St. Ebrulf in Normandy, probably by gift of these Poutrels;" and here he quotes in corroboration a deed of the Conqueror's. "John Poutrel was of Prestwould in 1350: he held of the Beaumonts, and bore Or on a bend Azure three fleurs-de-lis Argent. Hoton chapel was given by Robert Poutrel of Cotes to Bolingbroke Priory in Lincolnshire, at the time of his being received into their fraternity." Robert Poutrel was three times knight of the shire for Leicester during the reign of Edward I., and once in that of his successor.

In Nottinghamshire the Poutrels held Thrumpton of the Fee of Busli, and had their seat there till 1608. "Richard Poutrel was a very considerable man and some kind of Receiver under King Edward III. He died 1 Henry IV. without issue. His seal is a fesse between three cinquefoils."—Thoroton's Notts. The Poutrels had then been seated for eight generations at Thrumpton. The heiress married Smith, whose son took the name of Poutrel. A cadet of this family, Thomas Poutrel, settled at West Hallam in Derbyshire: "his son John married a co-heiress of Strelley in Nottinghamshire. Thomas, his grandson, left an only daughter married to Dethick of New Hall. Henry Poutrel, the last heir-male, who died in 1666, left seven daughters."—Lysons' Derby.

Walter Poutrel occurs in 1189 in Shropshire; (Rotuli Curiae Regis): and at about the same period we find the name in Somersetshire. "The family of Powtrell were ancient owners of Hinton-St-George, of whom were John and George Powtrell in the time of Richard I. and King John. Whether the former possessed the estate or not, is uncertain; but the latter enjoyed it, and in the time of Henry III. devised it to an only daughter and heir, married to John Giffard, who sometime resided here, but died without issue male, and the lands descended by Alice his daughter to Sir Philip Denebaud, of Pescayth in Monmouthshire. After many successions of this family of Denebaud, the manor of Hinton came, by the marriage of Elizabeth Denebaud, into that ancient family, who were afterwards ennobled with the barony."—Collinson's Somerset.

Petiuoll :

probably from Petival in Normandy. Towards the end of the twelfth century, Ralph de Petiville, and Godfrey de Petitvilla are found in the Magn. Rotul. Scaccariae Normanniae. But there is no subsequent mention of the family in the Duchy, and I have met with it once only in England. Thomas Petiwille of Scarborough was with the Scots at the assault of Berwick, where he was killed in 1296.—Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland.

Preaus :

from the barony of that name, in the arrondissement of Rouen, "which was, about 1070, held by the Eudo Dapifer of Domesday, son of Hubert de Rie."—Taylor. The "Sire de Praels" is mentioned by Wace at the battle of Hastings. This family used a singular war-cry, "Cesar Auguste!" and bore Gules, an eagle Or, beaked and membered Azure. Jean de Preaux founded the Priory of Ste. Marie de Beaulieu about 1200, and Pierre de Preaux, in the latter part of the same century, married Yolande de la Marche, the niece of Henry III. Another Pierre, their son, whose wife brought him the great inheritance of Crespin, with a share of Tesson, was the last of his race, leaving only two daughters.

"In England a 'Sire de Praeres' appears about 1119 as a vassal of the Earl of Chester."—J. R. Planche. This was the Richard de Praers who gave Knockmirton, at that date, to Chester Abbey; and who, according to Ormerod, was a tenant of the Baron of Wich-Malbank at Barthomley in Cheshire, held by this family shortly after 1086. "They were in this country," says Sir Peter Leycester, "a race of great possessions, but are long since worn out and swallowed up by other names." From this parent stock "descended collateral lines settled at Checkley, Baddiley, Badington, Duddon, and Stoke, all of which terminated in heirs general at an early period."

The principal line—that of Barthomley—was the first to expire: it lasted for six generations, and ended with Thomas de Praers in 1349. His daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, was the wife of Sir Robert de Fouleshurst, one of Lord Audley's four gallant esquires, who accomplished "marvels at arms" with him at Poictiers, and lies buried under a stately altar tomb in Barthomley Church. The extinction of the Baddiley branch followed within a very few years; it had given two Sheriffs to the county, Sir William, who served four times under Edward I., and his son of the same name, appointed in 1349. The co-heiresses were Joan de Mainwaring and Margery de Honford. The Haddon and Badington lines branched off from this: the former ended in the second generation; the latter, which boasted of a Steward of Halton and Constable of Beeston, continued till 21 Ric. II. Agnes, the daughter of the last heir, married Richard de Bromley. The longest-lived house was the one that assumed the name of its manor, Stoke, and lasted well into the reign of Henry V. The two last heirs were brothers; the elder died in 1417, when only six or seven years old; the other did not live to marry, and their kinswoman, Isabella de Beeston, became Lady of Stoke. Their grandfather, Roger, had received an annuity from Richard II. "for service in the wars and loss of both his eyes."

The name is to be found in several other parts of England. In Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs I meet with a Thomas de Praeres, Lord of Southstoke in Sussex, 1316: a Sir Henry de Praeres "one of the Supervisors of the array and Leader of the levies in Wilts" in 1311; knight of the shire for that county in 1319, and for Gloucestershire the following year; and a Sir John de Praeres, three times summoned from Essex; first for Edward II.'s coronation; then, in 1322, for military service; and two years later to the great Council at Westminster. In Essex "the manor of Prayers was held under the De Veres as early as the time of Henry III. by the ancient knightly family of Prieres, Preyers or Prayers, from whom it took its name. Robert de Prayers had a son, Sir Thomas, who married Anne, daughter and heir of Hugh de Essex the younger, descended from Swein de Essex, Baron of Rayleigh, and by her had an only daughter Margaret, wife of Robert de Bourchier, Lord Chancellor of England in King Edward III.'s reign. Sir John and Sir Thomas de Prieres were two of the Knights Bannerets under King Edward I.; but their arms were different; the former bearing Gules a fesse with two bars gemelles Argent; and the latter Vert, a bend Argent with two cotises Or,"—Morant. There exists, however, a certain degree of affinity between the two coats. Those of the Cheshire families were altogether different. The Barthomley line bore Gules a scythe Or (in evident allusion to preau, a meadow): that of Stokes Party per chevron Vert and Ermine a chevron engrailed counterchanged. None of them displayed the Imperial eagle of the French house.

Pantolf :

"Guillaume Pantou" is on the Dives Roll; and as William Pantolf, Baron of Wem, occurs in Domesday among the great feudatories of Shropshire. The history of this "William, surnamed Pantoul" (or Pantolf), "a gallant soldier, endowed with great talents," is told at considerable length by Ordericus Vitalis. He came to England in the following of Roger de Montgomeri, and was one of the chief officers entrusted with the administration of his earldom of Shrewsbury. In 1077 ne accompanied Robert de Grentemesnil, Bishop of St. Euphemia in Apulia, to the court of the celebrated Robert Guiscard, who "received him with distinguished honors, and tried to retain him in his service. He made him sit by his side at dinner on the feast of Easter, and offered him three towns if he would remain in Italy." Pantolf, however, would not be persuaded, and returned to England, but only to find himself involved in serious troubles. A violent hostility had long subsisted between him and the wife of his suzerain, Mabel de Belesme, who had forcibly taken possession of his castle of Perai; and when the tyrannical Countess was murdered by Hugh d'Ige in 1082, he was suspected, being a friend and associate of this Hugh, of having contrived her death. Earl Roger and his sons accused him of treason, seized his whole estate, and sought an opportunity of putting him to death. In this extremity he was harboured and protected by the monks of St. Evroult in Normandy, to whom he had been a benefactor; and at last, by the intervention of his friends, obtained permission to clear himself of the charge by undergoing the ordeal of hot-iron at Rouen. When he "carried the flaming iron in his naked hand, by God's judgment, there was no appearance of its being burnt, so that the clergy and all the people gave praise to God;" and he was acquitted. Earl Roger afterwards reinstated him in all his possessions. He then betook himself again to Apulia, this time in search of a relic of St. Nicholas, and having by good fortune obtained "the tooth of so great a man," enshrined it in a silver coffer, and brought it home in triumph to his domain of Noron in Normandy, where he had founded a cell for the monks of St. Evroult, gratefully bestowing it upon their church.[14] In his latter years we find him in arms against Robert de Belesme, third Earl of Shrewsbury, who had disinherited him, and given him "a sharp repulse" when he came to proffer his services. He thereupon went over to the King, at that time engaged in besieging De Belesme's stronghold of Bridgenorth; and it was chiefly through his negotiations that the fortress surrendered, and Henry succeeded in crushing the terrible Earl. His estates were given back to him by the King, and inherited by his son Robert, from whom descended the subsequent Barons of Wem. Another son, Philip, inherited his lands in Normandy. There were, it seems, two other sons; Philip being the eldest of the four; "none of whom," complains Ordericus, "were emulative of their parent's virtues in respect of the Church."

Robert, who succeeded to the English fief, "had acquired some notoriety previous to his father's decease. Soon after the death of King William I., a nunnery at Caen was pillaged, and Robert Pantulf's name figures among the marauders. This fact, which could not but be known to Ordericus, perhaps induced the contrast which he makes between the first and second generation of Pantulfs."—Eyton's Shropshire.

But Ivo, "probably the son and certainly the successor of Robert, who comes into notice before the death of Henry I." was a great benefactor of the Church, for he gave lands to Shrewsbury Abbey, Combermere Abbey, and Haughmond Abbey. His eldest son Hugh, fourth Baron of Wem, was Sheriff of Shropshire from 1179 to 1189. "This," says Eyton, "I doubt not was with reference to his connection with the Fitz Alans" (his wife was Christiana Fitz Alan) "for the office was quasi hereditary, though the Fitz Alan of that day was hardly old enough to undertake it." The next heir, William II., who succeeded his father about 1224, and "had served as a knight in King John's Irish campaign of 1210," proved the last of the line. He was dead before 1233, leaving two daughters, Matilda and Elizabeth; "but as we have no coeval mention of Elizabeth, we may presume that she died unmarried, and soon after her father." Matilda was the wife of Ralph Botiler of Oversley, to whom she brought the barony of Wem.

"There was another William Pantulf, one of the defenders of Carrickfergus, and who, on being taken prisoner by King John, was fined fifteen merks for his release. I doubt whether this was the same William Pantulf who, in 1215, was one of the insurgents who held Belvoir Castle against King John, but who was pardoned in December of that year (Rot. Pip.).

"The first of these persons was perhaps William Pantulf of Cublesdon and Hales; the second was perhaps a member of the family seated in Warwickshire and Leicestershire."—Ibid.

William Pantulf of Cublesdon was a younger son of Ivo, third Baron of Wem; and left an only daughter Roesia, "married to that Richard Trussell who was slain at Evesham in 1265." The name is often written Pauntou in Shropshire. One of the Norman manors held by the first Baron of Wem is still called Aubri-le-Pantou.

In Leicestershire, William Pantulf (whom I cannot attempt to identify), with his wife Burgia founded a Benedictine nunnery, known as Langley Priory. Burgia was a sister of Roger de Stuteville; and her son Sir Roger was enfeoffed by his uncle of Newbold-super-Avon—called from him Newbold Pantolf—in Warwickshire. "But these Pantulfs," adds Dugdale, "enjoy'd it not long:" for Roger's son William had no issue; and left his two sisters, Burgia and Emma, his co-heirs. Emma married Sir Robert de Waver; but Burgia gave her share to the monastery of Pipwell in Northamptonshire, where her late brother had betaken himself "to lead a retired life. He had a Chamber assigned him by the Monks there, where he determined to end his days, and to have been a good benefactor to them: but, on a time, the Monks removed him out of that lodging, in respect of an entertainment they gave to a great Judge, who travailed (it seems) that way; which caused him to take such distast, that he presently left the house, and came to Monkskirby, where he after dyed, giving to that Monastery what he intended for Pipwell; viz. the capital Mess or Manour house of this Newbold, with three carucates of land, and fishing in the Avon."

Peito :

the mediaeval spelling of Poitou. Roger de Poitou, one of the great magnates of the Conquest, was the third son of Roger de Montgomeri, Earl of Shrewsbury, and bore the name of his wife, Almadis de Poitou, in her own right Countess de la Marche, "which title was used by him and his descendants as Count de la Marche and Poitou."—Bain's Lancashire. He received one of the most magnificent grants made by the Conqueror—the whole county of Lancaster, comprising the six hundreds lying between the Ribble and Mersey,[15] or three hundred and ninety-eight manors in all, with the (free jurisdiction of an Earl Palatine. "The barons who held of him were called Barones Comitatiis (barons of the county) and held free courts for all pleas and complaints, except those belonging to the Earl's sword."—Ibid. Among these palatinate barons the territory was parcelled out; each having his appointed post assigned to him for the defence of the frontier, and the protection of its communications. Roger's chief care seems to have been to secure himself from any aggression by his powerful neighbour Hugh Lupus; for the whole course of the noble river that formed his southern boundary bristled with fortifications. At Liverpool, in a strong castle built to command the estuary of the Mersey, he installed his trusty comrade, Vivian de Molineux, as the first castellan. Higher up the river, opposite Runcorn, he placed Yardfrid, Baron of Widnes; and next to him (still ascending the stream) Paganus de Vilers, Baron of Warrington, mounted guard over the ford of Latchford, one of the principal passes into Cheshire before Warrington Bridge was built. Somewhat to his rear, but still within striking distance, "to strengthen him in time of need," was stationed Warin, Baron of Newton; while, further east, Albert Greslet, Baron of Manchester, held another ford called High Fare Passage, leading to the Cheshire barony of Stockport. Albert must have governed a large extent of country, for he and his neighbour Roger de Busli "were co-parceners in the lordship of Blackburnshire at the time of the Domesday Survey." Roger was Baron of Penwortham, where another castle guarded the mouth of the Ribble, which then formed a broader channel than it does now. There is a little uncertainty as to the original number of the Lancaster barons, and I have left out several others, given in the county history, that are evidently errors or interpolations, such as Ilbert de Lacy, Byron of Rochdale, and William de Lancaster—a name first assumed three generations after.

Roger appears to have chosen Clitheroe as the head of his Honour, and to have built his castle there before the date of Domesday, as his Yorkshire lands were then held of it. "It is not stated that he held either Halton Or Whittington, but it is certain that he, in the next reign, was lord also of these, and had fixed upon Lancaster in the former, then an all but deserted Roman site, for another castle."—A. S. Ellis. In 1094, he founded Lancaster Priory as a cell to St. Martin's Abbey at Sees in Normandy.

During the Conqueror's reign, he had lost the whole of his great principality: for, "in the interval between the first division of property under the Norman dynasty and the Domesday Survey, all his possessions were forfeited to the Crown. The honour of Lancaster was, however, restored to him in the time of William Rufus, but it was finally alienated in his banishment of 1101."—Bain's Lancashire. He undertook this second abortive rebellion in concert with his brother, Robert de Belesme, Earl of Shrewsbury, whose close ally he had ever been. "These brothers became too powerful to remain long faithful subjects to the King, with whom they ranked among the great feudatories of France.[16] It was found that their influence was sufficient to give preponderance to the side they espoused, and Henry I. must have been greatly relieved when he was able to banish them from England."—A. S. Ellis. This opportunity was afforded him the year after his accession to the throne. The insurrection failed: Robert de Belesme surrendered his castle and himself at the King's mercy; and both the obnoxious Earls, stripped of their honours and estates, with their younger brother Arnulph de Montgomerie, were removed from the scene. "Outlawed, and banished from England, Roger and Arnulph naturally went to Robert, a man of vast resources and wealth, having no less than thirty-four strong castles in his county of Alencon alone; however, they were but ill received by him, though it was to their support of him they owed all their misfortune. Roger then retired to the castle of Charroux, near Civray, which he possessed in right of his wife, and it is not probable that he ever visited England again. His troubles, however, did not cease, for Hugh the Devil, Lord of Lusignan, son of his wife's aunt, disputed the county of La Marche with him, and there were constant hostilities between them, which, as a feud, their descendants continued. Almadis died 1116, but Roger was surviving in 1123, being present at the installation of Claras, Abbot of Ahun (Gallia Christiana, ii., col. 619). By Almadis, Roger had three sons;—Count Aldebert IV., Eudo, and Count Boson IV.; and the French genealogists say also two daughters, Ponce, wife of Wulfgrim 'Taillefer' II., Count of Augoulesme, and Marquise, wife of Guy IV., Viscount of Limoges."—Ibid.

The great honour of Lancaster was granted to Stephen, the King's nephew: and I cannot find that any part of Roger's English possessions ever reverted to his descendants. They could have no motive for returning to this country; and most likely, as was the case with Robert de Belesme's posterity, remained Frenchmen. Yet more than one family named De la Marche existed in England during the fourteenth century (see vol. iii., p. 370), and Dugdale speaks of the Petos, long seated at Chesterton in Warwickshire, as "so eminent in ancient times," without affording us any clue to his meaning. One of them served as Lt. Gen. of the Marshalship and Captain of the Bastille under the famous John Talbot in 1448: and two Petos occur as Sheriffs of Leicestershire, 15 Ed. III., and 7 and 15 Henry VI. There is a curious similarity between the coats of some of these families: for instance, Peyto bore Barry of six counterchanged; one of the De la Marches four bars on a field Azure; another, Barry of eight: but none of them in the least resemble Roger de Poitou's, Ermine, three chevrons Gules, as given by Bain. It was a mysterious coat, for it was certainly never borne by his father, nor, according to the same authority, was it that of his wife. I have met with a family of Peyton in Burke's Armoury that bore the same Ermine three chevrons Gules.

Penecord :

for Pencurt, or Fancourt; a duplicate.

Prendirlegast :

generally abbreviated to Prendelgast or Prendergast. In the latter form it has been considered territorial, and Mr. Ferguson, in his Surnames as a Science, labours to interpret it as follows: "Prendergast is, I take it, an ancient compound from the stem bend (A.-S. bend, band, crown, chaplet) with gast, hospes. It first takes a medial vowel between the two words of the compound, and becomes Pend-e-gast. Then e naturally becomes er, passing the very slight barrier which English pronunciation affords, and the name, having become Pendergast, finds the need of a second r to balance the first, and becomes Prendergast."

Much ingenuity, as it appears to me, is here wasted in the endeavour to transmute a Norman into a Saxon name; but it is with the original form, Prendirlegast, that we have here to do. Were it not invariably preceded by de, we might conjecture it to be a nickname, as Prendre le Gast—whatever that may mean; but it seems more likely, from the example of St. Denis-le-Gast, to be a true name with an adjunct. It is true that I cannot attempt to explain Le Gast. Is it the same as Vaast or Wast, frequently found in the Cotentin as a termination of place names? Nor can I in any way elucidate the meaning of the following lines:

"This peuysh proud this prender gest
When he is well yet can he not rest."

They were written by Skelton in the seventeenth century.

Sir Bernard Burke states that this family settled in Pembrokeshire and at Akill, in Northumberland, at the time of the Conquest. In the Testa de Nevill, however, we find William de Akill holding at Akill de veteri feoffamento. Perhaps he had adopted the name of his manor. In Wales, on the other hand, the Prendergasts gave theirs to a parish now forming part of the borough of Haverfordwest, which continued in their possession till Maurice de Prendergast sailed with Earl Strongbow to Ireland in the spring of 1170.

The posterity he left in that kingdom was sufficiently numerous; but in England I have only met with the name three times in public records. Robert de Prendelgast of Lincolnshire is found in the Pipe Roll of 1189-90: John Prendergast, Preceptor of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem of Greenham, in a catalogue of Berkshire gentry of the time of Henry III. (v. Lysons): and William de Prendergast, an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, was pardoned for his participation in the death of Gaveston, in 1313.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. In Scotland, on the other hand, the Prendergasts are often mentioned, and occur at so early a date that it would appear they had crossed the Border even sooner than the Irish Channel. A village in the neighbourhood of Coldingham, Plendergast, formerly Prenagest, retains their name to this day, and "was one of the 'mansions' granted by Edgar, son of Malcolm Canmore, to the monks of Durham on his restoration to the crown of Scotland."—Ridpath's Border History. "William de Prendelath," named in 1295 in the "Submission of men of the shires of Roxburgh and Perth" to Edward I. was probably the same Sir William Prendregist who is included in the list of "Magnates" serving under him at the battle of Stirling in 1303. A "Mons. Henri de Prendirgest" brought the King the news of the capture of "Mons. Symon Fresel," at which he had himself assisted, and "was rewarded accordingly."—Affairs and History of Scotland, by Sir Francis Palgrave. Sir Peter de Prendreguest was one of the eleven knights who made their submission with John Comin to Edward I. at Dunfermline in 1304.—Ridpath's Border History. Another Sir William Prendegaste—perhaps the son of the former—fought among the barons "in the III warde of the batailles of Skotelonde" commanded by the Earl of Ross, in 1333.—Glastonbury MS. The name lingered on the Borders for more than two centuries and a half after this. "'Prenderguest' was one of the gentlemen of the Eastern March that, in 1591, subscribed the oath of allegiance to James VI., "binding themselves not to shrink from His Majesty's service for any cause, as they shall answer to Almighty God and His Majesty upon their faith, honour, or allegiance.'"—Ridpath. They bore a fleur de lis, as shown on the seal of Henry de Prendergast, appended to one of the Coldingham charters, but not—in his case at least—on a shield. Another seal, accidentally brought to light during the trenching of a field in Perthshire, and "undoubtedly the work of the fourteenth century," bears the name of John de Prendergast, and a shield with the singular device of a fleur de lis, with a sprig or stamen issuing from between the centre and dexter leaf.

But it was in Ireland that the family chiefly flourished and extended itself. They struck root in Tipperary, as Sir Bernard Burke informs us, nearly seven hundred years ago, and seated themselves at Newcastle Prendergast, on the river Suir, which washes the walls of their manor house on its way to Cahir Castle and Clonmell. In that county alone their territory stretched from Cahir to Cappoquin, and from Fethard to Cloghean; and they were to be met with in many others. Philip de Prendergast witnesses King John's charter to Grane Abbey, Kildare; and "Dominus Philippus de Prendilgast" another of Edward I. to Ponte Priory, Fermoy.—Mon. Angl. The Prendergasts of Clan Morris, co. Mayo, are mentioned by Camden. In Cork, the name is sometimes given Pindergrace; and, like most of its Norman compeers, it was now and then adopted by the conquered Celts, who were ordered to disguise their nationality under an alien patronymic. Thus, in 1575, Sir Henry Sidney writes from Galway: "There came to me" (with several others) "Mark Morris, of English syrname, Prendergast.... All submitted and seemed desirous to lyve in loyaltie, and under the lawes and subjection of the crown of England."

One of this extensive Irish family received a baronetcy. Thomas Prendergast of Newcastle, who married a sister of the eleventh Earl of Ormond, and died in 1725 at the patriarchal age of one hundred and eleven, left three sons, Jeffrey, Thomas, and James. Of the eldest and the youngest Burke tells us that "many descendants still exist;" but the posterity of Thomas only continued in the male line for one more generation. He was a Brigadier General in Marlborough's army; and having accidentally discovered a plot against the life of William III. was created a baronet, and further recompensed with a grant of Gort in Galway, the forfeited estate of Roger O'Shaughnessy. He fell at the battle of Malplaquet, and was succeeded by a son and namesake, who died s. p. in 1760, "whilst a patent was being drawn out raising him to the Viscountcy of Clonmell." Three sisters remained, all of them married; but the inheritance became vested in the youngest, Elizabeth; and her son by her second husband, Charles Smyth, was created Viscount Gort in 1816. These Prendergasts do not give the sprouting fleur de lis of the Scottish house. They bear Gules a saltire Vair.

The name has travelled into Spain, where Senor Moret Prendergast, often called the Spanish Cobden, is a foremost man among the Dynastic Democrats, and the leader of the Free Trade party (1882).

Perciuale :

Sir Richard, the fifth and youngest son of William Lupellus or Louvel (see Louvel) and the only one of his brothers who transmitted the original surname of De Percheval or Perceval to his posterity, "was portioned by his father with lands in Stawel in Somerset, and many other estates, which descended to his posterity, the successive lords of Weston-in-Gordano. This Sir Richard de Perceval attended King Richard I. in his expedition into Palestine, a.d. 1190, where, being a person of uncommon strength and valour, he distinguished himself in several fierce engagements. In one of them, it is said, that having lost his leg, he undauntedly continued on horseback till he also lost his arm, and that even then, with the horse's bridle in his teeth, he persisted to deal slaughter round him till he fell by loss of blood. Notwithstanding this tradition (one part of which seems to be confirmed by the family crest, which was a man armed on horseback, with one leg couped) it is certain that he lived to return home, and was buried in the church of Weston, under a superb monument which was destroyed in the civil wars of the seventeenth century."—Collinson's Somerset. His son, of the same name, went with him to the Holy Land, and was the father of Robert, Hugh, and John (sometimes styled, from one of his manors, de Walton). The first named, Robert, was one of the early adventurers to Ireland; and landing there in 1261 with Richard de Marlee, Stephen de Burgh, and about twenty men-at-arms, acquired by his good sword such great possessions that he elected to take up his abode there altogether. He was accordingly summoned to the parliament held at Dublin in 1285 as Baron Perceval, but died the same year: and the title was successively borne by his two sons, and a grandson with whom it ended in 1312.

The two younger brothers remained in Somersetshire, and it is believed that Robert resigned either the whole, or a great part, of his paternal estates to them. Nothing further is known of Hugh, but John was the ancestor of a long line of knights, who continued Lords of Eastbury and Weston-in-Gordano till the time of Charles II.[17]. One of them was slain at Bannockburn; another knighted by the King's own hand on the field of Cressy: and the last, Thomas Perceval, who died in 1691, was a zealous Royalist, and suffered cruel treatment in the Civil Wars. Not only had he to pay a heavy sum as "composition," but his estate was injured by the Parliament forces, who, in addition, "ransacked his house, destroyed the family writings, and defaced the monuments of his ancestors. After the Restoration he was twice visited at his manor-house of Weston by King Charles II., from whom he expected, but in vain, a gratuity for his services."—Ibid. His only child, a daughter, left no posterity, and sold all the family property.

The name, however, was still borne by a remote kinsman, representing a branch that had separated from the parent stock more than two hundred years before. Ralf Perceval, who died in 1477, had a younger brother of the same name, on whom he settled the estate of Tydenham, and who was the immediate ancestor of the present Earls of Egmont. In the time of Queen Elizabeth, one of his descendants, named Richard, was much employed by Lord Burghley (who had married his sister) and had the skill and good fortune to decypher a packet of despatches that a Spanish vessel from the Low Countries, chased by an English cruiser, had cast overboard; and which, having been picked up at sea and laid before the Privy Council, was found to give the earliest intimation of the coming Armada. For this the Queen gave him a pension of 800 marks. In the following reign he had an appointment in Ireland, and finding an advantageous opportunity of buying land there, sold almost all his English property, and purchased the great barony of Duhallow, co. Cork, which consisted of seventy-eight and a half knight's fees, and extended over more than one hundred thousand acres. From this time the family became resident in Ireland, where they filled various offices, and continually added to their possessions, till, in the Civil Wars of 1642, Sir Philip Perceval held no fewer than nine castles on his territory in Munster. He was at that time a Royalist, and lost all these strongholds, and half his principality, in the cause: but the next year he changed sides, and "privately leaving" Oxford (where he was in actual attendance on the King) went over to the Parliament. He sat for Bridport, and afterwards for the province of Ulster; but soon got involved in quarrels with the Independent party; and thus, on his death in 1647, his son John found himself, in the words of Sir Egerton Brydges, "obnoxious to the rebel party in Ireland, from his father's services against them: odious to the Royalists, from his father's having quitted that cause, and equally hateful to Cromwell and his adherents;" and last, though not least, with his estates sequestered both in England and Ireland. But the young man was equal to the occasion. Though only eighteen at that time, he proved a skilled diplomatist, for he obtained the restitution of his estates in 1653; his father's office of Clerk of the Crown in 1655: another employment under the Protector in 1656; and finally, in 1661, a baronetcy from Charles II., to whom he presented a schedule of his father's losses during the rebellion, estimated at 280,000. Here, however, his success experienced a check: for he certainly never received a farthing of this large sum of money, though he was afterwards appointed to several lucrative Irish offices. Third in descent from him was another Sir John, who, on the accession of the Hanoverian dynasty, received three successive peerages in Ireland. First, he was created Baron Perceval of Burton in 1714: then Viscount Perceval of Kanturk, in 17x2: and lastly, Earl of Egmont in 1733. His wife was Catharine, sister of Sir Philip Parker, the last representative (in the female line) of Henry Lovel (second son of the Lord Lovel and Holland who died in 1455), summoned to parliament by Edward IV. as Baron Morley: and when their son, the second Earl, received an English peerage in 1762, these ancient baronies were revived in his favour, and he was created Lord Lovel and Holland, of Enmore in the co. of Somerset.

Quinci :

"a baronial family from Quinci, Maine, traced by La Roque (Mais. d'Harcourt i. 213) to the house of De Rohan, whose arms they bore."[18]—The Norman People. The pedigree of the Earls of Winchester, given by Dugdale, is comparatively brief, for it only commences with Saner de Quincy in the time of Henry II., and ends with the last heir in 1264, but the house, while it lasted, was amongst the greatest of the realm.

Saher descended from Richard de Quincy, the companion-in-arms of the Conqueror, and received a grant from the King of Bushby in Northamptonshire, that had belonged to Anselm de Conches. He held this, as well as some land in Bedfordshire, in 1165.—Liber Niger. His wife was Maud de St. Liz, who brought him two sons, Robert and Saher.

The eldest, Robert, an active and adventurous soldier, left no heir. He invaded Ireland with Earl Strongbow, who appointed him Seneschal of Leinster; four years afterwards witnessed a charter of William the Lion to Kelso Abbey, and received the Scottish barony of Tranent, with the office of Justiciary of Scotland. Then, in 1190, he "being in the Holy Land upon the Recess of the King of France, was made Captain of those CL Soldiers then left behind for the defence of his Country against the Infidels." His last expedition was with Coeur de Lion to Normandy in 1194.

His brother and successor Saher, created Earl of Winchester by King John, married Margaret de Bellamont, second daughter of Robert Blanchmaines Earl of Leinster, and co-heiress of her brother, Robert Fitz Parnel, whose vast possessions were divided in 1204 between her and her elder sister Amicia, the wife of Simon de Montfort. The strong fortress of Montsorell, which the King at first retained in his own hands, was eventually committed to her husband's custody.

Saher, thus invested with the power and authority of a great baron, took a leading part in the councils of the King's enemies. Already, in 1203, when Castellan of the Norman castle of Rueil, he had refused to defend it against the French from disgust at the slothful inaction of John himself, "who then lay at Caen, and minded nothing but Feasting, Luxury, and lying in Bed till Dinnertime." At first, while the differences between the barons and their sovereign still admitted of mediation, he received letters of safe conduct to come to Court, and endeavour to bring about an understanding; and obtained the same immunity for all those who came to petition the King for the redress of their grievances till the Clause of Easter 1214. But when all other means failed, he took the field under the banner of Marescallus Dei et Ecclesiae; and was one of the twenty-five illustrious guarantors of Magna Charta that were excommunicated by the Pope. "Which," adds Dugdale, "did not at all startle him;" for he soon after went with Robert Fitz Walter on an embassy to France, to offer the crown of England to King Philip's son Lewis. Nor did he, like so many others, return to his allegiance on the accession of Henry III., but kept a strong garrison at Montsorrel on behalf of the French prince, and was one of the principal commanders of the army that was routed at Lincoln.

He was there taken prisoner, but released on his submission a few months afterwards. The next year, abjuring home politics, he set out, with the Earl of Chester and others, on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and was present at the siege of Damietta; but died on his way to Jerusalem in 1219.

He left three sons by "that great Inheritrix," as Dugdale styles his wife: 1. Robert; 2. Roger; and 3. another Robert. The elder Robert was in Palestine at the time of his father's death, and never lived to return home and claim his heritage. He married Hawise, the fourth daughter of Hugh Keveliock, Earl of Chester; by whom he had an only child, Margaret, the wife of John de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln.

Roger, who succeeded his father as Earl of Winchester, again made a splendid alliance; for his first wife, Helen, the eldest daughter and co-heir of Alan of Galloway, brought him the office of Constable of Scotland, with a great appanage. "In 31 Hen. III., being in Galway (where he had great Possessions in right of his Wife) and exercising more severity to the People of that Country than becom'd him, he was besieg'd by them in a Castle there: and being apprehensive of his danger, mounted his Horse, well armed (with some of his Followers) and broke through them; whence he came to the King of Scotland, to whom he made his complaint of their dealing; who punish'd them for that their Rebellious Insurrection, and re-establish'd him in the possession of his Right."—Dugdale. By this Scottish wife he had three daughters who became his co-heirs, Margaret, married to William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby; Elizabeth, married to Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan in Scotland; and Ela, married to Alan la Zouche.

He was twice again married, and on each occasion to a widow; for his second wife Maud, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, was previously Countess of Pembroke; and the third, Alianor, the seventh daughter of his son-in law the Earl of Derby (by his first marriage with one of the great Pembroke heiresses) had for her first husband William de Vaux. By one or other of these two Countesses he had a fourth daughter, Isabel, contracted in 1240 to Hugh de Nevill; but no son was ever born to him, and the name and title of the Earls of Winchester expired at his death in 1264.
He had been the last survivor of his race, for his younger brother, Robert, died seven years before him. Robert was not behind the rest of his family in the success of his matrimonial venture; for his wife was a Welsh princess, who, as the daughter of Llewellyn, was probably richly dowered. But she, again, had three daughters and no son. One of the daughters was a nun; the other two were married: Joan to Humphrey de Bohun, son of the Earl of Hereford (I am quoting Dugdale, but no such match is recorded in the Bohun pedigree); and Margaret to Baldwin Wake.

Quintiny :

or Quentin; originally, of course, a Christian name. A family of Quentin—the Quentins of Coupigny—still exists in Normandy, and bears Paly of six, Azure and Or. They came from Brittany, having expatriated themselves during the troublous times of Duchess Anne, and settled at Morigny, near Coutances, about 1450. Roger Quentin's claim to rank with the older nobility of the Duchy was recognized and confirmed in 1605 by the Cour des Aides of Rouen.

In England the first trace of the name that I have met with is in the reign of Coeur de Lion, when Richard de Quintine was Abbot of Furness in Cumberland. But the notices of it soon become numerous, and appear in at least half a dozen counties. Richard Quintin held a knight's fee of the Earl of Hereford in Wiltshire.—Testa de Nevill. About 1272, we find Thomas Quintin of Oxfordshire (it may be the same Thomas who, as Servientes, performed military service due from William de Braose in 1310); Adam Quintin of Huntingdon; Robert Quintin of Kent and Norfolk; William Quintin of Kent and Wilts; and three of the name, Henry, Edric, and Richard, in Suffolk.—Rotuli Hundredorum. John and Roger Quintin attended the muster of the Hundred of Loose, in the latter county, in 1326: and Alexander Quintin of Essex was summoned for military service in 1322, and to a great Council at Newcastle in 1330.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. In Wiltshire, Henry Quintin was Custos of Graveley Forest in 1273, as was William Quintin of Wychford in 1289 and 1296.—Hoare's Wills. John Quintin was joint Lord of Highway in 1316: and in Cliffe Pypard Church there is a brass of a man in armour of this family, which probably dates from about 1380.

In Kent, at least, the Quintins remained for nearly three hundred years after that. Anceline de Quintin held Woodford and Wingfield in the time of Edward III. His descendant William Quintin bought an estate at Seale in the beginning of Henry VI.'s reign: and about 1560 Robert Quintin was seated at ne Grange, in the parish of Leybourne. Now comes the mysterious part of their story. "Thomas, the son of William Quintin of Seale, was often styled Thomas son of Oliver" (for what reason Hasted does not attempt to explain) "by which means his son John acquired the name of Quintin alias Oliver, by which he calls himself in his will, 32 Hen. VIII. His descendant Robert transposed his name, calling himself Robert Oliver alias Quintin, and resided at the Grange, as did his grandson Robert, who used the name of Oliver only, though in deeds and writings he wrote the name of Quintin likewise. He bore Ermine on a fesse Gules, three lions rampant Or, and died in the reign of Charles II., leaving Juliana his sole daughter and heir, who carried this estate in marriage to Edward Covert of Sussex."—Hasted's Kent.

A Gloucestershire proverb, "very frequent" in the seventeenth century, arose from the matrimonial misfortunes of one of this family. "W. Quintin of Hill having a pestilent angry and unquiet wife, much more insultinge over his milde nature than Zantippe over Socrates, was oft enforced to shelter himselfe from those stormes, to keepe his chamber: whence, hearing his neighbors complayninge of the unruliness of their towne bull, whom noe mounds would keepe out from spoilinge of their cornefeilds, the bull then bellowing before them, and they then in chasinge him towards the comon pounde: peepinge out of his chamber windowe, cryed to them: 'Neighbors, Neighbors, gett him a wife, gett him a wife;' meaninge, That by that meanes hee would bee made quiett and tamed as himselfe was: from whence this proverbe first arose."—Berkeley MSS.

Ros :

"It needeth not be doubted," says Dugdale, "that Peter, the ancestor of the great Family of Lords Ros of Hamlake, originally assumed that Sirname in King Henry the First's time from the Lordship of Ros in Holderness,[19] where he then had his residence." He deliberately shuts his eyes to the fact that five De Ros'—neither more nor less—are entered in Domesday; that is, William, to whom the Conqueror had given the Abbey of Fecamp in 1079, with a small Sussex barony added to its revenues; and Anchitel, Ansgot, Goisfrid, and Serlo, who all held as under-tenants. "They derived their name from the parish of Ros, now Rots, two miles from Caen, where they held a fief, but not the entire domain, which pertained to the De Patrys and others. The family must have been numerous at the time of the Conquest, and the formation of Domesday Book, as five of the name are there inscribed. They had evidently all followed Duke William to England, but did not stand high in his favour, for, with the exception of William, to whom he gave the Abbey of Fecamp, they do not figure among the tenants in chief either in 1086 or during the reign of William Rufus. All our researches have failed to determine the exact relationship of these five contemporaries, or indeed of a sixth, inscribed in 1090 on the roll of the Abbey of St. Stephen-of-Caen as William Gonnor de Ros. Nor have we been more fortunate in discovering which among them or their descendants was the father of Richard de Ros, who witnessed the foundation charter of Aunay Abbey in 1131; or of the trouvere Adam de Ros, author of the Descente de S. Paul aux Enfers. The history of this family is all the more obscure, as it appears to have become extinct towards the latter end of the fourteenth century.

"The origin of the Anglo-Norman family of De Ros is enveloped in the same obscurity, as the English genealogists have no real ground for deriving it from Anchitel, rather than from any of the other three companions-in-arms of Duke William, who bore the same name, and are, like him, inscribed in Domesday Book."—Recherches sur le Domesday.

There can be no question that the real history of the family in this country commences with Peter de Ros, who married Adeline, the youngest but most favoured of the sisters of Walter Espec, the famous Baron of Helmsley. She brought a considerable inheritance, even though a preponderant share of Espec's great barony was given to the Church. He had an only son, on whom he doated; a promising and "comely" lad who "took great delight in swift Horses;" and one unhappy day, in 1121, when he was spurring and pressing his horse to its utmost speed, it stumbled and fell with him, breaking his neck. The bereaved father, thus left childless, vowed to make Christ his heir, and founded three great monasteries; one at Kirkham, near the scene of the accident, where he converted his own "pleasant Seat into a religious House:" another at Rievaulx, also in Yorkshire; and a third at Wardon, in Bedfordshire. In his latter years he joined the community at Rievaulx: and this formidable champion died a Cistercian monk. His portrait, though drawn by Abbot Ailred, one of the grateful brethren whom he had endowed, is somewhat grim: "Black hair, long beard, his stature taller by a Head than other men; great eyes, big face, high forehead, and a voice like a trumpet."[20] It had rung over the field of Northallerton, when, on the morning of the great battle, he harangued his men, and then, taking the Earl of Albemarle by the hand, cried, "I faithfully promise you, that I will conquer the Scots this day, or lose my life by them."

This match with Adeline Espec founded the fortunes of the house; but Peter's grandson, Everard de Ros, made a still more fortunate marriage. His wife, Rose Trusbut, was the eldest daughter of Robert Trusbut, Baron of Wartre in Holderness, and through the successive deaths of her three brothers and two sisters—all issueless—was left his sole heiress and representative. In honour of the great barony she had brought to them, her descendants adopted her punning coat of arms, Trots bouts d'eau (three water-bougets) in lieu of the golden Catherine wheel they had hitherto borne.[21]

Rose's two sisters, however, reached such extreme old age—Hillaria lived to be ninety, and died six years before Agatha—that the whole inheritance only came to her grandson. Everard himself died early—before 1185—leaving her a young widow, and his son and heir Robert—one of the future potentates of the realm—a lad of thirteen.

Robert Furfan, as he was surnamed, proved a man of fitful and capricious temper, in his early years imprisoned for some offence or other against Coeur de Lion, and again, in 1205, suffering sequestration under King John, who, only five years before, had endowed him with the whole of the barony of his great-grandmother's father, Walter Espec. In both cases the cloud of displeasure passed over quickly: and it was in the zenith of his power and the flower of his age—he can scarcely have been more than thirty—that he renounced the world in 1209, and became a monk. But it was not for long. The very next year he cast off his cowl and emerged from his monastery—a strange instance of the latitude accorded even by the inflexible monastic rule to a great feudal lord—resumed his barony, which had been committed to the custody of Philip de Ulcote, and plunged with fresh vigour into the strife of parties and the clash of arms. At first he was on the King's side, and duly rewarded with a grant of some Cumberland manors; "but this favour," says Dugdale, "did not oblige him, as it seemed;" for we next find him holding Carlisle Castle in open defiance of the King's authority, and soon after ranged amongst the most resolute of his opponents. He was entrusted by the Barons with the government of Northumberland; was present at the sealing of the Great Charter at Runnymede, and one of its twenty-five appointed Conservators. In the ensuing reign "he approved himself firm and faithful to King Henry III.": and some time before his death in 1226 assumed the habit of a Knight Templar, in which he was buried in the Temple Church, London, where his tomb and effigy yet remain. He had married Isabel, the daughter (though of more than doubtful legitimacy) of William the Lion, King of Scots, and widow of Robert de Brus, and left two sons, between whom he divided his possessions. To William, as the firstborn, he gave his great Yorkshire barony; to Robert his smaller fief in Northumberland, adding to it a Scottish barony, to be held of the elder by military service. For each he built a great castle as the head of their Honour: Hamlake for William, and Werke for Robert.

William had, like himself, taken up arms with the confederate barons, and been mulcted in a heavy fine. "Nevertheless, as soon as he discerned an opportunity, he flew out again," joined the revolt against Henry III., and was taken prisoner at the battle of Lincoln; but his father procured his release on bail. The next heir, Robert, was, again, deeply engaged in the baronial war, held a command under Simon de Montfort at Lewes, and was summoned to parliament by the barons in 1264 as Lord Ros of Hamlake.[22] Some twenty years before, he had gained the third great matrimonial prize awarded to the family, in receiving from Henry III. the hand of the heiress of Belvoir. "But not," adds Dugdale, "without a round compensation; for it appears that both he and his wife in 32 Hen. III. were debtors to the King in no less than the sum of 3285l, xiijs, ivd, and a Palfrey; of which sum, the King was then pleased to accept by two hundred marks a year, until it should all be paid." In those days, this represented, at the very least,55,000 of our money; but the inheritance thus acquired was proportionately splendid. Isabel de Albini brought him, as the appanage of her honour and castle of Belvoir, a domain that a prince might well afford to envy—the whole wide stretch of territory granted by the Conqueror to Robert de Todeni.

The first Lord Ros was followed by ten others, all men of action busied in the affairs of the realm, and constant on the battle-field, whose fortunes I cannot attempt to follow in any degree of detail. Isabel's son, who put in a claim to the crown of Scotland in right of his pseudo-royal great-grandmother, received from Edward I. the castle of Werke upon Tweed, forfeited by the treason of his kinsman. But this stronghold, one of the keys of the Border, was judged too important for the custody of a subject, and his successor transferred it by exchange to the Crown. The uncle of this third Lord, Sir John de Ros, was very eminent in the days of Edward II. and Edward III. He had taken part energetically with Queen Isabel against the Despencers; and on her son's accession was summoned to parliament as a baron, appointed Steward of the Royal Household, and chosen as "one of those twelve Lords by whom it was resolved the King (being young) should be governed." In 1336 he was named "Admiral of the Seas from the Thames mouth northwards," and died the year following, leaving no heir to his barony. The fourth Lord Ros was a renowned soldier. He led one of the brigades at Cressy, and died on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, as did his nephew John, sixth Lord. The next in succession was the "William, Lord Roos," who had a dispute concerning some right of pasturage in Lincolnshire with Robert Tirwhitt, one of the Justices of the King's Bench, which was decided by the King in his favour. Tirwhitt was ordered to make a humble apology, "delivered before all the Knights, Esquires, and Yeomen of his" (Lord Ros') "party then present;" which he prefaced by a singular acknowledgment—all the more singular as coming from one of the law officers of the Crown. "My Lord Roos," said he, "I know well that you being of such Birth, Estate, and Might that if you liked, you might have comen to the foresaid Lawday in such a way, that I had been of no might to make any party." He then proffered a fine of five hundred marks, with two tuns of good Gascon wine, two oxen, and twelve sheep; but Lord Ros would only accept the latter "for the dinner of those here present." His son and heir John spent the whole of his brief life under arms. In 1416—being then not yet eighteen—he went with Henry V. to France, and distinguished himself so greatly before Rouen, that he received a grant of the Norman castle of Basqueville; but was slain in a disastrous encounter near the castle of Beaufort, while still under age. With him fell his young brother William, the Duke of Exeter, and "many more of the English Chivalry." Thomas, his nephew, who succeeded his father, when only four years old, as tenth Lord Ros, was a staunch Lancastrian, and after that memorable Palm Sunday on Towton Field,

"Where the river ran all gory,
And in hillocks lay the dead,
And seven and thirty thousand
Fell for the White and Red—"

he fled with the King to Berwick. He was attainted on the accession of Edward IV., and died the same year, leaving, by Philippa, sister and co-heir of John Tiptoft Earl of Worcester, two sons, Edmund and John; and three daughters; Eleanor, married to Sir Robert Manners of Etal Castle in Northumberland; Isabel, the wife of Thomas Grey (or, as others say, of Sir Robert Lovell): and Margaret, who is supposed to have died unmarried. "His lands," says Leland, "stood confiscate: and Bellevoir Castell was given in keeping to the Lorde Hastings; the which coming thither upon a tyme to peruse the ground, and to lye in the castell, was suddenly repelled by Master Harington, a Man of Power thereabout, and Friend of the Lorde Ros: whereupon the Lorde Hastings cam thither another tyme with a strong power, and upon a raging wylle spoiled the castelle, defacing the roofes, and taking the leades off them, wherewyth they were all coverid. Then fell alle the Castell to ruine; and the tymber of the roofs uncovered rotted away; and the soyle between the waulles at the last grew full of Elders; and no habitation was ther till that of late Dayes the Erie of Rutland hath made it fairer than ever it was."

The attainder was reversed when Henry VII. came to the throne, and Edmund, as eleventh Lord Ros, enjoyed his own again. But he was never married; and his brother must have died in early life, as there is no further mention of him. The old line had at last come to an end; and the sisters became co-heiresses: only Eleanor had children; and her son, Sir George Manners, succeeded as twelfth Lord Ros, and was the father of the first Earl of Rutland, who undertook the restoration of her ancestral castle, completed by his successor in the time of Elizabeth. Since then, Belvoir has been burnt to the ground and entirely rebuilt by another of the family; for Eleanor de Ros' splendid dowry has never passed away from her lineage, though her ancient barony is no longer theirs. It went to the only child of the third Earl of Rutland, Lady Elizabeth Manners, married to William Cecil, Lord Burghley; and though, on the death of her son, it reverted to the sixth Earl, Francis, it was again lost through want of a male heir, and fell to his daughter, Lady Catherine. She was the wife of George Villiers, the famous Duke of Buckingham, and the mother of several children, but they all died s.p., and the barony lapsed into abeyance for a century and a quarter. At last, in 1806, it was granted to Lady Henry Fitz Gerald, who adopted the name of De Ros, and transmitted it to her posterity.

At least two other baronies by writ were held by the house of De Ros. Robert Furfan's second son Robert, to whom he gave the barony of Werke in Northumberland, was, according to Dugdale, summoned to parliament 22 Ed. I., or sixty-seven years afterwards; but from the date it appears most probable that it was his son of the same name. The first Robert, as the son of William the Lion's daughter, was named Regent of Scotland and guardian of the young King and Queen with John Baliol in 1255. Both were vehemently accused by their charges; the Queen protesting that she was kept like a prisoner in a solitary place near the sea, without wholesome air or proper attendance; and Robert de Ros was sentenced to pay the enormous sum of 100,000 marks—a fine afterwards remitted—for "greatly misdemeaning himself in his trust."

The second Robert, summoned as "Robertus Ros de Werke" in 1293, forfeited his barony by his foul treason. "About a year after" (his summons) "being far in love with a Scotch woman, whom he had a mind to make his Wife, he endeavoured to inveigh William de Ros of Hamlake (his kinsman) to the Scots party, acknowledging that he himself was of their confederacy; who refusing to be thus wrought upon, rebuked him for that attempt, and represented to him how scandalous such an act would be to their whole Family. Howbeit all this prevailed not, for that night he got privately away to the Scots; which being discerned by William, he forthwith hasted to the King (then at Newcastle-upon-Tine) and signifying to him the perfidiousness of this his Kinsman, desired some help to defend the Castle of Werke, lest it should be surprised by the Scots, through the means of that treachery; who accordingly sent a thousand of his men which were quartered the night following at Prestfen; whereof this Robert being aware, he took a power of Scots out of the Garrison of Rokesburgh; and privily surrounding the Village, gave them a Signal; viz, Tabart and Surcoat, commanding that whosoever naming the one word, if the party to whom he expressed it, did not answer the other, they should kill him. And thereupon entering Prestfen, he set fire to the Houses; which so astonished the English, that divers of them slew those of their own party, and many were taken prisoners, and most barbarously used. But this vile and unworthy act was not long unrevenged; for shortly after King Edward made slaughter of no less than ten thousand and fifty-three of the Scots, in the Battel of Dunbar." Dugdale adds, that Robert de Ros, "then marching in the Scots army with Banners displayed," was with them at the burning of his own town of Werke.

The fair lady for whose sake he forswore his allegiance is not named, and if he married her she must have been his second wife. The first—I should rather say the only—wife of his ever mentioned, was Margaret, sister and co-heir of the great Yorkshire baron, Peter de Brus of Skelton. She inherited from her mother, Helewise of Lancaster, the castle and honour of Kendall, which she gave to her son William. From him it descended to his grandson, who dying s.p. 32 Ed. III., left an infant daughter, afterwards married to Sir William Parr, and the ancestress of the Parrs of Kendall. But according to another account given by Dugdale, Robert had no son at all; only two daughters, Margaret Salvain and Isabel de Knock; "which Isabel lived not long, I guess"; for in 1312 Margaret, as sole heir of Robert de Ros, petitioned the King for pardon of her father's forfeiture, and had letters patent granted to her in terms of her request. The confusion may arise from his having fused two Roberts into one.

The second Robert was the elder brother of William of Igmanthorpe, one of the three De Ros' summoned to parliament in 1293, who left descendants in the male line till the seventeenth century. Leland mentions them: "Ros, that dwellith at Ingmanthorpe in Yorkeshir a 2. Miles a this side Wetherby, cummith of a Younger Brother in Descentes tyme past of the House of the Lord Ros. Wetherby longgid in tymes past also to the House of this Ros, and divers other theraboute." The line had only "of late" expired when Dugdale wrote.

Some of the family that had crossed the Border early in the thirteenth century are now represented by a numerous and flourishing Scottish clan. Hugh de Ros of Geddes, temp. Alexander II. (1214-1249), was the father of a second Hugh, who acquired Kilravock in Nairn through the heiress of the Bissets, and had a crown charter of the barony from John Baliol. This must have been the same Hugh who, with Thomas de Ros, is found among the barons who appended their seals to the famous proclamation issued by Robert Bruce after the battle of Bannockburn. Kilravock is still held by his lineal descendants. The name became Rose and often Ross (in either case the lineage may be recognized by the water-bougets on the coat of arms); and was widely spread. From a branch settled in Hampshire descended F. M. Lord Strathnairn, whose peerage was conferred in 1866 for his eminent services as Commander-in-chief during the Indian Mutiny. No such feats of arms have been recorded in India since the great days of Clive. In that terrible summer campaign, during which "not a man in the force enjoyed his natural health or strength, months of marching under an Indian sun having told on the strongest," he vanquished armies that twentyfold out-numbered his own, and carried by assault the rock-citadel of Gwalior—reputed the strongest fort in India—with a mere handful of men. Yet of the victorious troops under his command not more than one-third were English. He received the baton of a Field Marshal in 1877, and died unmarried at a good old age in 1885.

Ridel :

descended from the ancient Counts of Angouleme, who claim to have received their fief from Charles the Bald in 866. The surname was first assumed about 1048 by Galfrid or Geoffrey, the second son of Count Galfrid, who had for his inheritance the barony of Blaye in Guienne, and married the heiress of Perigord. By this Countess Agnes, he had two sons: of whom the elder, Helias, was the forefather of the Counts of Perigord, and the second, Geoffrey, fought in Apulia, and came from thence to the conquest of England with William Bigod. He is mentioned in Domesday as having received large grants of land, and also succeeded to his father's barony in Guienne. The next in succession, another Geoffrey, married Geva, the bastard daughter of Hugh Lupus,[23] and was a Crown Commissioner in 1106 with Ralph Basset, whom he succeeded as Lord Justiciary (Mon. Angl. i. 172): but was soon after drowned in the famous shipwreck of the Blanch Nef, with his brother-in-law, the young Earl of Chester, and the King's two sons. Maud, his only surviving child, was a great heiress, and married Richard Basset, who became in his turn Lord Justiciary of England, and with whom she founded Laud Abbey, in Leicestershire. Their son Geoffrey took the name of Ridel, and though in the next generation Richard, the heir, again called himself Basset, and became the ancestor of the baronial Bassets (see Basset), it was retained by his younger brother Hugh, who founded the still existing family. This Hugh de Ridel was one of the hostages given to Henry II. for William the Lion, King of Scots, having acquired through his wife, Margaret de St. Medard, the manor of Cranston in Scotland, which was lost in the subsequent Scottish wars, and Withering in Northamptonshire, held for three hundred years and upwards by his descendants. The French barony of Blaye, that he had inherited from his father, also remained with them till 1319; and by means of another estate they obtained in Guienne, their connection with the province was kept up till it fell into the hands of the French in the following century. His younger grandson, Hugh Fitz-Geoffrey, had some lands in Normandy, where his posterity appear to have settled; and one of them, Martin Ridel, Baron of More and Plainesevette, was Grand Treasurer of France under Louis XIV. (Feoda Norman, up. Chesnium.) Another of the family, Sir William Ridel, was seated in the North of England, and a person of some note under the first two Edwards, being successively Constable of Norham, Constable of Barnard Castle, Sheriff of Northumberland, and Governor of Newcastle. But he left no son when he died in 1328, and his three daughters, Isabella de Clavering, Constance de Kingston, and Joanna de Woderington, became his co-heirs.

In the sixteenth century the Ridels removed to Scotland. It would seem they had at that time lost much of their former importance; most of their lands having passed away through heiresses or been alienated; and in 1558 John Riddell (as the name was then spelt) sold his only remaining estate in Norfolk, and sought his fortune at the court of King James, where he was kindly received. From that date to the present day, that is, for more than three hundred years, the family has remained resident in Scotland. They were for a long time seated at Kinglass in West Lothian: thence they removed to the Highlands; and in 1778 James Riddell, of Ardnamurchan and Sunart in Argyllshire, received a baronetcy. Their present home is at Strontian, in the same county. The crest they bear is surmounted by a scroll inscribed "De Apulia," in memory of the Geoffrey Ridel who fought under Robert Guiscard, and first came to England at the Conquest.

This account of the Ridels is abbreviated from an elaborate pedigree, with full references to the authority of public documents, given by Hutchinson in his History of Durham. "It may be here proper," he continues "to take notice of a very singular error into which some Scottish genealogists have lately fallen. The family of Ridel has been by them mistakingly considered as the same with another of the surname of De Ridale. Accordingly they have blended together and confounded the history of both.

"De Ridale is evidently a local surname, and has its origin from the district of that name in Yorkshire. Persons of that name were settled in Ridale as early as the middle of the twelfth century. One of them, Walter de Ridale, it appears, went to Scotland at the time that King David I. brought the monks of Rieveaulx, in Ridale, to settle them at Melrose in Roxburghshire, and there acquired the lands of Liliesleaf in that county. The descendants of this Walter, as well as himself, retained possessions at the same time both in Ridale and Roxburghshire, so that the origin of the family is clear beyond dispute.

"Another branch of the De Ridales, besides that of Liliesleaf, in Scotland, settled at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Philip de Ridale was mayor of that town, an office which was then of great importance, in the reign of Edward I. Whether he was the chief of all the family, or whether he was of a younger branch, we know not; but it seems probable that the honourable family, the Riddells, of Swinburne Castle, are his descendants."

Surtees, however, gives a wholly different pedigree of the last mentioned family. He discards Philip the Mayor and all connection with Berwick-upon-Tweed; and derives them from Hugh Ridel, living 4 Ed. III., a brother of the Sir William Ridel who was appointed Constable of Norham in 1311. Several of them were Mayors or Sheriffs of Newcastle-on-Tyne; two were "merchant adventurers:" and one, Sir Thomas, colonel of a regiment of foot in the service of Charles I., and Governor of Tynemouth Castle, "dyed abanyshed man (after his lordship of Tunstall was sold to pay his composition) at Antwerp in Brabant." He had "rendered himself so obnoxious to the Parliament that 1000 was offered for his apprehension; and escaped with difficulty from Berwick in a small fishing vessel." Another Thomas, who was seated at Swinburne Castle, engaged in the Jacobite rising of 1715, and was taken prisoner, but escaped from Lancaster Castle, and was included in the general pardon. He afterwards married one of the co-heirs of Widdrington in Northumberland; and his son acquired Felton through another heiress of the same name. Their house of St. Edmund's, near Gateshead, was, as the property of an ancient Roman Catholic family, gutted and plundered by a Protestant mob in 1747, and has since been untenanted. They are still represented in the male line, and bear Argent, a fess between three garbs or wheatsheaves Azure: whereas the coat of the Riddells of Ardnamurchan is Or, three piles Gules in point, over all a bend Azure. That of the Ridells of Roxburghshire is Argent, on a chevron Gules between three ears of wheat stalked and leaved ppr, as many fleur-de-lis of the second.

Riuers :

from Revieres, near Creuilli, in the arrondissement of Caen. This is one of the names given by Wace in his account of the battle of Hastings. "He who was then Sire de Reviers brought with him many knights who were foremost in the assault, bearing the enemy down with their war-horses." M. le Prevost, in his Notes, states this to be Baldwin de Meules (see Meulles). "He never bore the name of Reviers or Redvers, which, however, the annotator assumes, was taken by his son Richard. See Intro. Domesday, i. 377-473. If however, as we believe, it is a mistake in Dugdale and others to confound Richard de Reviers with Richard Fitz Baldwin (who died without issue) the Sire de Reviers is to be sought elsewhere."—Taylor. It seems improbable—not to say impossible—that Richard Fitz Baldwin, who lived till 1137 (seventy-one years afterwards) could have been a leader or even a combatant at Hastings; and there is not the slightest authority for assuming that he was ever called De Reviers.

But there was a genuine and undoubted Richard de Reviers, who with William de Reviers (perhaps his brother) is to be found on the Dives Roll, and held a barony in Dorset in 1086. (Domesday.) He is presumed to have been the son of a William de Reviers who held land at Montebourg in Normandy; a conjecture the more probable, as he, with the King's consent, founded an Abbey at Montebourg in 1088, and endowed it, among other grants, with one of his Dorset manors. "In the cartulary of Carisbrook he is called the nephew of William Fitz Osbern, and the grant of the Isle of Wight to him after the death of Roger de Breteuil, Earl of Hereford, certainly gives some support to the assertion."—Planche. He had been one of the chief counsellors and champions of Prince Henry throughout all his differences and conflicts with Robert Courteheuse, and was magnificently recompensed on his accession to the throne. Besides the castle and honour of Plympton, he received Tiverton in Devonshire with the gift of the Tertium Denarum, or third penny of the pleas, by which he was constituted Earl of the county; and not long after obtained the Isle of Wight. His proper style was Earl of Devon and Lord of the Isle; but he was most generally called, from his residence, Exoniensis Comes. He died in 1107, and was buried in his Norman abbey; where the top of his stone coffin, with the word Fundator still visible upon it, has been found and preserved from destruction by M. de Gerville. By his wife Adeliza Peverel he left three sons; Baldwin; William (both of whom witness the foundation charter of Montebourg), and Robert; with one daughter, Hadewise, Countess of Lincoln.

Baldwin, the second Earl, took part very strongly with the Empress Maud, having, as is alleged, a personal quarrel with Stephen, who had refused to confer upon him some coveted honour, and spent "much treasure" in fortifying Exeter Castle and the Isle of Wight against him. But the King, marching westwards with a force partly composed of Flemish auxiliaries, besieged and captured his castle, seized his island, and expelled him and his wife and children from the country. Nevertheless, we find him in later life reinstated in his Earldom. He founded three religious houses, Brummore Abbey in Wiltshire, Twineham Priory, and Quarr Abbey in the Isle of Wight, where he lies buried. His son Richard, who succeeded him, and 14 Hen. II. certified to eighty-nine knights' fees, was the father of two Earls that died s. p., and the title and inheritance reverted to their uncle William de Vernon. He was one of the four Earls that carried the silken canopy at Coeur de Lion's second coronation, being then styled Earl of the Isle of Wight; and married Mabel de Beaumont, daughter of Robert Earl of Mellent; by whom he had one son, Baldwin, and two daughters; Mary, the wife of Robert de Courtenay, Baron of Oakhampton, and Joan, first married to William Briwere, and then to Hubert de Burgh, the King's chamberlain. She brought her second husband Christ Church and the whole Isle of Wight in marriage, but had no children. The son died before his father, leaving a little boy—another Baldwin—to succeed as seventh Earl. His wife, Margaret Fitz Gerald, had been a considerable heiress; and in her widowhood was, according to Matthew Paris, "constrained by King John, the Tyrant, who stuck at no wicked act, to marry that impious, ignoble, and base-conditioned man, Falk de Breant, against her Will." After his grandfather's death in 1216, her little son was in ward to this Fulk, till Fulk himself died in 1224; and two years afterwards, Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester paid the King a fine of two thousand marks "for leave to marry his eldest daughter to this young Earl." Accordingly, in 1239, when the King was keeping Christmas at Winchester, Baldwin was girt by him with the sword of knighthood, formally invested with the Earldom of Wight, and married to Amicia de Clare. "But about five years only after," says Dugdale, "on the morrow of St. Valentine's Day, he died in the flower of his youth, leaving Baldwin his Heir very young." There were also two daughters.

This second orphan Earl, Baldwin V., again fell under the tutelage of a Court favourite, Peter of Savoy, the uncle of Queen Eleanor, "to the end that he should marry a kinswoman of the Queen's;" which marriage—for mediaeval heirs and heiresses were passed from hand to hand as easily as the current coin of the realm—accordingly took place in 1256, the same year that he did homage for his lands. His wife brought him one son, whom she lost in his infancy; and he himself "dyed by Poison (together with Richard Earl of Gloucester and others) at the Table of Peter of Savoy" in 1262. He died a young man, as his father had died before him; and the male line of this great house came to an end with him.

This last Earl had, as I have said, two sisters. Margaret, the eldest, was a nun at Lacock; and Isabel, who succeeded as Countess of Devon and Lady of the Isle of Wight, was at that time the widow of William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, to whom she had borne three sons and two daughters. The first son was then already dead; and neither of the others long survived him; Avice, the eldest daughter, had died in her childhood; and thus the whole vast inheritance centred on Aveline. She had not only her mother's Earldom, with the sovereignty of the Isle of Wight, but was Countess of Albemarle and Baroness of Skipton-in-Craven in her father's right. So great an heiress was not suffered to match with a subject; and though her wardship had been granted to her kinsman the Earl of Gloucester for the whole fifteen years of her minority, the grant had ere long to be surrendered to the King, who designed her for his own daughter-in-law. She was married in 1269 with great pomp to Edmund Crouchback, afterwards Earl of Lancaster; the King and Queen, and almost all the nobility of England, being present at her wedding.

But Aveline proved a childless and short-lived wife; for she died s. p. within the next three years; and her brother in law, Edward I., soon after coming to the throne, entered into an agreement with Countess Isabel (her mother) for the transfer of the Isle of Wight, and the greater part of her possessions to him and his heirs at the expiration of her life-tenancy. "Some say that what was done therein, as to the Isle of Wight, was not real, but fraudulent. For thus they report, That King Edward, much desiring that Isle, and importuning Isabel de Fortibus frequently for it, was still denied, and by her answered, That she would not wrong her heirs so much as to pass that part of her antient Inheritance from them. And that thereupon the King taking notice that sir * * * (je Stratton had much interest and power with her, he set him to work her to it; and that he, more for fear, than otherwise, promised him so to do; But when he saw that he could by no means prevail with her therein, to the end he might not frustrate the King's expectation, he waited till her death, and then forged a Grant thereof, and put her Seal to it, which Seal he had (with other of her goods) at that time in his power; and that by this means, the right heirs were shamefully defrauded thereof."—Dugdale.

Isabel died in 1293, when the remainder of her property passed to the heir-at-law, Sir Hugh Courtenay (descended from Lady Mary Redvers, eldest daughter of the sixth Earl) who was summoned to parliament as Lord Courtenay in 1299; and in 1335 claimed and received from Edward III. the Earldom of Devon.

This Countess Isabel filled an office rarely—if ever—before held by a woman. "Not only was she Chamberlainess of the Exchequer, but she had the power of re-appointing her deputy."—Poulson's Holderness.

Riuell :

or Revell, a baronial name, from Reville, or Raville, in Normandy, Curry-Rivel and Langport in Somersetshire were granted by Richard I. to Richard Revel, or Rivel, "a person of great note, and sheriff of the counties of Devon and Cornwall for several successive years."—Collinson's Somerset. From him it passed to his only daughter Sabina, the wife of Henry L'Orti. The Revills were ranked among the principal barons of Somerset, in the time of Henry II., and held two fees in capite (Liber Niger). They were also settled at Newbold Revel in Warwickshire, which they obtained, temp. Ed. I., by the marriage of Hugo Revell with Alicia de Wapenbury. "Hugo," says Dugdale, "is the first whereof the Records that I have seen do make mention; son to Robert Revell (as I guess) who had to do at Swineford in Leicestershire 29 Hen. II. But of this Hugo I can say no more than that he was a Rebel against King John, for which his lands in this County were seized on; and that in 1 Hen. III., returning to his obedience, they were restored to him again. Unto this Hugo succeeded William, who had issue John and Robert; whereof John was Lord of this place in 9 Edward II., being an active man and of great trust in his time, for in 6 Edward III. he had the joynt custody of the County." He twice served as one of the knights of the shire in Parliament, as did his son Sir William, who was in the Bishop of Durham's retinue in the French expedition, 20 Ed. III. This latter had no issue; nor either of his brothers; and the last died 7 Henry IV., leaving three sisters his heirs. Agnes, the eldest, married John Malory. These Revells bore Ermine a chevron Gules within a bordure engrailed Sable. Fenny-Newbold, or Newbold Revell, was another of their Warwickshire manors. John Revel, a younger son of this house, settled at Ogston in Derbyshire in the fourteenth century; and his younger brother Hugh at Carnfield in the same county. John's last heir male, William Revel, died in J7o6: Hugh's line had ended earlier.—Lysons' Derby.

The father of the Robert Revell spoken of by Dugdale was Henry Revell, who "had some concerns in Swinford in 1183, which descended to his son Robert, who had a considerable interest here, all of which he gave to the Knights Hospitallers."—Nichol's Leicestershire. He was also Lord of Scalford in the same county.

In Devonshire the Revells gave their name to Revelstoke, where they continued for five descents; "the heiress married Hurst."—Lysons. "At Revel Grange resided from an early period a family of the name of Revel, whom we often meet in the old genealogies as connected by marriage with the superior gentry of the county of Derby. The attachment of this family to the old profession of religion exposed them to much injury in the times of the Civil War and Commonwealth. Mr. Richard Broomhead of Stannington married the heiress of the Revells about the year 1740."—Hunter's Hallamshire.

Rous :

or Le Roux. "This family is Norman; and in 1165 held lands near Rouen from the county of Breteuil (Duchesne, Feod. Normanniae). Ralph le Roux was sent in 1119 by Henry I. to the aid of Ralph de Guader (Ord. Vital. 857), and in 1120 was one of the nobles who perished with Prince Henry in the Blanche Nef. The English line descends from Turchil Rufus or Le Rous, who came to England in 1066, and held lands in Norfolk from Alan Fitz Flaald, ancestor of the Fitz Alans (Mon. i. 627). Alexander Rous appears in the Liber Niger; also Richard Rous, who held from De Albini in the Eastern Counties. Hugo Rufus was Viscount of Norfolk in 1225 (Roberts, Excerpta i. 227). Richard le Rous of Norfolk died 1277, and had Alan, who in 1316 was Lord of Dunham and East Lexham, Norfolk, and had Peter le Rous of Dennington, ancestor of the Rouses of that place, from whence descend the Rouses of Henham, Earls of Stradbroke."—The Norman People. Dennington was brought into the family in the time of Edward III. by the marriage of Peter Rous with a Hobart heiress, and increased by subsequent matches with the heiresses of Le Watre and Philips. The latter lady was the representative of one of the co-heirs of Erpingham. "Al the Rousis that be in Southfolk cum, as I can learne, oute of the House of Rouse of Dinnington. Diverse of the Rouses of this Eldest House ly in Dinnington Paroche Chirche buried under flat Stones. Antony Rouse, now the Heire of Dinnington Haule, hath much enlargid his Possessions."—Leland. It was this Sir Anthony, Comptroller of Calais, who in 1535 bought their present residence, Henham Hall, the ancient seat of the De La Poles, and afterwards of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and of Sir Arthur Hopton, to whom it had been granted by Henry VIII. It was a very fine house, but "was burnt down in 1773 through the carelessness of a drunken butler, who, while robbing the cellar during his master's absence in Italy, set fire to the sawdust in one of the wine-bins."—Suckling's Suffolk. Lady Rous (perhaps Sir Anthony's daughter-in-law) was appointed by Queen Mary one of her Quorum for Suffolk, and "did usually sit on the bench at assizes and sessions amongst the other justices, cincta gladio."—Ibid (v. Harl. MS. 980). In the next generation, Sir John Rous was so eminent for his loyalty, that Charles II. wrote him a letter of thanks with his own hand. There is a venerable oak beneath the windows of the Hall, which, according to tradition, saved his life during the Civil War, when a party of rebels arrived at Henham with a warrant for his arrest. It was even then hollow, and having been used as a summer-house, was fitted with a door covered with bark, so curiously contrived that no one suspected the cavity thus concealed. Into this hiding place his wife promptly conveyed him; and night after night stole out to bring him food, eluding the strict watch kept over her by the Roundheads.[24] Baffled in discovering her secret, they next tried to force it from her by violence; but they stormed and threatened in vain; the lady's courage was proof. She was neither to be scared nor bullied; till at last they went away discouraged, and she had carried the day.

This loyal Sir John received a baronetcy at the Restoration; and his descendant in the fourth generation—another John—was created Lord Rous of Dennington in 1796. The next heir obtained the Earldom of Stradbroke in 1821, and was the grandfather of the present Lord.

I find mention of a good many families of this name, but I cannot trace the connection between them. In Gloucestershire "the manor of Dunstbourne-Rous, soon after the Conquest, belonged to John le Rous, and continued long in the family. Roger le Rous held there 22 Ed. I.; and John le Rous temp. Ed. II. He was in rebellion against that King, and was attainted and his lands forfeited; but restored 1 Ed. III."—Atkyns, In Wiltshire, "Richard Ruffus or Le Rous had a grant of Imber from Henry II. for his services as Chamberlain. Sir Roger and Sir John attended Ed. I. in his wars. After the time of Henry VI. I can find no descendant of Le Rous of Imber."[25]—Hoare. "Little Mitton in Blackburnshire was granted by Robert de Lacy, 3 Henry I., to Ralph le Roux, whose posterity were named from the place."—Whitaker's Whalley. Thomas le Rous was High Sheriff of Leicestershire 14, 15 Edward II. John Rufus, in the time of Henry III., was seated at Ragley in Warwickshire, and Lench-Randolph in Worcestershire; his last heir-male, Sir Thomas, died in 1721. Another John Rous, who died in 1491, and lies buried in the nave of Warwick Church, "was," says Leland, "of the Howse of the Rowsis of Ragley by Alcester. He beareth three Crouns in his Armes." The Augustinian Priory of Woodbridge in Suffolk was founded by Hugh le Rous, but at what date is uncertain. "The Prior and Convent were bound to pray and say mass for the souls of Sir Hugh, the founder, and six other knights of the same surname, registered on a table in this monastery."—Davis's Suffolk Collections.

Rushell :

in Duchesne's copy, Russell; Rosel in Leland's; from the Lordship of Rosel in the Cotentin. "Hugh de Rosel came to England with the Conqueror, and is mentioned in a charter of the time of Stephen as father of Robert Russell (Wiffen, i. 531). In Domesday he appears as holding lands in capite in Dorset by the serjeantry of being Marshall of the Butlery in England (Domesd. 84 b.) a feudal dignity, which conferred rank, and was hereditary. His grandson, another Robert de Rosel, held the fief of Kingston, Dorset, in capite, and in 1165 one fee in that county from Alured de Lincoln; another from the Abbot of Cerne (Lib. Niger.) The latter had apparently been acquired by authority of the Crown in the time of Stephen. Odo, Eudo, or Hugh Russell, who succeeded, is mentioned in a charter of King John, granting an advowson of a church in Gloucester to his son, John Russell, who in 1202 married the sister and co-heir of Dodo Bardolf, one of the greater barons, and was Constable of Corfe Castle."—The Norman People. His son and heir, Sir Ralph, married Isabel, one of the co-heiresses of James de Newmarch, and was the grandfather of Theobald Russel, who, by his second wife, was ancestor to the Dukes of Bedford. By his first marriage to Eleanor, daughter and co-heir of Ralph, Lord Gorges, he had three sons: 1. Sir John, his successor at Kingston-Russell, whose line ended with his grandson; 2. William, died s. p.; 3. Theobald, who, inheriting his mother's property, bore her name and arms, and founded the family of Gorges of Wraxhall (see Gorges). His second wife, Eleanor De La Tour, was again an heiress, and their son was seated on her Dorsetshire estate, at Berwick (now Bewick), four miles from Bridport. From him, in the third generation, came Sir John Russell, Speaker of the House of Commons, 2 & 10 Henry VI.: but it was reserved to the grandson and namesake of the latter to lay the foundation of the family greatness. This John Russell, when a young man, was a great traveller, "well versed in several languages:" and it was this knowledge that, by a lucky accident, proved the stepping-stone to his fortune. When, in 1506, the Archduke Philip of Austria, who had sailed from Flanders to join his royal bride in Spain, was storm-bound in the Channel, and forced to put into Weymouth, Sir Thomas Trenchard, who lived in the neighbourhood, came forward to offer him hospitality, till such time as a messenger could be despatched to Court, to acquaint the King with his coming. The offer was accepted; but when the royal guest was fairly installed in his house, Sir Thomas, not speaking a word of Spanish, or in fact of any language other than his own, was, as may well be conceived, sorely perplexed; and in his tribulation bethought himself of his accomplished neighbour at Berwick, then "newly returned from his travels." John Russell would be able to interpret, to explain matters to the Archduke, and learn his pleasure; and John Russell was accordingly sent for. He came, and fulfilled his duties so commendably, that the prince took a great fancy to him; and carried him with him to Court when he was summoned to join the King. Here it soon became evident that the remainder of his life was to be spent. His kind patron recommended him to the King, who appointed him one of the Gentlemen of his Privy Chamber; and on the accession of Henry VIII., three years afterwards, he was continued in this office, and rose so conspicuously into favour that his ill-wishers termed him the "King's fire-screen." He was "found apt for any kind of service, either with pen or sword, brain or hand;" an able, accomplished man, with a peculiar grace and gentleness of demeanour often alluded to by his contemporaries. Even poor Anne Boleyn, while complaining of the "cruel handling" she had experienced in her examination before the Council, "named Mr. Comptroller" (Russell) "to be a very gentleman." He went with the King to his first campaign in France in 1513, and assisted at the taking of Therouenne and the Battle of the Spurs; was knighted in 1523 on the deck of the flagship for his gallantry in Surrey's expedition against Morlaix, where he lost an eye; was employed in negotiations with Charles V., Francis I., the Pope, and the Duke of Lorraine in 1524: fought at Pavia; was one of the forty-five knights chosen to accompany Henry VIII. to the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1532, and named Comptroller of the Household in 1538. In the following year he was raised to the peerage, and, "as Lord Russell, commenced a line of nobles whose services to England wind like a silver cord through later history."—Froude. He chose the title of Baron Russell of Chenies, from the ancient seat of the Cheneys in Buckinghamshire, which had come to him through his wife Anne, the daughter and co-heir of Sir Guy Sapcotes, who had been the heir of Dame Agnes Cheney. Though the manor-house is now tenanted only by a farmer, the church chancel of Chenies has always continued to be the burial-place of the Russells, and is now filled with their monuments. He was further appointed Lord Admiral of England in 1541, and Lord Privy Seal in 1544. Nor was wealth wanting to uphold these new dignities; for the King's coffers were at that time overflowing with the riches of the suppressed monasteries, and "the Lords of the Council, being first in the field, had the pick of the spoil." Few secured a larger share of it than Lord Russell, who had been foremost in the attack of the religious houses, and himself presided at the execution of the Abbot of Glastonbury. He received, as Warden of the Stannaries, the whole of the rich Abbey of Tavistock, comprising the hundred, town, and borough, and a host of Devonshire manors, in 1546: Woburn Abbey in Bedfordshire "fell to him on easy terms" in 1547.; part of Thorney Abbey in 1549, and Covent Garden with the "Seven Acres" (now called Long Acre), "the choicest morsel of Somerset's forfeited estates," in 1552.[26] Two years previously, in acknowledgment of his services against the Catholic insurgents of the West, he had been created Earl of Bedford, and he lived to put down another insurrection—this time a Protestant one—in the same counties. This was, of course, under Queen Mary, and not long before his death in 1554.

Francis, second Earl, who was committed to the Tower as a stiff-necked Protestant by Queen Mary—a person of such great hospitality that Queen Elizabeth was wont to say of him "that he made all the beggars"—survived his three eldest sons, and was succeeded by his grandson Edward, the husband of the lovely Lucy Harrington,[27] who d. s. p, in 1627. The next heir was another of his grandsons, emphatically termed "the wise Earl," whose father, Sir William Russell, having proved himself an able soldier in France, Hungary, and the Low Countries, was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1594, and created Lord Russell of Thornhaugh in 1603. It was this Earl Francis that achieved the drainage of the vast tract of fen now known as the Bedford Level; a great national undertaking several times projected, and once before actually commenced, that added nearly four hundred thousand acres to the soil of England. Of these, "ninety-five thousand acres were allotted to the Earl and his fellow adventurers, the latter of whom had been nearly ruined by the expense of drainage" (1 an acre), "and were most of them bought out." He was the acknowledged leader of the popular party in the House of Lords, "being," as Lord Clarendon tells us, "of the best estate, and best understanding of the whole number, and therefore most likely to govern the rest." He died oft small-pox before the outbreak of the Civil War. His son William, fifth Earl, at first heartily espoused the cause of the Parliament, and served as a General of Horse in their army at Edgehill; but the next year threw up his commission (being, as is supposed, alarmed at the revolutionary aspect of affairs) and offered his sword to the King. He was received with distrust and hesitation, and though, to prove his sincerity, he charged gallantly in the King's regiment at Newbury, he found himself slighted and coldly looked upon at Court, and within three month's time had gone back to his old friends. He took, however, no further part in politics, and never sat in the House of Lords during the usurpation. Charles II. gave him the Garter; and in 1694, he was created by William and Mary Duke of Bedford and Marquess of Tavistock, because (as set forth in the patent) "he was the father of Lord Russell, the ornament of his age."

William Lord Russell had "the undaunted courage and unshaken firmness" that had been wanting in the Duke. "He was," says Sir William Temple, "an honest worthy gentleman, without tricks of private ambition, who was known to venture as great a stake as any subject in England." He first entered the House of Commons in 1678, and so quickly made himself obnoxious to the Court as the leader of the popular party, that when, the year following, he asked leave to retire from the Council board, the requisite permission appeared in the Gazette, endorsed by His Majesty's own hand, "With all my heart." He had the intrepidity to go to Westminster Hall and "present" the King's brother at the King's Bench as a recusant. "He shared to the bottom of his heart in the old English dread and hate of Popery. He impeached Buckingham and Arlington. He believed to the last in the reality of the Popish plot, and he accepted Oates and Dangerfield as credible witnesses. He carried a Bill prohibiting Papists from sitting in Parliament. If Papists could not sit in Parliament, still less ought they to be on the throne, and the House of Commons, under his influence, passed the Exclusion Bill, cutting off the Duke of York. Russell carried it with his own hands to the House of Lords, and session after session, dissolution after dissolution, he tried to force the Lords to agree to it."—Froude. Yet, with all his zeal, he spurned any proposal for buying votes with French gold. "I should be very sorry," he said, "to have any commerce with persons capable to be gained by money." At last, on the discovery of the Rye House Plot, he was arraigned for high treason on a charge of having designed to seize the King's guards. His trial at the Old Bailey "was attended with every feature which could concentrate the nation's attention to it. The Duke of York was the actual and scarcely concealed prosecutor." He defended himself with dignity and simplicity, and asked for no aid beyond that of a writer to take down his notes. When he was told he had only to choose one, he replied, "My wife will write for me;" and Lady Rachel Russell appeared in Court, and took her place as her husband's secretary. She bore herself with admirable courage and constancy, writing down his words as calmly as he dictated them, and never faltered in her duty to the very last. He was found guilty, condemned to a traitor's death, and executed on July 21, 1683, though every effort had been made to save him. Lord Cavendish offered to change clothes with him, and take his place in the prison while he made his escape; and the Earl of Bedford, after vainly pleading his own services at the Restoration, promised the King's mistress,100,000 for his son's pardon. But the Duke of York was inexorable, and Lord Russell died as bravely and nobly as he had lived. "It is idle to say that he was unjustly convicted. He was privy to a scheme for armed resistance to the Government, and a Government which was afraid to punish him ought to have abdicated. Charles Stuart had been brought back by the deliberate will of the people. As long as he was on the throne he was entitled to defend both himself and his authority. Lord Russell was not like Hampden, resisting an unconstitutional breach of the law He was taking precautions against a danger which he anticipated but which had not yet arisen."—Froude.

His wife, Lady Rachel, "a beautiful figure in the story, whose gentle influence had first reclaimed him from the frivolities of his earlier youth," survived him for many years, and lived to be a very old woman. She was the second daughter and eventual heiress of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, Lord Treasurer of England, by a French lady of noble Huguenot blood; and, at the time she married him, the youthful widow of Lord Vaughan. She brought her husband the great Bloomsbury estate with Southampton House and Stratton (now the seat of the Earl of Northbrook) in Hampshire. She died in 1723, having had the grief to see her only son, Wriothesley, the second Duke, carried off by small-pox twelve years before. From Wriothesley, in the fifth generation, descends the present and ninth Duke.

Three other peerages have been held by the family. The first was granted to the victorious Admiral who won the battle of La Hogue, "one of the few Russells who was famous in arms," Edward, the nephew of the first Duke. "He was," says Burnet, "bed-chamber man to the King when Duke of York; but upon Lord Russell's death retired from Court," and was deep in the councils of the Prince of Orange. With him he came over to England in 1688, receiving ample grants and appointments, in addition to a pension; yet, still unsatisfied, he presently entered into correspondence with the Court of St. Germains, and offered to bring over the fleet to the cause of the exiled King. He saved the country, however, from a foreign invasion in 1692, when he met and drove back the approaching French fleet at La Hogue, defeating it with a loss of sixteen men of war. For this gallant service he received the Earldom of Orfordin 1697, with the title of Viscount Barfleur; but left no son to inherit either. Macaulay denounces him as "emphatically a bad man, insolent, malignant, greedy, and selfish." Froude tells us that James II.'s own opinion was that "Admiral Russell did but delude the King with the Prince of Orange's permission."

The second title of honour was given in our own time to Lord John Russell, the third son of the sixth Duke of Bedford; "the old statesman who filled so large a place for half a century in English public life," and was the author of the first Reform Bill. He continued Premier (with a brief interval) from 1846 to 1851; and ten years later was created Earl Russell and Viscount Amberley. He died in 1878, and was succeeded by a grandson.

The third and yet more recent title was the reward of the distinguished diplomatic services of Lord Odo Russell, the youngest brother of the present Duke, who was created Lord Ampthill in 1881. He died only three years afterwards, leaving four young sons.

Raband :

or Rabayne: in the Testa de Nevill it is given Roboin. "The family of De Rabayne came from Saintonge, Acquitaine, where it possessed the marquisate of Piscay. The castle of Rabaine still remains. The family was of eminence in 1018 (Des Bois)."—The Norman People. The first who was of much note in England was Elias de Rabayne, a good soldier in the Gascon war of 1251, and high in favour with Henry III. In 1255 the King committed to him "the corpus, of the Castle of Corfe during pleasure, saving to the King the warren, forest, and all other things pertaining to the Castle, outside the walls thereof." Considerable privileges were attached to this office, which the new Constable enforced and extended with such vigour that his aggrieved neighbours were driven to seek redress in the law courts. In 1277, William de Claville brought an. action against him, for felling six of his (Claville's) oaks at Holne, as well as opening a quarry there, and carrying stone to Corfe; and at the same date the Abbess of Shaftesbury complained that he had cut and carried away from the Abbey woods of Kingston five hundred ashes, and two thousand maples and thorns. Elias pleaded the right of every Constable to cut timber and dig stone throughout the warren for repairs of the Castle; but the jury decided that the greater part of the wood had been misappropriated by Elias as fuel for his own use. Other "instances of stretches of authority" are recorded against him; but the most conclusive proof of his rapacity was his conduct to his sister-in-law. He had, with the King's permission, married Maud, one of the daughters and co-heirs of a Lincolnshire baron, John de Bayeux, who had also possessions in Dorset, Somerset, and Wilts. "Under colour of that grant," Elias carried the other heiress beyond sea, thinking to appropriate her share to himself; but the King, who was thus defrauded of the custody of the moiety of the barony, sent orders to seize the estates. I cannot find that they were ever restored to him, though either he, or (according to The Norman People) another Elias, received writs of military summons in 1277 and 1282. Nor is it altogether easy to decide what became of them. "Certain it is," says Hutchins, in his History of Dorset, "that Stephen de Boys possessed Waybaiouse, and perhaps the rest of the family estates, probably on Rabayne's forfeiture; for, 7 Ed, II., he was found to have held the manors of Waybaiouse, Little Piddle, and half a knight's fee in West Stafford. 9 Ed. II., he held these two manors at his death; and it appears by the King's writ annexed to this inquisition that there was a judgement touching this barony in the court of King Edward I. that one moiety of the barony should belong to the King and his heirs, and the other to Matilda de Rabayne and her heirs; and that she thereupon exhibiting a petition to King Edward II. in the parliament at Lincoln, was answered, 'She might sue for the same, if she thought fitt:' and that the King, being willing to do her right, had caused inquisition to be made in Dorset and other counties, to be well informed of her title thereto." Yet he elsewhere tells us, that Peter de Rabayne held Little Pidele at his death in 1272; and "Petrus de Roboin" is incontestably entered in the Testa de Nevill as holding Waybayouse of the King. He was also possessed of Edmondesham, where he granted an annuity to John Beauboys (Bello Bosco) and his heirs. In 1316, Matilda de Rabayne was Lady of Edmondesham; but of her or her marriage we hear nothing more.

Ronde :

About 1272, Arnulf de Rondes, Robert his son, and Alicia de Rondes occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum for Huntingdonshire. Radulfus Rotundus is found in Essex in 1130.—Rot. Pip. A family of the name is now domiciled in that county; but this is nothing more than a coincidence, for it was not till 1724 that their ancestor James Round, citizen of London, purchased Birch Hall, near Colchester, their present seat.

Rie :

from Rye, three leagues north of Bayeux. "Geoffrey de Rie was living c. 980. His son Odo Fitz Geoffrey gave half the church of Rie to Fescamp Abbey, which was confirmed 1027 by Richard II. of Normandy (Neustria Pia, 218)."—The Norman People. It was Hubert de Rie, who, in 1047, saved the life of the young Duke of Normandy—the future Conqueror of England—when flying from the conspirators of the Cotentin. He had made his escape by night from Valognes, without armour or attendants, and "dared not," says Wace, "turn towards Bayeux, for he knew not whom to trust, so he took the way which passes between Bayeux and the sea. And as he rode through Rie before the sun rose, Hubert de Rie stood at his gate, between the church and his castle, and saw William pass in disorder, and that his horse was all in a sweat. 'How is it that you travel so, fair sire?' said he. 'Hubert,' said William, 'dare I tell you?' Then Hubert said, 'Of a truth,' most surely! say on boldly!'—'I will have no secrets with you; my enemies follow seeking me, and menace my life. I know that they have sworn my death.' Then Hubert led him into his hostel, and gave him his good horse, and called forth his three sons. 'Fair sons,' said he, 'muntez! muntez! Behold your lord; conduct him till ye have lodged him in Falaise. This way ye shall pass; it will be ill for you to touch upon any town.' So Hubert taught them well the ways and turnings; and his sons understood all rightly, and followed his instructions exactly. They crossed all the country, passed Folpendant at the ford, and lodged William at Falaise. If he were in bad plight, what matters so that he got safe?

"Hubert remained standing on his bridge: he looked out over valley and over hill, and listened anxiously for news, when they who were pursuing William came spurring by. They called him on one side, and conjured him with fair words to tell if he had seen the Bastard, and whither and by what road he was gone. And he said to them, 'He passed this way, and is not far off; you will have him soon: but wait, I will lead you myself, for I should like to give him the first blow. By my faith I pledge you my word that if I find him, I will strike him the first blow if I can.' But Hubert only led them out of the way till he had no fear for William, who was gone by another route. So when he had talked to them enough of this thing and that, he returned back to his hostel."—Roman de Rou.

From Falaise, the young Duke, well out of reach of his pursuers, went to seek and obtain the succour of the King of France, and returned to win the decisive victory of Val-es-dunes. He never forgot the man who had done him so signal a service,[28] and Hubert de Rie remained through life his friend and counsellor. When Edward the Confessor, shortly before his end, sent over a messenger to Normandy, requesting that some trustworthy envoy might go to him on the Duke's behalf, a great council was called together by William, to consider the choice of a representative. But the assembled nobles, one and all, hung back. They would not undertake the embassy to England. "They remembered what had been done at Guilford" (the massacre of the Norman companions of the son of Ethelred) "and refused to visit the barbarous people." Then Hubert de Rie stepped forward, volunteered to take upon himself the risk and the responsibility, and, "praised by all and rewarded by the Duke," set forth on his mission with a great train, picked men on splendidly trapped horses, equipped with all the pomp the Norman court could furnish. He was well received by Edward, who presented him with some lands in Esce (Ashe in Hampshire): and returned to Normandy with "the promise of the kingdom, and the tokens confirming the promise:" a two-handled sword of which the hilt enclosed the relics of certain saints, a hunter's horn of gold, and a great stag's head.

For this second important service, the grateful Duke promised him the office of Dapifer: but, soon after the Conquest, disturbances broke out in Cennomania which Hubert, "prompt of hand and good at council," was sent over to quell, and we do not hear of him again in England. He was then an old man, and must have died before 1086, as his sons only are entered in Domesday. There were four: Ralph, Hubert, Adam, and Eudo, all of them magnificently endowed by the Conqueror.

1. Ralph, who, like Adam and Eudo., was generally called Fitz Hubert, was Castellan of Nottingham, and held land in Leicester, Stafford, Nottingham, and Lincoln; but the head of his great barony was Crich in Derbyshire, where he had received the whole estate of a rich Saxon named Levenot, comprising thirty-six manors. Dugdale asserts that he was hung in 1140 for "divers crimes and cruelties"; but, as he was old enough to be the Duke's guide across country in 1044, he must then have been for many years resting in his grave.[29] The senior male line of the house ended with his grandson Hubert, who died about 3 Hen. III., and left two daughters. Julian, the eldest, married Ansger de Frecheville, and the Derbyshire lands continued vested in her descendants till they died out in the reign of Charles II. One of the manors that Ralph held at Domesday—Whitwell, was, however, for several centuries the seat of a junior branch of the family; till in 1583, Edward Rye, then its representative, sold his ancient home, and is lost sight of altogether.

2. Hubert, the next brother, founded another baronial family, which proved of even briefer duration. He held the Honour of Hingham in Norfolk, comprising thirty-five knights' fees, and succeeded Ralph Guader as Castellan of Norwich in 1074. His wife, Agnes de Todeni, a daughter of the first Baron of Belvoir, had been the richly-dowered widow of one of the De Beaufoes, and brought him several other manors in the county. "He cast his lot in closely with the church, half founded and richly endowed the splendid cathedral of Norwich," and assumed the cross in his later years. Both his son and his grandson, who in turn succeeded him, worthily emulated his munificence to the church: and with the latter, another Hubert, the line expired in 1188. This last Baron of Hingham again left two coheirs; Isabel, first married (without the King's license) to Geoffrey de Chester, and afterwards to Roger de Cressy; and Aliva, or Avelina, the wife of John le Mareschal. Aliva had no children, and on her death in 1263, Isabel succeeded to her moiety of the barony. She was then a very aged woman "of ninety and more," and yet survived till about 1270.

3. Adam, the third son, held considerable estates in Kent under Bishop Odo, and was one of the compilers of Domesday Book. Little is known of him, and nothing of his descendants, except that a Robert de Rie of Kent—presumably one of them—is mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1189.

4. Eudo—generally styled Eudo Dapifer—the last born, was by far the ablest and most distinguished of the four brothers. He received princely possessions, not only in Essex, where his principal estates lay, but in Norfolk, Suffolk, Herts, Cambridge, Berks, Bedford, Northampton, &c, with the great hereditary office of Seneschal or Dapifer, that had been promised to his father, and then appertained to the Conqueror's early friend, William Fitz Osbern. Dugdale gives a whimsical account of the time and circumstances of this grant. While Eudo was "personally attending the Court, it so hapned that that William Fitz Osberne, then Steward of the Houshold, had set before the King the Flesh of a Crane, scarce half rosted: whereat the King took such offence, as that he lifted up his Fist, and had struken him fiersly, but that Eudo bore off the blow. Whereupon Fitz Osberne grew so displeased, as that he quitted his Office, desiring that Eudo might have it. To which request the King as well for his Father Hubert's demerits," (sic) "and his own, readily yeilded." This must have taken place before 1074, when he witnesses a charter of donation at Bayeux as Eudo Dapifer.

He was in attendance on his master's death-bed at Caen, and mindful of his last wishes, hurried away to secure the succession of his son. He was the first to land in England, and, concealing the King's death, went straight to Winchester, to demand in his name the keys of the Treasury from the Treasurer, William de Pont de l'Arche: thence proceeded to Dover, Hastings, Pevensey, and the other strongholds of the south coast, and, as the King's appointed emissary, made the Castellans in charge swear to open their gates only at his command. Having secured these castles and harbours, he returned to Winchester, announced the Conqueror's death, and "while the rest of the Nobles were consulting in Normandy touching the succession" handed over the keys of the Treasury to William Rufus, who was at once proclaimed King. Thus the new sovereign "began to reign without a hand or a voice being raised against him." He was not ungrateful to Eudo. He confirmed him in his office of Dapifer, and bestowed upon him the town of Colchester, partly at the request of the townsmen, who had petitioned "that they might have this famous Eudo to govern amongst them." For Eudo was not only a faithful servant, and an astute and sagacious politician, but one of the very few Norman rulers that endeared themselves to their English vassals: "he eased the oppressed, restrained the insolent, and pleased all." Moreover, he was a great prince in all his doings and dealings. The castle he built at Colchester could boast of the largest Keep ever seen in England (the White Tower of London is not more than half its size), and he founded a magnificent Abbey on the site of a wooden church then dedicated to St. John the Evangelist. In this humble edifice "it had been observed," writes one of the monks, "that Divine Lights sometimes appeared by night, and also the sound of Heavenly Voices devoutly praising God (and yet no man there). And moreover, taking notice of what had hapned to a certain man, who had been put in Fetters by the King's command: viz. that standing in that Church at the celebration of Mass, the Bolts of his Fetters flew out, whereby he was suddenly loosed, he" (Eudo) "became so much transported with these Miracles, he resolved to found an Abbey in that place, wherein perpetual suffrage might be made for his Soul."

He reached a good old age, and died in 1120 at the castle of Preaux in Normandy; Henry Beauclerk standing by his bed side, and conferring with him as to the disposal of his property. No son was left to inherit; for his wife Roesia, the daughter of Richard Fitz Gilbert, Justiciary of England, had given him one only daughter, Margaret. She married William de Mandeville, and her son Geoffrey, Earl of Essex, was Steward of Normandy in her right.

In addition to the Ryes of Whitwell in Derbyshire, of whom I have already spoken, there were numerous other offsets from the parent stock. William de Rye—perhaps the same William mentioned in Norfolk in 1272 (Rot. Hund.) was Conservator of York in 1287. Ranulph de Rie held Gosberkirk, Surflete, Donyngton and Quadryng in Lincolnshire of the Honour of Richmond.—Gale's Richmondshire. John de Rye was in arms with Simon de Montfort during the baronial war, and taken prisoner at the storming of Northampton in 1263. He was pardoned in 1268 at the instance of the King's brother, and his estates in Lincoln and Oxford are entered in the Hundred Rolls of 1272. In 1290 he gave his manor of Rye to St. John's Abbey.—Morant's Essex. Nicholas de Rye was Sheriff of Lincoln in 1276 and 1277; and in 1280 Ralph de Rye obtained the King's license for a weekly market and yearly fair at Gosberkirk, with free warren there and in his other manors in the county. He was present in 1309 at the Dunstable tournament, which was attended by two others of the family, Ralph de Rye of Whitwell, and William de Rye. This latter bore Gules a bend Ermine (the coat of the Barons of Hingham) with a label of three points Or, and was seated at Swan ton in Norfolk, which soon after (in 1327) had passed to a female heir. But the name lived on in Norfolk, where Roger Ree or Rye presided as Sheriff in 1461, though of its former high estate few memories remain. "The only traces now left of the Ryes are the 'Court of the Honor of Rye,' which still exists as a tribunal in the district which belonged to them, and a few yeomen-descended namesakes like myself, who take pride in belonging to a county with which their name has been so long connected."—Walter Rye (Herald and Genealogist, vol. 7, p. 243). During the brief period of their ascendancy, they were conspicuous for their liberality to the Church. They founded St. John's Abbey at Colchester, Binham Abbey, Beeston Abbey, Aldeby Priory, and a chantry at Walsingham in Norfolk, and magnificently contributed to the foundation of Norwich Cathedral.

Rokell :

from Rochelle in the Cotentin. "In 1130 Humfrid de Rochella had lands in Dorset; in 1165 we find William de Rochelle in Essex (Rot. Pip. Lib. Niger). The former witnessed the charter of William de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, founding Walden Abbey" (Mon. i. 460).—The Norman People. South-Okendon, or Wokyndon, in Essex, took its name of Rokele from its ancient owners. The above-mentioned William held it in the reign of Henry II. of Hugh de Eu, under Geoffrey de Mandeville: "in some deeds he is styled William de Eu. Probably he married a daughter of Hugh, and so came into this manor. The capital Seat was a stately one, not far from the Church, on the right hand side of the road leading to Warley and Burntwood."—Morants Essex. He was succeeded by Sir Richard de la Rokele, at whose death in 1222, the manor was confirmed to his son, to be held by knight's service of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford. There were only two more heirs; the last, Philip, died in 1295, leaving two daughters and coheirs, Maud and Isolda. Maud was married to Lord Grey; and "Isolda brought Wokyndon Rokele in marriage to Sir William de Brune, of the Bed-Chamber to King Ed. I., who was so much in favour with that Prince, that he gave him the Manor of Beckingham in Kent: And his wife, Isolda, who was Lady of the Bed-Chamber to Queen Alianor, obtained also from her several lordships."—Ibid, The arms of Rokele were Lozengy, Gules; whereas the De la Rochelles of Normandy (according to Drouet-Darcq's Armorial de la France) in 1360 bore two bends Argent with seven escallops.

The name is found in several other counties. Grangevilles Rockells, in Norfolk, was granted in the thirteenth century by Sir Richard de Rokele (perhaps the same who was seated in Essex) to Reginald de Kareville, as the marriage portion of his daughter Alice.—Blomfield. Richard de la Rokele, joint Lord of Flitcham-cum-Appleton, Oulton, and Walton, was knight of the shire in 1311 and 1314; and Godfrey de la Rokele held at Colney, Tibbenham, and Aslacton, in the same county in 1316. Besides these, I find mentioned in Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs, Humphrey de la Rochelle, of Frilsham and Marsham, Berkshire; Robert de la Rokele of Astwood in Buckinghamshire, Martin de la Rokele, one of the Justices appointed in that county in 1309; and John de la Rokele, of Holland in Yorkshire, one of the "Fideles" of Ireland, who received a writ of military summons in 1322. Another Essex manor, Coggeshall Rokells, bore their name.

Risers :

originally Richer. "Ricardus Risher" occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1195; and the name still existed in the fifteenth century.—Nobiliaire de Normandie. In England, we find Robert, Thomas, and Walter Richer mentioned in the Hundred Rolls, about 1272, as landowners in Kent; William Richer in Yorkshire; Ralph Richer in Gloucestershire; and Hugh and Henry Fitz Richer in Norfolk. In the latter county the name still continued in the seventeenth century; for Morant tells us that "Thomas Richers of Fringe in Norfolk bought Ashdown of the Bramstons in 1679." A branch settled in Kent, where Robert Richers of Wrotham, "descended from an ancient family of Swanington, Hall, Norfolk" occurs about 1570.—Archaeologia Cantiana, The arms are given: "three annulets, two and one, for Richars." John Richer, in 1253, held of the Barony of Chilham.—Ibid. The earliest mention I have found of them is in the Domesday of Ralph de Diceto, a.d. 1181, when "Richer" is entered as a tenant of the Chapter of St. Pauls.

Randuile :

probably Rodeville or Rudeville. Rudeville, now Rouville, is near Gisors; and under the latter name the family still flourished in Normandy late in the last century. Two De Rouvilles were represented at the great Assembly of the Nobles in 1789. They bore, Or a lion crowned Azure. In England, a William de Rodeville or Rudeville, in the thirteenth century, held the manor of Lindley, in Yorkshire, of Robert de Moubray by knight service (Testa de Nevill, 92, 96). Alan de Rodewell, of Leicestershire, occurs about 1272 in the Rotuli Hundredorum.

Roselin :

for Rosceline, a baronial name, said to be a branch of the Carlovingian Viscounts of Maine and Beaumont. Roscelin the thin man (Homo Magri) is mentioned in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1198. The probable ancestor of the family in England was, according to Banks, Rocel. filius Osbert, who held five knights' fees of the barony of Hubert de Rie in 1165. (Liber Niger.) William de Roscelyn, with whom the recorded pedigree commences, married the heiress of a Norman family that had held a considerable property in Norfolk from the time of the Conquest, and had taken the name of Edgefield or Edisfield from one of their manors. Sir Thomas, the next heir, in 1265 had free warren in all his demesne lands at Edisfield, Walcote, Norton, Heckingham, Drayton, Tasburgh, and Redlington, in Norfolk; and his son Sir Peter was summoned to parliament among the barons of the realm in 1293. This summons was, however, never repeated, either to him or his posterity. His son and successor, another Sir Thomas, joined the confederacy of the barons against the Despencers, and thereby lost his estates, which were seized by the Crown; but they were restored by Edward III. He died without issue, prior to 13 Ed. III., and his inheritance came to his six sisters and coheirs: Margery, married to John de Champaine; Alice, to Sir William Daye; Joan, to John Lord Willoughby of Eresby: Maud, to Sir Robert Tiffin: Mary, to Sir John Camois, and another, whose name is lost, to Ralph de Bokenham.

"A younger branch of this family was William, brother (as it would seem) to Peter, for he was contemporary with him, and 14 Ed. I., claimed assize of his tenants, view of frank-pledge, a gallows, and free-warren, having purchased of the prior of Norwich a lordship at Aldebye, in the county of Norfolk. This Sir William, and Joan his wife, 4 Ed. II., settled by fine the said manor on themselves for life, with remainder to William Marshal, Baron of Rye, and his heirs; to which family it afterwards passed accordingly."—Banks.

Rastoke :

I met with a name somewhat resembling this in Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Ralph de Rostack, in the fourteenth century, was "manucaptor of Otto de Bodragan, knight of the shire for Cornwall."—He probably held the manor of Ros-teage (as it is now spelt) in Gerans; derived from two Celtic words, signifying "valley house," or "fair valley." William de Roscaet is entered in the Testa de Nevill among the tenants of Henry de la Pommeray at Tregony. If, however, this Celtic local name is the one here intended, it must of course be an interpolation.

Rinuill :

Goisfrid de Runeville held in Herts 1086: (Domesd.) and was probably the "Seigneur de Rouvile" of the Norman Chronicle. But I think this name stands for Reinevile, a very ancient Yorkshire family. "They held much land of the Lacis, in various parts of their fee. An Ilbert de Ramosville, which may be Reinevil, was contemporary with Ilbert de Laci, and held lands of him in Campsall, of which he gave the tithe to the chapel of St. Clement, in Pontefract Castle. The same chapel had also tithe in Badsworth, and I have little doubt Badsworth was included in the tenure of this Ilbert. But the first of the Reinivils mentioned by Dodsworth as having possession of Badsworth is a William, father to Adam de Reinivil, who is distinguished by the addition vetus from a son and grandson of the same name. He gave the town of Badsworth with the advowson of the church, to a younger son, Swein de Reinivil. This could scarcely be later than the time of Hen. I.

"Swein was one of four potent brothers; William, Adam, Swein, and Jordan; but the name of Reinevil soon disappeared at Badsworth, Swein having only daughters, Eva, married to Eudo de Longvilers, and Agnes, to William his brother. The issue of Agnes was one daughter only, Hugolina de Quatremains. Badsworth passed to the descendants of Eudo and Eva."—Hunter's South Yorkshire. The first Adam de Reinivile was a benefactor to Nostel Priory at some time prior to 1120: Thomas his son also appears in the chartulary.

Jordan de Reinevile, Swein's brother, had also two daughters and co-heirs; Margaret (living 1266) who married Sir Robert de Mounteney, and Alice, or Aliena, married to Thomas de Bellew.

Rougere :

N. Rogere and Robert Rogere appear in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180 and 1195. In England the name became very common. Brianston, in Dorsetshire, was "the seat of the ancient and Knightly family of the Rogers. This was held in Grand Sergeantry by a pretty odd jocular tenure; viz. By finding a man to go before the King's army for forty days when he should make war in Scotland, bare-headed and bare-footed, in his Shirt and Linnendrawers, holding in one hand a bow without a string, in the other an arrow without feathers."—Camden. It was from these Rogers that Brianston passed by purchase to its present owners, the Portmans: and it had come to them (whether by purchase or marriage does not appear) as early as the time of Henry IV. Leland, speaking of Weymouth, tells us: "Ther was a faire House of Freres in the Est Part of the Town; and the chief House of Rogers in Dorsetshire was Founder and Patrone of it." Richard, the last of the family, is represented by Lord Clarendon as "a gentleman of a rare temper and excellent understanding, passionately inclined to advance the King's service, and having a wonderful influence in the county, for which he served as one of the knights in parliament, so that his death was an unspeakable loss to the King." He left two daughters his co-heiresses, who both made brilliant marriages. Elizabeth was the wife, first of Charles, Viscount Mansfield, eldest son of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle (who died in his father's lifetime): and secondly, of Charles Stuart, sixth Duke of Lenox and third Duke of Richmond; and Rogersa married Sir Henry Belasyse, eldest son of John, first Lord Belasyse of Worleby. But neither of them left children.

There was a family of this name (supposed to be derived from the Dorsetshire house) seated at Benham in Berkshire from 12 Henry VI. to 4 Henry VII. Near Cheping Lanburn in that county Leland "sawe a greate Warren of Conies longginge unto Mastar Estesex, who is Lord of the Towne by his Mothar the sole Dowghtar and Heyre of Mastar Rogers, by whom he hathe bettar than three hundred Marks of Lands by the Yere." There seems to have been another branch seated near Bridport.

Rait :

Jordan de Raat held in Lincolnshire temp. Henry III.—Testa de Nevill. The name is of considerable antiquity in Scotland. Among the documents preserved in the Exchequer Office is the Submission and Fealty of Sir Gervays de Rate, given at Elgin, July 27th, 1295. Their principal seat was at Hall Green, in the shire of Kincardine, where the older parts of the castle still show their armorial bearings. "The first Rait, according to Nisbett, took refuge in the Mearns during the 14th century, having had to leave his native district of Nairnshire for some capital crime. It is certain that Raits were settled in the Mearns, and held the lands of Owres or Uras at that period; but it was not until the close of the following century that they had any connection with Hall Green. From that time, till the year 1724, they were possessed of it; and from them all the Raits of any note in Angus and the Mearns, whether landholders, ministers, farmers, or merchants, claim to be descended. The last Laird of Hall Green died in 1724, and his lands, burdened by mortgages, were sold by order of the Court of Sessions."—Andrew Jervise. Thomas Raite, Lord of Owres, received a confirmation charter of half the lands of Arroch, in the barony of Brechin, from Robert II. in 1378: and David Rait of Drumnagair had Hall Green confirmed to him by a similar charter from James III. in 1478.

Ripere :

or De Rupierre; "from Rupierre, near Caen; the Lords of which were of great importance in the eleventh and twelfth centuries (Des Bois). William de Rupierre (who came to England with the Conqueror) is mentioned by Ordericus Vitalis; and in 1090 commanded the forces of Duke Robert. The Counts of Rupierre continued in Normandy till the last century. In England, Robert de Ruperia paid fines in Notts and Derby (Rot. Pip:), and the heiress of John Rooper of Turndish, Derby, married De Fourneaux, who assumed her name (Mon. i. 503). Roger de Rupers, of the Norman line, held lands in Warwick or Leicester, temp. John, where he granted the advowson of Tewkesbury Abbey (Testa de Nevill, 87). The seal of Roger de Rupierre of Normandy (published by the Norman Antiquarian Society) represents a shield divided into twelve squares, each containing a martlet, the original evidently from which the modern Roper arms are derived. The Ropers, Lord Teynham, are descended from this family."—The Norman People. There is a certain similarity in the coats of arms. Lord Teynham's pedigree (as traced by Philipot in his Visitation of Kent, 1619), commences with Edwin Roper, seventh in descent, from whom were two brothers; William, who married the daughter of the famous Chancellor, Sir Thomas More; and Christopher, the father of Sir John Roper, created a baron in 1618, and still represented. The elder line ended in heiresses after four generations.

Rigny :

The family of De Reiney, or Rigny, came from Champagne. Hagebert de Rigneio, in 1101, witnessed a charter of the Bishop of Tulle (Gall. Christ, xiii. 480 Instr.), and may have been the same that possessed lands in Essex in 1086 (Domesd.) Roger de Reigny witnessed a charter of Bishop Roger of Sarum, temp. Hen. I., and Robert de Reigny held five fees in Devon 1165 (Liber Niger).—The Norman People. I can find no further mention of the Reignys in Essex, but they were long of great account in Devonshire, where Ash-Reigny, Brixton-Reigny, and Anstey-Reigny have preserved their name. They also took root in the adjoining counties. John de Reiney, of Devon and Somerset, died in 1247 (Roberts, Excerpta): and Sir Richard de Reyney, who lived in the early years of the following century, acquired Stoke, in the latter county, through his wife Lucia. A little later, Sir John Paulet, the forefather of the Dukes of Bolton and Marquesses of Winchester, "made an addition to his estate by marriage with Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas Reyney of Rowd in Wiltshire and Shyrston in Somerset. She was such a considerable heiress that Sir John Paulet, her son, sealed with the arms of Reyney 15 Ric. II."—Collins. She bore the Vol,[30] the bearing of the great house of St. Maur, but of other tincture; viz. two Wings conjoined in Lure Argent.

The family is to be met with in other parts of England. Newton-Reigny, in the Forest of Inglewood, was their seat in Cumberland. "In 33 Hen. II. William de Reigny was impleaded in a writ of right by one William de Lascelles, for a knight's fee in Newton Reigny, sed non prevaluit, for John Reigny succeeded after William his father, 4 King John, and William his son after him, who died 4 Ed. I. Then the inheritance fell to four sisters."—Hutchinson's Cumberland. A branch of far longer continuance derived from Thomas de Reigny or Reynes, who, about the middle of the twelfth century, married the great-granddaughter and heiress of Simon de Bosco-Roardo, Lord of Stathern in Leicestershire, Clifton in Buckinghamshire, and Oakley in Bedfordshire, at the time of the Conquest. The grant, by Ralph de Reynes and his brothers, of some land at Stathern to Belvoir Priory, is witnessed by William de Albini Brito II. "The monks, by way of forwarding this grant, presented to Ralph five marks of silver and a bridle, and undertook to give him annually the garment of a monk, with boots of 6d. value."—Nichol's Leicestershire. The other two manors continue to be known as Oakley-Reynes and Clifton-Reynes; and the latter was the residence of the family for more than three hundred years. A brass in the parish church commemorates Sir John Reynes, obt. 1428. Its last lord, Thomas Reignes, left three daughters, of whom Anne, the eldest, inherited the family place, and married Thomas Lowe, Esquire of the Body to Henry VIII.

Richemound :

Alain le Roux, son of Eudes Count of Brittany, "in his very youth not a little famous for his valour," led the division comprising the men of Brittany and Maine, that formed the left wing of the Norman army at Hastings, and "received three entire wapentakes in North Yorkshire, which became the great Honour of Richmond, the name given by the new possessor in the new language to the old English soke of Gilling."—Sir F. Palgrave.

"Le roy servit et ama
Et il bien le guerdona:
Richement (mont?) li dona el north
Bon chastel et bel et fort.
En plusieurs lius en
Engleterre Li rois li donna de sa terre."

He was, however, very far from owning the whole of the vast possessions ascribed in Domesday to "Alanus Comes"; for, by a strange coincidence, three Counts Alan of Brittany came to England with the Conqueror, Alain Fergant, Alain le Roux, and Alain le Noir. They have been constantly confounded together by Dugdale and other authors: even Wace speaks of Alain le Roux as Alain Fergant, and the unravelling of their identity and genealogy has been a labour so portentous, that Eyton, in his "Shropshire," declares: "The descent of the Earls of Brittany is a problem of sufficient interest and difficulty to fill a volume." I have been guided entirely by the French authorities, whose Recherches sur le Domesday furnish the first pedigree that appears to throw light on the subject.

Alain Fergant, to begin with, was the son and heir of Houel V. Duke of Brittany, and Hawise, heiress of Duke Conan II. He himself was twice married; first to Constance of Normandy, the second daughter of the Conqueror, by whom he had no children, then to Ermengarde of Anjou; and succeeded his father as Duke in 1084, dying a monk in the Abbey of Rhedan in 1119. His father-in-law bestowed upon him all the lands, in six different counties, that had belonged before the Conquest to Earl Morcar, with the dignity of Count Palatine, but neither he, nor his son, nor his only brother the Count of Nantes, ever bore the title of Earl of Richmond. When he took the cowl, this son succeeded him in his Duchy as Conan III., or Le Gros; and left an only daughter, Bertha, who became the heiress of Brittany.

Alain le Roux and Alain le Noir were brothers, the sons of Eudes of Brittany, Count of Penthievre, and his wife Agnes, daughter of the Earl of Cornwall, and were kinsmen of the Conqueror through their grandmother Hawise, daughter of Richard Duke of Normandy. There were seven brothers in all: the eldest, Geoffrey dit Botherel, Count of Penthievre, was killed at Dol in 1093; and his fourth brother Stephen succeeded him in the title, as the two Alains, who were second and third in seniority, were then established in England. Alain le Roux or Le Rebre, the first Earl of Richmond, "Gentil home de grant parage," as Gaimar calls him, held all the great Yorkshire domain that in Saxon times had been Earl Edwin's; and chose Gilling as the head of his barony. There, on a towering hill washed by the Swale, he built the splendid keep that, scarcely harmed by the wear and tear of eight centuries, still lords it proudly over Richmondshire; planted, like a beacon, to command the whole country round. His banqueting hall (now unroofed) looks down upon the wild mountain river that eddies round the foot of the rock, and, beyond it, over one of the most beautiful views that all England can afford. Dugdale truly describes Richmond Castle as "situate upon the highest, most defensible, and pleasant place of all that Territory, the swift River Swale running at the skirt thereof, and half encompassing it." The Red Earl's suzerainty was worthy of its lofty throne. It extended over nearly two hundred manors, of which one hundred and sixty-six were in Yorkshire; and no less than one hundred and eight of these are entered as "Wasta"—marking the Conqueror's ruthless progress through the North. He seems to have been a good ruler. "He was ever," writes the monk of Utica, "studious for Peace, a great lover of the Poor, an especial honorer of the Religious; and that his death, without Issue, occasioned no little sadness to all good People." This was in 1089, when his brother Alain le Noir succeeded him in the Earldom.

This second Alan, who styled himself Comes Britanniae et Angliae, had received at the Conquest a great barony of one hundred and twenty manors, in Hampshire, Dorset, Norfolk, and Suffolk. He only survived the first Earl four years, and, like him, left no children. The fourth brother, Stephen Count of Penthievre, then became the heir, and is chiefly mentioned as a benefactor to various religious houses; in one of which—St. Martin's of York—he desired that his heart might be buried. His wife's name is not known, but she is believed to have been the heiress of Guingamp, and he had certainly two sons and a daughter. Maud, the latter, became the wife of Walter de Gaunt, with a splendid dowry, for she had all Swaledale "in Frank Marriage." The elder son died young; and the second, Alan, third of the name, also styled Niger or Le Noir, succeeded as fourth Earl of Richmond in 1137. Not one of the chroniclers of his time has a good word to say of him. He "stood firm to King Stephen against Ranulph Earl of Chester;" and in 1142 scaled the walls of Lincoln Castle, and took it by storm "with much treasure therein:" but soon after was either captured in this very fortress, or taken prisoner in battle, and forced to surrender all his castles into the Earl's hands. One writer says that "he fell off before any blow strucken" in this battle: another makes the Earl of Gloucester, as it was about to begin, say to the Earl of Chester: "Against whom is it that we fight! Here is Alan, Earl of Britanny, in Arms against us; nay, against God himself; a wicked person, and full of all manner of iniquity: No man for malice to be compared with him; being always disposed to mischief, thinking it a dishonour that any one should equal him for cruelty."

He married the heiress of Brittany, Bertha, daughter of Conan Le Gros, and died in 1149, leaving four sons, Conan, Robert, Bryan, and Reginald. The eldest, Conan, surnamed Le Petit, succeeded to the Dukedom on his grandfather's death, and took possession of his new dominions in 1154. He was also Earl of Richmond; "though," says Dugdale, "without the complete fruition of that barony:" and from that time forth this great English honour was only held as an appanage of the Dukes of Brittany. Conan married Matilda of Scotland, and their only child Constance—another heiress of Brittany—was the wife of Geoffrey Plantagenet, and the mother of the murdered Prince Arthur. She had two other husbands. From the second, Ralph de Blondeville, Earl of Chester, she was divorced; but by the third, Guy de Thouars, she had two daughters; and Alice, the elder of these, conveyed her princely inheritance to Peter de Dreux, surnamed Mauclerc, who was of the blood royal of France. With this great house it remained for about one, hundred years, till John de Dreux, who had done homage as Earl of Richmond, and been summoned to parliament in 1335 as "Duci Britanniae, et Comiti Richmund," died without posterity. Though his niece Joan, Countess of Blois, was constituted his heir, and laid claim to his Duchy, the Earldom of Richmond reverted to the Crown, and was given in 1342 by Edward III. to his son John of Gaunt. This prince resigned it in 1372, when it was granted to another John de Dreux, surnamed de Brenon (a nephew of the last Duke's) as a compensation for his own Earldom of Montfort, which he had forfeited by taking part with Edward III. His son, John Le Vaillant, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Montfort, and Earl of Richmond, was, on the other hand, deprived of his English honour by special act of parliament in 1383, for having deserted the banner of England for that of France. There is some question of its having been afterwards restored; and one of his successors, Arthur Duke of Brittany, was styled Earl of Richmond. But the line terminated with the nephew of the latter, whose only daughter, Duchess Anne, successively became the Queen of Charles VIII. and Louis XII., and thus quartered her famous ermine[31] shield with the Royal lilies of France.

She was the last—and not the most enviable—of the many heiresses of Brittany, for King Charles, coveting her fair province, forced her to marry him, sword in hand.

The younger brothers of Duke Conan le Petit remained in England. Brian was father of Alan, Lord of Bedale; whose descendants all bore the name of Fitz Alan, and were great Yorkshire barons. For some reason or other, instead of their paternal coat, they took as their bearing Barry of eight, Or and Gules. These arms appear on the "noble Monument, with his Effigies in Armor, Crossleg'd," that was erected in Bedale Church to the memory of the last Brian Fitz Alan, who was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1295. Two years afterwards he was "constituted the King's Lieutenant for the whole realm of Scotland." He left two daughters, Maud and Catherine—only eight and six years old at the time of his death—in the custody of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. One married Sir Gilbert de Stapleton; the other John Grey of Rotherfield.

Another and still more powerful branch of the House of Brittany was founded by Ribald, a younger brother of Alain le Roux, first Earl of Richmond, who, as I have said, was one of seven brothers. Ribald had from him a gift of the great Fee of Middleham in North Yorkshire, which he held in 1086 (Domesday). He died a monk of St. Mary's, York, whither he had betaken himself in his old age, and was succeeded by his son Ralph, who married Agatha de Bruce, daughter of the Baron of Skelton. Another Ranulph, in the time of King John, translated the canons of Swainby to Coverham, an abbey he had founded near his castle of Middleham; thus lodging them close to his own gates, for the extraordinary reason (assigned by Dugdale) that he had "had much contest with them." The line ended with his son, Ralph Fitz Ranulph, whose eldest daughter Mary was his heiress, and brought the whole of the great Yorkshire fief in marriage to Robert Lord Nevill. Her husband was killed, early in life, in a disgraceful private quarrel, and the "fair and gentle Mary of Middleham" mourned for him till the day of her death. She would never consent to marry again, and lived a widow for forty-nine years. For some reason that has remained unexplained, she passed over her eldest son in her will, and bequeathed all her possessions to her grandson Ralph, the arrogant "Peacock of the North,"

"He who in bold prosperity
Of colours manifold and bright,
Walked round, affronting the day light."

Rochford :

de Rupa fortis: a great Essex family, that gave its name to Stoke Rochford in Lincolnshire, and held other lands in Warwickshire, Hertfordshire, and Yorkshire. Several of the Rochfords received writs of military summons during the early part of the fourteenth century, till the heir-general of the family failed in 1340; and from one of them, who had gone over to Ireland nearly two hundred years before, descended the Earls of Belvedere. Yet the name must be here dismissed as an interpolation; for, though it has been derived from Rochefort, in the Viscountcy of Rouen, it was in reality taken from the town and hundred of Rochford in Essex—the "Rochefort" of Domesday, then held by Swein of Essex, one of the principal barons of the county. "King Henry II. gave the manor of Rochford's Hall, with the estate, to a family hence surnamed De Rochford, descended from Pagan, second son of Eustace Fitz John. Pagan was Lord of Ewyas in 1136. His son was Guy de Rochford."—Morant's Essex.

Raimond :

"Giraldus Raimundus" appears in Domesday as a mesne-lord in Essex: and the name continued there till about 1272, when John Reimund is found in the Rotuli Hundredorum. At the same date the family was numerous in Kent. Their original seat was at Raymond's, near Rye. They "were for a great length of time Stewards to the Abbot and Convent of Battel for their lands near this place; and it is probable that it was once the original stock from which the Raymonds of Essex, Norfolk and other counties, derived their extraction. The family was extinct here before the thirty-sixth year of King Henry VIII."—Hasted's Kent. They probably removed from their old home when they lost the hereditary Stewardship of Wye at the dissolution of the monasteries. It was a post of great dignity and trust; for the Royal manor of Wye was by far the most splendid of the gifts conferred by the Conqueror upon his Abbey. According to Lambarde, it comprised the fifth part of the whole county of Kent; "appertaining to it were twenty hundreds and a half": and it was held from the Crown "with all its liberties and Royal customs, as freely and entirely as the King himself held them, or as a King could give them." It enjoyed all the "maritime customs" owned by the Crown at Dengemarsh, which formed part of the soke of Wye, including the right of wreck; and no Royal edict was ever issued to the sheriffs and justiciars of Kent respecting the affairs of the Abbey without an especial direction that "they should preserve all the Royal liberties and customs of the manor of Wye."

From this Kentish stock Philipots, in his Villare Cantianum, concurs with Hasted in deriving the Raymonds of Essex. Their first move, however, appears to have been to Hunsdon in Hertfordshire, where we find Philip Raymond, in the sixteenth century, married to a county heiress who brought him Essendon. Their great-grandson John (who was living in 1627) bought Belchamp-Walter of the Wentworths, and transplanted the Raymonds to this new home in Essex, where they still flourish. No doubt it was unwittingly that they thus returned to the county in which the name had originally taken root at the Conquest. The next heir, Oliver, served as knight of the shire in the two parliaments summoned by Cromwell in 1653 and 1656, and was the happy father of twenty-one children. His eldest son, St. Clere, married against his consent, was cut out of the succession, and became "a haberdasher of hats in London" : but the inheritance was restored to his grandson. The direct line failed in the next following generation, and Belchamp-Walter passed to a collateral branch that is still represented.

Another was seated at Little Coggeshall Hall in the same county; of whom James Raymond is mentioned by Morant in 1768. They bear Sable a chevron between three eagles displayed Argent; on a chief of the second, three martlets of the first.

Souch :

de Stipite Sicco.[32] All authorities are agreed in deriving this great house from the Sovereign Earls of Brittany; but they differ materially as to the affinity it bore to the parent stock. Dugdale tells us that William La Zusche, who died in 1199, in his confirmation charter to Swavesey Priory, calls Roger La Zusche his father and Alan La Zusche Earl of Brittany (son of Geoffrey) his grandfather. "But," objects Eyton, "the only Earl Alan of Bretagne whose father's name was Geoffrey was guardian of William I. when Duke of Normandy, and died by poison in 1040: whereas Alan, first Lord Zouche of Ashby was living in 1186, and is not said on good authority to have been son of any Earl Alan, but of Geoffrey, Vicomte of Rohan. Moreover, this Alan La Zouche of Ashby was succeeded by his son William, William by his brother Roger, and Roger by his son Alan—a descent not strictly identical with anything implied in the Swavesey charter.

"That document, if it proves anything (and is accurate as well as genuine) proves that other descendants of the Earls of Brittany, besides Zouche of Ashby, were called La Zouche and had claims upon Swavesey."—History of Shropshire. No one has (as far as I know) yet explained why the name was originally borne.

The Vicomtes de Rohan "were," it appears, "at one time seized of considerable estates in England," which they retained till the reign of King John, when Alan, the last Vicomte, forfeited them by adhering to his French allegiance. Part of his fief was granted to his kinsman Roger La Zouche.

Alan La Zouche, the undoubted founder of the family, who in his charter to Lilleshall Priory styles himself "son of Geoffrey le Vicomte," lived in the time of Henry II., and acquired a great estate through his wife Alice, the heiress of the elder male line of De Belmeis. She brought him Ashby—since, as Ashby-de-la-Zouche, the head of his barony, in Leicestershire, Tong and other manors in Shropshire, and lands in Sussex and Devonshire. Their eldest son William commonly went by his mother's name; but when he died s. p. in 1199, he was succeeded by his brother Roger, who had always called himself La Zouche. In 1203, when the rumour of Prince Arthur's murder roused the Bretons to "join Philip Augustus in that united attack on John's territory that ended in the loss of Normandy," Roger, himself a Breton, at first took part with his countrymen, and forfeited his English fief. But it was not for long. Hardly had the new grantee, William de Braose, taken possession, than Roger suddenly returned to his allegiance; electing to sacrifice his Breton rather than his English inheritance: and he was amply compensated for its loss. King John gave him Maple Durham and Petersfield, with other grants in Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, and some land in Norfolk that had been the Vicomte de Rohan's. He "remained faithful to the King in every later extremity," and lived to a great age, dying about 1238. He was succeeded by his son Alan II., "distinguished by steady loyalty, much capacity, and a proportionate advancement of his house in riches and honour. This great Jurist married Ela, daughter and coheir of Roger de Quinci Earl of Winchester, in whose estates, involving a share of the older Earldom of Leicester, Zouche of Ashby was thenceforth a co-parcener."—Eyton. He was pre-eminently favoured and trusted by Henry III., who gave him the custody of Cheshire and North Wales in 1251; the Wardenship of all his Forests South of Trent in 1260; named him one of the guarantors of his treaty with Louis of France in 1261, and appointed him Constable of the Tower in 1264. In 1268, "having commenced a suit against John Earl of Warrenne, who chose rather to determine the matter by Sword than by Law, he was kill'd by him in the King's hall at Westminster."—Camden. But Lord Zouche was not killed, though both he and his son Roger were sorely wounded. He died two years afterwards, and was followed by this Roger, and then by Roger's son Alan, the last heir-male of the line. Alan III., first summoned to parliament in 1297, was one of Edward I.'s train of soldier-peers, who did good service in Scotland and Gascony, and had charge of the Castle and Forest of Rockingham. He died in 1314, leaving three daughters; 1. Ellen, married first Nicholas de St. Maur, and secondly Alan de Charlton; 2. Maud, the wife of Robert Lord Holland; and 3. Elizabeth, a nun at Brewood in Staffordshire. The two elder divided the estates, with the exception of the caput baroniae, Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and the manors of Swavesey and Fulborne in Cambridgeshire, which were settled on his cousin William de Mortimer.

This cousin, thenceforth known as William La Zouche, was the second son of Joyce La Zouche, daughter and heir of a younger brother of Roger La Zouche I., and the second wife of Robert de Mortimer, Baron of Burford. He was summoned to parliament in 1323 as Lord Zouche of Mortimer, and held the offices of Constable of the Tower, and Justiciar of the Royal Forests S. of Trent. He was twice married, both times to a widowed heiress, first of the De Toesnis, and next, of the De Clares; and by each of them left a son. The eldest, another Alan, was renowned in arms under Edward III., and numbered among the heroes of Cressy. He died shortly afterwards, and was succeeded by two Hughs, his son and grandson, the latter of whom was childless, and the inheritance passed to a daughter, Joyce de Botetourt.

Another longer continued baronial line represented the heirs male of this great house. Eudo La Zouche, the uncle of Alan III., last Baron of Ashby, married Milicent, widow of Roger de Montalt, and one of the sisters and heirs of George de Cantelupe, Baron of Bergavenny, who brought him estates in eight different counties, Haryngworth in Northamptonshire, held of the King in capite, being the head of the Honour. He died in 1298. His son and heir, summoned to parliament in 1308, was the first of five Williams who successively bore the title of Lord Zouche of Haryngworth. In 1312, he and Sir John Grey of Rotherfield having a dispute "which was heard before the King and his Council, and there falling out high Words between them, Grey drew his Knife upon him in the King's presence, for which both of them were committed to prison." We find him afterwards throwing off his allegiance, and on the King's flight into Wales in 1325, he was, "having Lands and Interest in those parts," sent in pursuit with the Earl of Lancaster, and captured the ill-fated fugitive near Llantressan. He was a Knight Banneret, with the reputation of a stout soldier, and followed Edward III. three times to France, and once to Flanders, with a train of twenty men-at-arms and as many archers. His grandson William II., again a Banneret, could count up one Scottish and four French campaigns, and led to the field a retinue more than twice as numerous, comprising fifteen knights, thirty-four esquires, forty men-at-arms, and forty archers. William III. "was he, who being accused by a Frier-Carmelite, that he had scandalized John of Gant Duke of Lancaster, with evil Machinations against the King, was brought before the Parliament (though at that time very sick) to answer the Charge; but stoutly denying all, he was at length acquitted."—Dugdale. Not only acquitted, but taken into favour, for in 1386 he obtained a market and fair at Haryngworth, with license to castellate his manor house,[33] and two years later was banished the Court by the nobles then in arms at Haringay Park, as one of the King's evil counsellors. He was styled of Totness ("the Lordes Souche," says Leland, "were long time Lordes of this towne and Castell"); and in 1391 was found next heir to John de Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, in virtue of his descent from Milicent de Cantelupe. William IV., Lieutenant of Calais in 1413, acquired a second barony through his wife Alice, the posthumous daughter and sole heir of Richard, last Lord St. Maur, who himself represented a former Zouche heiress. They had two sons; William V., Lord Zouche and St. Maur; and John, ancestor of the Zouches of Codnor. The sixth Lord, who greatly added to his Devonshire estate by marrying one of the co-heirs of the Lord Treasurer Dinham, fought against Henry VII. at Bosworth, and suffered attainder; but his son was restored in blood, and the inheritance passed without further molestation to three subsequent generations. Edward,[34] the last Lord, was one of the peers who sat in judgment on Mary Queen of Scots at Fotheringay. Elizabeth afterwards sent him on an embassy to Scotland, and appointed him her Justiciary for North and South Wales: and he was Constable of Dover and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports under her successor. "He built the magnificent mansion of Bramhill, Hants, as a residence (it is said) for Prince Henry, the son of James I. The architect, it is believed, was Thorpe (who built Holland House in 1607): the effigy over the N. front is that of Lord Zouche, and the pipes bear the initials E. Z. and the date 1612, the year in which the Prince died. Lord Zouche bequeathed the estate to his cousin, Sir Edward Zouche of Woking, who died in 1634; and (being a dissolute character) it is likely that he sold the whole in his lifetime, as neither he nor his son are described of Bramshill."—Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica. Lord Zouche himself died in 1625. His wife was his kinswoman Alianor, daughter of Sir John Zouche of Codnor, by whom he left two daughters; Elizabeth, married to William Tate of De la Pre, near Northampton;[35] and Mary, married to Thomas Leighton. The barony of Zouche fell into abeyance for nearly two hundred years, till it was claimed and obtained by Sir Cecil Bisshop as a descendant of Elizabeth Tate. At his death in 1828, it again lapsed between his two daughters, but was eventually granted to Harriet, the eldest, who conveyed it to the Curzons.

The pedigree of the Zouches of Codnor is only carried down to about the same date—the first half of the seventeenth century. Their ancestor, Sir John, in the time of Henry VI. married Elizabeth, aunt and heir of the last Lord Grey of Codnor, who brought him considerable possessions, and notably the caput
baroniae in Derbyshire. Five generations of successors inherited them; the last of whom was Alianor Lady Zouche's brother, another Sir John. Leland also tells us of a Northamptonshire estate that had apparently come to them through a different channel. "Benefeld Castell is clene faullen downe to the Grounde. It was never of any great Compace. It longgid, as I hard, to the Bassingburne's, and after cam to one of the Souches.

"This Souche hath also Codnor Castell, sumtyme the chefest Howse of the Grayes, wher he now doith muche Coste. This Souche is a Man of faire Landes."

The last Sir John sold every acre he possessed, and went over to Ireland, where he died. He left only three married daughters, but there must have been many collaterals; for, though his two brothers died young, his grandfather could boast of eleven younger sons! Collins, in his Dictionary (vol. ii.), mentions James Zouche, of an ancient family in Surrey and Hants; the son of James Zouche, who having raised a troop of horse for Charles I. at his own expense, in which Sir Alan Zouche and Edward Zouche were captains, died at Pedding on his return from Oxford. He was the son of Sir Edward Zouche, knt, Marshal of England; probably the Sir Edward mentioned by Weldon, in his Court of James I. This must have been the cousin "of dissolute character" to whom the last Lord Zouche bequeathed Bramshill. Then there was Richard Zouche, Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, who died in 1660, described by Anthony Wood as "an exact artist, a subtle logician, an expert historian; and for the knowledge and practice of the civil law, the chief person of his time." The last notice of all is by Banks, who writes in 1808: "The family of Zouche, once so numerous, seems now almost entirely extinct, unless the Rev. Dr. Zouche, Prebendary of Durham, the ingenious Editor of Walton's Lives, be, as his name indicates, a remaining branch of this ancient stock."

It is remarkable that the name of the gallant Archbishop of York, William de la Zouche, one of the commanders at the victory of Nevill's Cross in 1346, is entered on none of the pedigrees.

Sheuile :

Sevele, or Sevale. Roger and Gerard de Sevele or Savale occur in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180-95; and about 1272 Roger Sevale, of Buckinghamshire, and Godard and John Sewale of Kent, are found in the Rotuli Hundredorum. "There was a family of Seville, seated at Chalford, that bore Argent upon a bend Sable three eagles displayed Or. A branch lived at Ferrier's Court, near Upper Lypiat."—Rudder's Gloucestershire. Thomas Sewale was Escheator to Ed. III. Simon de Siwell witnesses a charter of Rainham Abbey, Norfolk: and Cecilia, in the time of Henry III., gave some lands in Wiltshire to Maiden Bradley (Mon. Angli.). Robert de Shevele, in 1253, paid a fine at Sharleston in Yorkshire. Though this name bears some resemblance to that of Savile, it has no connection with it. "Passing by the fond tradition, which is altogether inconsistent with the grounds of English etymology, that this family are descended from the Savelli of Italy, suffice it to say that they spring from Savile Hall in Dodworth, near Barnsley, which gave name to them, and not they to it."—Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete. Yet there is a certain resemblance in their coats of arms, as the Saviles bear Argent on a bend Sable three owls of the field.

Seucheus :

Leland does not help us here; for the corresponding name in his list, S. Cloyis, can scarcely be assimilated to this. One point at least is clear—that it is a mis-spelling of some kind; and various conjectures are open to us for its rectification. If we bear in mind that u and n are undistinguishable in the old black letter, and f and c constantly counter-changed, the alteration of a single letter makes it intelligible. By substituting an a for a h, we have St. Saens (Sidon) Latinized S. Sydonis, a great Norman barony in the district of Falaise. Or it may be an abbreviation of Sausseusemare or Saucemare. Or, again, is it Suchuffe? Among the "Bachelors priz a Borghbrigge 'a meme loure q furent cot? le Roy,'" was "Sire Henri de Suchuffe." But this, again, I take to be a mis-spelling. "Le seig. de S. Sain," and "Le seig. de Souchoy" both appear in Tailleur's list (Chronicles of Normandy).

Senclere :

from St. Clair, in the canton of that name, arrondissement of Pont L'Eveque, where the site of the seignorial castle is still discernible. "This Norman village has bestowed its name upon a Scottish family, an English town, an Irish county, a Cambridge college, a Royal Dukedom, and a King-at-Arms."—Isaac Taylor's Words and Places. The Sire de St. Clair is mentioned by Wace at the battle of Hastings. "This was Richard de St. Clair, who held lands in Suffolk 1086 (Domesday). Britel de St. Clair, his brother, held in Somerset (Ibid.) William de St. Clair, probably a son of Britel, held in Dorset, 1130 (Rot. Pip.), and had a grant from David I. of Scotland of Rosslyn in Midlothian, whence descended the great house of St. Clair, Earls of Orkney and Caithness, etc."—The Norman People. Besides William, another of the family sought his fortunes in Scotland, Henry de St. Clair, whom we find styled "Vicecomes" of Richard de Morville, Constable of Scotland, in 1160, and was the founder of the house of Herdmanston, now represented by Lord Sinclair. But it is to the branch seated at Rosslyn that belongs the chief illustration of the race.

A namesake and descendant of the first Lord of Rosslyn formed one of that gallant company—so dear to all Scottish hearts—that went with Lord James Douglas in 1330 on his pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre with the heart of King Robert Bruce, and fell with him in battle against the Moors of Spain. "Douglas endeavoured to cut his way through the ranks of the Infidels, and in all probability would have succeeded, had he not turned again to rescue Sir William St. Clair of Rosslyn, whom he saw in jeopardy. In attempting this, he was inextricably involved with the enemy. Taking from his neck the casket which contained the heart of Bruce, he cast it before him, and cried with a loud voice, "Now pass onward as thou wert wont, and Douglas will follow thee or die!"

The action and the sentiment were heroic, and they were the last words and deeds of an heroic life; for Douglas fell overpowered by his enemies, and three of his knights, and many of his companions, were slain with their master."—Tytler. Another William de St. Clair, his successor, married Isabel, daughter and eventually sole heir of Malise, seventh Earl Palatine of Stratherne, and Earl of Orkney and Caithness. She traced her descent, through a long line of Scandinavian sovereigns, from Rognavald, Jarl of Maeren, to whom, in recompense of good service done in aiding him to obtain the crown of Norway, Harold Harfager granted in 875 the islands of Orkney and Shetland, then only recently added to his kingdom. Rognavald at once passed them to his son Sigurd, the first Jarl of Orkney. Like his younger brother Hrolf the Ganger, Duke of Normandy, Sigurd was a born conqueror, and could not rest within the narrow limits of his island home, but spread his dominion over the whole of Northern Scotland, extending his boundary as far as the Southern border of Moray, where he built a "borg" or fort. It was while returning from one of these forays that he met his death. He had set out on an expedition against "Melbrigd with the tooth" (probably the Maormar of Mar of Scottish legend), had overthrown and slain him, and was riding home in triumph with his foeman's head dangling by his horse's side: every man of his following having, in like manner, the head of a Scotsman slung to his saddle strap, in token of victory. But in this grim trophy Sigurd was unconsciously carrying his own doom; for the fang tooth that had given Melbrigd his by-name chanced to strike the bare calf of his leg, inflicting a hurt of which he died. He was buried with great honours ("how-laid" in the Northman's phrase) beneath a how or haugr near the river Oykel in Sutherland. Torp-Eynar, his brother—"Eynar, the turf-cutter," who first taught his islanders to burn peat—reigned in his stead, and is remembered in Scandinavian story for having offered his foeman Halfdane in sacrifice to Odin; scoring the murderous "blood eagle" on his bare back with his own sword. His posterity continued in the male line till about the middle of the thirteenth century. "To the last, the successors of the first Earl, Sigurd—from 875 to 1231—displayed all the characteristics of their race; and under them the story of the Orkneys was as wild and stormy as that of the neighbouring Norse lands—Norway itself, Iceland, or Faroe. The earls fell, stabbed or burnt in their drinking halls, trapped in their 'borgs' on the main-land, or in battle by sea or shore. Few died the 'cow's death' in their beds so dreaded by the earlier sons of Thor and Odin."—Quarterly Review, No. 283. They held Orkney of Norway and Caithness of Scotland, but remained more than half independent. "They had precedence of all the Norwegian nobles, and their title was the only hereditary one permitted in Norway to a subject not of the blood royal."—Ibid. They kept hospitable state in their sea-girt strongholds; for though the Saga tells us, "they were wont every summer to go over to Caithness, up into the forests, to hunt the red deer and rein deer," their principal halls were in Orkney, where they gathered round them, at the great Yule feast, followers and kinsmen from Iceland, Denmark, and England. They remained heathen till 995, when Olaf Tryggwysson came over from Norway with a mighty fleet, and—himself a newly-made Christian—enforced baptism on them by threatening to "send fire and sword throughout the Orkneys"; a summary mode of conversion that he had already practised with success at home. Nevertheless, the Earl (Sigurd Hlodverson, the grandson of Thorfinn "the skull-splitter," who afterwards became the son-in-law of Malcolm II., King of Scotland), "hardened his mind against him, and refused to leave the faith of his kinsmen and forefathers, because he did not know better counsels than they. By the Earl's side stood his young son, whose name (or by-name) was Hoelp or Hundi (whelp or hound). Suddenly Olaf sprang forward, seized the boy, and dragged him to the fore part of the ship. There he drew his sword, and swore that he would kill Hoelp before his father's eyes, unless Sigurd would listen to the preaching of the blessed message. The Earl cared more for his son than for the faith of his forefathers. He submitted and was baptised, and so were all the people of the Orkneys." Vide The Orkneyinga Saga, Quarterly Review, No. 283. His new faith sat lightly upon him, for this very Sigurd fell fighting against the Christian Brian Boroimh at the famous battle of Clontarf, where, in Dasent's words, "the old and the new faiths met in the lists face to face for their last struggle," and Odin himself, "riding an apple-grey horse and holding a halberd in his hand," was seen, on the eve of the conflict, arrayed under his own raven banner.

His son Thorfinn was, like himself, a Norseman of the true old type, "greedy of wealth and renown," who over-ran and plundered Scotland "all the way south to Fife:" but in the next generation save one recorded in these strange annals, we find a canonized saint. Sigurd's grandsons, Paul and Erlend, who received Harold Hardrada on his way to England, and went with him to the fatal field of Stamford Bridge, divided the Orkneys between them, and were succeeded by their sons Hakon and Magnus, who had in their turn to follow a Norwegian king to a disastrous battle. They were at the great sea-fight in Anglesea Sound, when King Magnus Barefoot encountered the two mighty Norman Earls of Chester and Shrewsbury. But "when the men took up their arms and buckled for the fight, Magnus Erlendson sat down on the foredeck and did not take up his arms," declaring he had no cause of quarrel against any one there. The King scornfully ordered him to go below, and not lie among other people's feet if he dared not fight; but Magnus refused to shelter himself, and taking out his psalter, sat, with the javelins whizzing around him, singing psalms all through the din and fury of the battle. This was the famous St. Magnus, loved and revered as the chosen patron of the Orcades, whose name became a household word in his native land, and in whose honour a stately cathedral was raised at Kirkwall: the "first of his house to accept the Christian teaching and act upon its precepts," a man "of blameless life, victorious in battles, wise, eloquent, and liberal." He was treacherously put to death by his cousin Hakon, who coveted his share of the Earldom. They had agreed upon a friendly conference to adjust their differences, but Hakon broke faith by appearing at the meeting with eight well-manned war-ships; and Magnus, when he found his men outnumbered, refused to allow them to draw their swords in his defence, crying, "I will not put your lives in jeopardy for mine;" and knelt in prayer, awaiting his fate. Hakon repented of the foul deed, went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and first commenced building the great "stone minster" dedicated to the murdered saint.

With these two cousins the male line of the house appears to have terminated, for Paul's grand-daughter Margaret carried the Earldom, as her marriage portion, to Madoch, Earl of Athole (brother to King Malcolm Canmore), with whose posterity it remained till the early part of the fourteenth century, when Isabel, heiress to Earl Magnus, again transferred it to her husband Malise, sixth Earl Palatine of Stratheme. Her son, the next Earl, left only daughters behind him; and of these, Isabel, already mentioned as the wife of William de St. Clair, survived all the rest, and became the sole representative. Accordingly, in her right, Henry de St. Clair, her son, claimed and obtained the Earldom of Orkney, which was granted to him in 1379 by Haco King of Norway, as heir to the old Scandinavian Earls. Shetland had been separated from it nearly two hundred years before by King Skerrir, and remained under the dominion of the Crown of Norway. The next Earl, his son Henry, added greatly to his domain. He was Lord of Nithsdale and Hereditary Sheriff of Dumfries in right of his wife, the Fair Maid of Nithsdale, heiress of the Black Douglas and the Princess Egidia, daughter of King Robert II., "a mirrour of rare and singular beauty," who was accounted the fairest woman of her age. But in the ensuing generation, the Orkneys, having been pledged for the dowry of James III's Norwegian bride, the Princess Margaret, came under the suzerainty of Scotland, and William, third Earl of Orkney, had to surrender his princely fief to the King. It was annexed to the Crown in 1470: and James gave him, in exchange for all his rights, the lands of Dysart and Ravensheuch, and the castle of Ravenscraig in Fife, with the title of Earl of Caithness, never till then borne by the St. Clairs. It seemed but a poor equivalent to receive in exchange for such a birthright; and one of his descendants, the third Lord Caithness, lost his life in a desperate attempt to regain possession of Orkney. They had held their great Scandinavian Earldom for nearly one hundred years; "long enough to blend much wild Norse superstition with the traditions of their ancient house; and the tomb-fires of earlier days have their representative in the mysterious light that, on certain occasions, wrapped Rosslyn in flame:—

Blazed battlement and pinnet high,
Blazed every rose-carved buttress fair:
So still they blaze, when death is nigh
The lordly line of high St. Clair."

The newly-made Earl of Caithness was twice married: first to Lady Elizabeth Douglas, a grand-daughter of Robert III. of Scotland, who brought him an heir: but he chose to leave his estates to the sons of his second wife, for the younger of whom he obtained a fresh grant of his new Earldom in 1476. Sir Oliver St. Clair thus inherited the recently-acquired lands in Fife, with Rosslyn, which had been the cradle of the race, and William succeeded as second Earl of Caithness, and was the ancestor of the present and fifteenth Earl. His descendants, in the male line, have now held their title for more than four hundred years. Once, and once only, it appeared to have slipped out of their possession. George, sixth Earl, died childless and ruined in 1676, having made over the whole of his property "in consideration of his debts" to his principal creditor. Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy, who, becoming thus possessed of the lands, sought and obtained the title by a fresh creation in 1677. But another George St. Clair, a cousin of the last spendthrift Earl, came forward and proved his right to the dignity, and to him Sir John had to relinquish the Earldom, receiving as a compensation the title of Earl of Breadalbane. Sir Oliver St. Clair's posterity was not nearly so long-lived, for the last male heir died about the middle of the last century, having sold his ancestral castle of Rosslyn to the Master of Sinclair in 1735.

The disinherited elder son spent his life in one long contest with his more favoured brothers, and succeeded in wresting Dysart and Ravensheuch from Sir. Oliver, and obtaining from both a formal recognition of his undoubted right to be considered the head of the family. His son Henry, who fell at Flodden Field, received in 1488 the Barony of Sinclair, which was held by his successors till 1676, when John, seventh Lord, left an only daughter and heir, Catherine, styled, in Scottish fashion, the Mistress of Sinclair. She gave her hand to her namesake, John St. Clair of Herdmanston; and thus, after the lapse of five centuries, reunited the two houses that had sprung from a common stock. Their son obtained a fresh patent of his grandfather's peerage from Charles II.; but in the next generation the Master of Sinclair, having engaged in the rising of 1715, lost the title by attainder: and it continued dormant till 1782, when it was adjudged to the male heir, Charles St. Clair of Herdmanston, whose family now hold it.

The Earls of Rosslyn descend from Catherine, the second daughter of Henry, eighth Lord Sinclair, and the wife of Sir John Erskine of Alva. All her six brothers died without issue; and her grandson, James, eventually inherited Rosslyn and Dysart from the son of her elder sister Grizel. This young Erskine was, through his mother, Janet Wedderburn, the nephew of the celebrated Lord Chancellor Loughborough, who, having no children of his own, seems to have adopted him as his heir. Each title that was granted to him by the Crown was granted with remainder to James Erskine; and it was probably in view of this intended reversion that he selected for the Earldom he received in 1801 the name of the old St. Clair castle which at that time belonged to the latter. Accordingly, on his death four years afterwards, his nephew (then styled Sir James St. Clair Erskine) succeeded as second Earl of Rosslyn, and was the grandfather of the present peer.

Numerous branches of the St. Clairs remained in England. They were among the principal landowners of Somerset in the time of Edward I. At Tudwell in Devonshire they "had a noble Mansion, and flourished for many Descents. The last of them, Gabriel St. Cleere, having spent his Estate in riotous Living, pulled down the House, and sold it by Piece Meals as he wanted it, saying, That neither he nor his Posterity could prosper, so long as one stone lay upon another in that House, where so many Sins had been committed."—Magna Britannia. Achard de St. Clair held two fees of the Honour of Belvoir in Leicestershire (Liber Niger). John Seintclere of Lubbenham in the same county was outlawed for felony in 1367. In Sussex they held Firle till the fifteenth century, and gave their name to Heighton-St. Clere. Guido de St. Clair was Sheriff of Cambridgeshire, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28 Ed. III. In Norfolk, "Hamo de St. Cler is mentioned in the Pipe Rolls of Henry II. Gerebert de St. Cler, whose chief seat was at Bradfield St. Cler in Suffolk, held of the Peverels in 1204, and Guy de St. Cler was Escheator of Norfolk and Suffolk 29 Ed. III. Sir Philip de St. Cler died in Henry IV.'s time, Lord of Bradfield and Wetherfield in Suffolk, leaving two sons; John, s. p. and Thomas, who died 17 Henry VI., leaving three daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, Alianore, and Editha."—Blomfield. Camden tells us that, at the siege of Bridgenorth Castle "King Henry the Second was like to have lost his life by an arrow, which being shot at him, was intercepted by a truly gallant man and lover of his Prince, Hubert de Saint-Clere, who sav'd the King's life by the loss of his own."

Sent Quintin :

Some say this family is named from the town of St. Quentin, the capital of Lower Picardy; others derive it from another St. Quentin, near Coutances, in the Cotentin. "Wido de St. Quentin, temp. William I. granted lands to Cerisy on assuming the monastic habit (Mon. i. 960): and his son Alured gave lands to the same abbey. The latter was brother of Hugo, one of the Conqueror's companions, who held lands in Essex and Dorset in capite 1086; also in Hants. He had 1. Robert, who joined in the conquest of Glamorgan, 1090, and whose descendants sat in parliament as barons: 2. William, mentioned in Normandy in 1120: 3. Herbert, who held estates in Lincoln and York 1149 (Mon. ii. 198). He had issue Walter and Alan (Ibid. i. 474). Hence the St. Quintins, baronets."—The Norman People. It is not, however, from Robert, the elder of the three brothers, who was one of Robert Fitz Hamon's "Douze Peres" of Glamorgan, that the Barons St. Quintin are generally derived, but from Herbert, the youngest. He was seated in Dorsetshire, where he held under the Earl of Gloucester, and gave his name to Frome St. Quintin. In 1110 and 1112 he (or more probably a son of the same name) held twenty fees in the counties of Somerset, Dorset, and Wilts. Though his descendants were so frequently, and indeed most usually, termed barons," the first of them actually summoned to parliament was another Herbert, in the time of Edward I. He proved the last of the line, for his wife Margery, the sister and coheir of Warine de L'Isle, brought him only two daughters. Elizabeth, the elder of these, who was the wife of Lord Grey of Rotherfield, had no children; and thus the whole inheritance came to her sister Lora, who was three times married. Her first husband was Thomas de Poole; her second, John Clinton; her third, a brother of Lord Marmion, by whom she had an only daughter, Elizabeth, her heir. Elizabeth, married Lord Fitz Hugh; and the representation passed through her grand-daughter, another Elizabeth, to the Parrs, and through Queen Katherine Parr's elder sister Anne to the Earls of Pembroke, in whom the barony is now believed to be vested. But none of Herbert St. Quintin's posterity bore the title, and the writ was at best a doubtful one.[36] Two fine brasses of the size of life, representing Sir Herbert (the father of the first Lord) and his wife Lora de Fauconberg, remain in the chancel of Brandburton Church, Holderness. They lie on a large blue marble slab, both in the attitude of prayer; but—probably in allusion to some forgotten legend—he holds a heart in one hand.

A junior branch of this house survived till 1795. It was very remotely connected with the baronial line, for its ancestor—one of the numerous Sir Herberts—was the son of Amatellus, styled Baron St. Quintin in the days of Coeur de Lion. He married a great Yorkshire heiress, the sister of Anselm d'Estouteville, by whom he had several sons, and to Alexander, one of the younger of these, his mother gave Harpham, ever after the seat of his descendants. As long as they themselves continued, they never migrated from their early home in East Yorkshire, and they must have held it for upwards of five centuries.

"Sir Alexander, the first Lord of Harpham, took to wife Margery of the Blanch Minster, a daughter of the Justiciar William de Albini (I am here quoting the pedigree given in Poulson's History of Holderness, though I confess myself unable to identify this father-in-law), who gave him nine sons and two daughters. From this time the descents and intermarriages are carried down without a break, but with few other events to chronicle, to Sir William St. Quintin, who received a baronetcy from Charles I. in 1641. With the fourth baronet, who died towards the end of the last century, the succession was brought to a close, and the line expired. His three brothers had died young, and his own marriage was childless.

Staunton St. Quintin in Gloucestershire is, as far as I know, the only manor that still bears the name.

Sent Omere :

(mis-spelt S. Thomer by Leland): "a branch of the house of Bethune, Barons of Bethune in Artois, Advocates or Protectors of Arras. This family was descended from the old Carlovingian Counts of Artois, and ranked among the most potent and illustrious houses in Europe. The great Duke of Sully was one of its descendants. It was extensively settled in England. William, Castellan de St. Omer, was a distinguished historical character temp. Hen. I."—The Norman People. "Hugh de St. Omer is mentioned as a baron of the realm by Matthew Paris. No doubt the family was seated at Beaupre Hall, Outwell, nigh the time of the Conquest; and mention is made by Sir Henry Spelman of John de St. Omer, of Well, who wrote an answer to a monk of Peterborough who, in the time of King John, wrote a lampoon in Latin against the country people of Norfolk. Sir John de St. Omer was Keeper of the Wardrobe to Henry III. Sir William de St. Omer lived at Well 43 Henry III., and was Judge of the Assize for Cambridge. Sir Thomas, his son, married Petronilla de Malmains, temp. Ed. I., and left no issue male."—Blomfield's Norfolk. Sir William had a writ of military summons in 1263.

The last heir, Sir Thomas, was seated at Mulbarton, which he held of Fitz Roger, and was also Lord of the village of Brundale, where, as well as at Mulbarton, his father "had a grant of a fair, with free warren, in 1253, being then with the King in Gascoyn in France." He was twice married; first to Petronella, daughter and coheir of Nicholas de Malemains, and widow of Ralph Lord Tony, by whom he had a daughter named Alice; and secondly to Beatrix... who brought him another daughter named Elizabeth. "This Thomas, at his Death, settled sufficient Revenue, out of his Lands at Mulbarton, on the Pittances of Norwich Cathedral, to keep his Anniversary for ever, and treat the Convent on that Day."—Ibid. He built the present parish church at Mulbarton, where his effigy, and that of his first wife, till lately remained in one of the windows, with this inscription:

Preiz pour lez almes Monsieur
Thomas Sentomeris et Dame
Perinelle sa femme.

Alice, the eldest of his two coheiresses, married Sir William de Hoo, and was the mother of Thomas, created Lord Hoo and Hastings about 1445. Elizabeth married Thomas Waryne. Blomfield elsewhere makes mention of another sister, Christian, the wife of John de Beaupre (from whom Beaupre Hall took its name): but she may possibly have been a grand-daughter.

Besides his Norfolk estates, Sir Thomas was Lord of Bramshaw, in Wiltshire. According to Sir Richard Hoare, he died in 1365, but there must be some mistake in this date. He bore Azure a fesse between six cross-crosslets Or.

Fuller tells us that he was Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1291, and for the next four years.

Walter de St. Omer was one of the Justiciars of Salop 1266-67, but the name does not occur again in the county. Several of the name occur in the Pipe Roll of 1130.

Sent Amond :

from St. Amand in the Cotentin, a barony held in the fifteenth century by the De Balsacs.—Anselme. Wace mentions the war-cry of Saint Amant! Sire Saint Amant! at the battle of Val-es-dunes. "Almaric de St. Amand witnessed a charter of Henry II. in 1172 (Mon. i. 516.) Ralph de St. Amand held offices in Normandy in 1195 (Magn. Rotul. Scaccar Norman.").—The Norman People. We first hear of them in Gloucestershire. "Guy de St. Amand held estates in South Cerney, Wick, and Cirencester, which came to William de St. Amand, and were purchased of him by Almaric de St. Amand, Governor of St. Briavel's Castle, and Warden of the Forest of Dean."—Rudder's Gloucestershire. The pedigree given by Dugdale commences with this second Almaric and the record of his military services in the reign of Henry III. He was often employed, and amply rewarded, by the King; receiving first the Cornish manor of Liskeard; then Bloxham in Oxfordshire, and, after the Welsh campaign of 1230, the custody of the castles of Kilgarran, Pembroke, and Tymbey, belonging to the Earl Marischal, then in arms against the Crown. He was likewise Constable of Hereford, Sheriff of Herefordshire for six consecutive years; and, as a special mark of Court favour, one of Prince Edward's godfathers at his christening in 1238. His son Ralph married Asceline, the youngest sister and co-heir of Robert de Albini, Baron of Cainho, whose wardship he had obtained, at great cost, five years before: and the next in succession, Almaric III. thus became so considerable an heir, that Paulyn Peyvre ("an active Man in those days") paid one thousand marks for his disposal in marriage. This Almaric left three sons, Guy, Almaric, and John; of whom the two elder died s. p.: Guy shortly after his father. Almaric IV., who succeeded his brother about 1285, was summoned to parliament by Edward I., having served him gallantly in the Scottish and Gascon wars, and been for some time Governor of Bordeaux. He was followed by John, styled, as a professor of the canon law, Magister Johannes de Sancto Amando, who, again, was a baron by writ, summoned in 1313 by Ed. II.; and the father of Almaric V., one of the soldier-peers of the great soldier-King of the time. He was retained by indenture to serve Edward III. in all his wars; and his life was, like his master's, passed in the tented field. In x357 he was named Lord Justice of Ireland, a larger force being assigned to him than had ever before belonged to that great office; and in 1373 was Steward of Rockingham Forest and Captain of Rockingham Castle. His son and successor, Almaric VI., the last Lord St. Amand, had only two daughters, Alianor, the wife of Sir Gerard de Braybroc, who died before him, leaving a son, and her half-sister Ida, married to Sir Thomas West. At his death in 1403, his grandson, Gerard de Brayboc and Ida shared the inheritance; but Ida remained childless, and the whole was eventually vested in her nephew. Sir Gerard, again, had no heir-male. The barony fell into abeyance between his three daughters, and was called out in 1449 in favour of Sir William de Beauchamp, the husband of the eldest.

Collateral branches survived of the St. Amands. In Devonshire, where they held Ipplepen, old Westcott informs us that the name degenerated into Samund.

Sent Legere :

from St. Leger, near Avranches. Richard de St. Leger is on the Dives Roll. Robert de St. Leger was of Sussex, 1086, and appears to have been the father of William de St. Leger, who, with his son Clarembald, granted lands to Battle Abbey in the time of Henry I. (Mon. i. 318). There is a "fond tradition" in the family that it was upon this Sir Robert's arm the Conqueror leaned when he first stepped ashore in England. If so, the arm must have proved unreliable, for Wace records that the Duke, in his eagerness to land, missed his footing and fell on his face as he touched English ground. It was an unlucky accident; and the cry "Mai signe est ci!" rose on every side; but William, with ready wit, interpreted the omen in his own favour. He had stretched out his arms to break his fall, and thus taken possession of his new kingdom. "'See, Seignors!' he cried out lustily, 'by the splendour of God! I have seized England with my two hands; without challenge no prize can be made. All is our own that is here: and now we shall see who will be the bolder man.' Then one of his men ran forward and put his hand on a hut, and took a handful of the thatch, and turned to the Duke, and said heartily, 'Sire, come forward and receive seizin; of this land I give you seizin; without doubt the land is yours.' And the Duke said, 'I accept it; may God be with us.'"—Roman de Rou.

Robert de St. Leger settled in Kent, where he succeeded the Earl of Ewe as tenant of Ulcomb, holding it of the Archbishop by knight service. Many generations of his descendants—a gallant race of Kentish gentlemen—followed him there, and lie in the parish church; for "the common burial of the Sellingers hath bene," as Leland tells us, "cheiffely at Ulcombe." Ralph de St. Leger attended Coeur de Lion to the siege of Acre; another Ralph was one of the Recognitores Magna Assises in 1200; and a third, with two others of the family, was knighted by Edward I. at Carlavarock. In the following century they intermarried with the blood Royal of England. John de St. Leger, who was Sheriff of Kent 9 Hen. VI., was the father of Ralph, who succeeded him at Ulcomb, and of two younger sons, Sir Thomas, and Sir James, both destined to make great alliances. Sir Thomas married the widowed Duchess of Exeter, Anne Plantagenet, sister of Edward IV., and was beheaded by Richard III. in 1483, leaving an only daughter Anne, the wife of George Manners Lord Ros. Sir James married another Anne, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormonde, who brought him thirty-six English manors, and was the ancestor of the St. Legers of Eggesford and Annery in Devonshire. Their son, Sir George, was Sheriff of the county in 1530, as was their grandson, Sir John, in 1562 but the latter soon after sold his inheritance, and left his two sons "in a poor estate." Both died s. p.

The elder brother, Ralph St. Leger of Ulcomb, Constable of Leeds and Sheriff of Kent in 1468, was grandfather of the successful Sir Anthony, who made his mark at the Court of Henry VIII.: "a wise and wary gentleman," esteemed "a valiant servitor in war, and a good justicer in peace, properly learned, who had gravity interlaced with pleasantness." As a gentleman of the Privy Chamber, he won the favour and confidence of the King, who enriched him with some of the spoils of the monasteries, gave him the Garter, and appointed him in 1540 Lord Deputy of Ireland. He retained his post in the two succeeding reigns, holding it for sixteen years, till Queen Mary recalled him on learning that he had once written verses in ridicule of Transubstantiation. This was brought under her notice by his enemies at court; where "sundry noblemen pelted and lifted at St. Leger till they shouldered him quite out of all credit. He, to be accounted forward and pliable to the test of King Edward the VI.th, his reign, rymed against the real Presence for his pastime, and let the papers fall where courtiers might light thereon, who greatly magnified the pith and conveyance of that noble sonnet. But the original of his own handwriting (though contrary to his own judgment) wandering in so many hands, that his adversary caught it, and tripped it in his way, the spot whereof he could never wipe out. Thus was he removed, a discreet gentleman, very studious of the state of Ireland, entach'd, stout enough, without gall."—Campion.

"He was," says Fuller, "properly the first Vice Roy of Ireland, seeing Shadows cannot be before their Substance; and in his Deputyship Henry the Eighth assumed the title of King and Supreme Head of the Church in Ireland.

"To him all the Irish Nobility made their solemn submission, falling down at his Feet upon their knees, laying aside their Girdles, Skeines and Caps. This was the fourth solemn submission of the Irish to the Kings of England; and most true it is, such seeming submissions have been the Bane of their serious Subjection; for, out of the Pale, our Kings had not power either to punish or protect, where those Irish lords (notwithstanding their complimental Loyalty) made their List the Law to such whom they could overpower.

"He seized all the Abbey Lands in Ireland for the King's use; a Flower of the Crown which alone had made a Posy, if continued thereunto."

After his recall, he retired to end his days in his native county of Kent, where he died three years afterwards. He left two sons; Sir Warham, of Ulcomb: and another Sir Anthony, appointed in 1593 Master of the Rolls in Ireland, and subsequently one of the Keepers of the Great Seal by James 1st, who was seated at Wyverton Hall, Boughton-Montchensie, in Kent, in the reign of Charles I., but died without posterity.

Sir Warham, the heir, "an honest and sufficient man," was likewise employed in Ireland, and, selling most of his English estates, cast in his lot there altogether. He was first Governor, then Knight (or Provost) Marshal, and finally, in 1599, President of Munster; but was killed the same year in an engagement with Hugh Macguire, Lord of Fermanagh, "in which Sir Warham and the said Hugh killed each other at the head of their troops." His son, Sir William, was again Lord President of Munster, having been appointed on the death of Sir Edward Villiers in 1627, and took part actively for the King in the Civil War that followed. The next in succession, another Sir William, slain in 1644 while leading the Irish levies at the battle of Newbury, was the grandfather of Arthur St. Leger, created Viscount Doneraile in 1703. This title was transmitted in the direct line by two generations only; the third Viscount, being in very delicate health, was ordered to Lisbon by his physicians, and died there in 1729, leaving his uncle Hayes heir to the title and estates. He, too, the last male heir of the St. Legers, was childless; and, at his death in 1767, the Viscountcy became extinct. The property passed to the second son of his only sister Elizabeth, the wife of Richard Aldworth, who took the name of St. Leger, and was created Viscount Doneraile in 1785.

This Mrs. Aldworth was a Freemason, and is supposed to have been the only woman in the world ever initiated into the secrets of the craft. Her father, a zealous Mason, sometimes opened Lodge at Doneraile; and on each of these occasions his young daughter was seized with a devouring curiosity to watch the proceedings. She could, however, devise no hiding place in the Lodge room, till, one day, the works of an old clock that stood there were taken out to be repaired, and, she, being a slim and lissome girl, contrived to ensconce herself in the vacant case. She could thence, in perfect security, observe what she had so passionately desired to see—the initiation of a new member. But, after witnessing the first two steps of "that awful and mysterious ceremony," she became frightened, "and those who understand this passage," her biographer impressively adds, "must know what the feelings of any person" in similar case would be. She resolved at all hazards to get away; and, watching her opportunity, succeeded in stealing noiselessly out of her hiding-place, and reaching the door unperceived. Softly turning the handle, she opened it and darted out, thinking she had made her escape; but found herself face to face with "a grim and surly Tiler," guarding the threshold with a long rusty sword. She screamed aloud; the Lodge, alarmed, rushed to see what was the matter; and "finding from the Tiler that she had been in the room during the ceremony, in the first paroxysm of rage and alarm actually, it is said, proposed to put her to death." This is a part of the story which it is very difficult to believe. "It was only by the moving and earnest supplication of her younger brother that her life was spared, on condition of her going through the two steps she had already seen."—Life of the Honorable Mrs. Aldworth. The diploma (or whatever the document may be called) that she received is carefully preserved: and her portrait, with a glass case containing the apron and jewel she used to wear, remains in the Lodge room at Cork.

Someruile :

from Somerville, now Sommervieux, near Caen. In 1165 Walter de Summerville held a fief from the Earl of Derby, two from the barony of Stafford, and one in York, from De Lacy. (Liber Niger.) His seat was at Whichnor in Staffordshire, held as a member of the Honour of Tutbury, and from him descended Roger de Somerville, who was summoned to parliament as a baron, and died in 1327. Roger's son was the Sir Philip to whom John of Gaunt granted Tatenall, &c. "for certain services," and in his charter enjoined to keep a flitch of bacon hanging in his hall at Whichnor at all times of the year except in Lent; to be given to any man who had been married a year and a day, and could take his oath that he had never repented of the deed. He was required to bring with him two neighbours to confirm his words. "Then shall the baconne be brought down and laid at the hall door; and shall there be laid upon it half a quarter of wheat and half a quarter of rye; and he that demandeth the baconne shall kneel upon his knee, and shall holde his right hand upon a booke, which booke shall be laid above the baconne and the corne, and shall make othe in this manner: Hear ye, Syr Phylippe de Somerville, Lord of Wichenour, mayntayner and giver of this baconne, that I, sythe I wedded my wyfe, and sythe I had her in my keeping and at my wylle, by a year and a daye after our marriage, I wold not have changed her for none other, fairer ne fouler, richer ne poorer, ne for none other descended of gretter lynage, sleeping or waking, at no time; And if she were sole, and I sole, I wolde take her to be my wyfe before all the wymen of the worlde, of what condytions soever they be, good or evyle; so help me God and His saints, and this flesh and all fleshes." Then the two witnesses he had brought with him were called to give evidence as to his condition; and he received, with his bacon, the measure of wheat and a cheese if he was a freeman, and the measure of rye if he was a villein. The sub-tenant of Sir Philip at Rudlowe (for a long time of the name of Knightley) was bound, under a heavy penalty, to furnish "a horse, a sadyle, a sakke, and a pryke," (spur) to convey these trophies one day's journey out of the county; with the exception of the cheese, which the winner of the bacon was to carry before him on his own horse. The happy pair—it should be noted that the poor wife's opinion had never been asked at all—were finally escorted to the boundary of the manor by all the free tenants on horseback, with "trumpets, tabors, and all manner of minstrelsy." Wichnor passed away from the Somervilles in the very next generation, and the old moated Hall itself has long since vanished, but the custom lingered on well into the last century, and is fully detailed in the "Spectator." "It is thirty years," writes Horace Walpole to Lady Ailesbury in 1760, "since the flitch was claimed, and Mr. Offley was never so near losing one, as when you and Mr. Conway were at Ragley. He so little expects the demand, that the flitch is only hung in effigy over the hall chimney carved in wood." This wooden flitch is now kept in the modern Lodge that has replaced the old house; and the county history furnishes us with the last jokes current on this well-known jesting tenure, that has so amply carried out its founder's intention, in providing food for mirth to generation after generation. "Of the few that have ventured to claim the prize, three couple only have obtained it; one of which, having quarrelled about the mode of preserving it, were adjudged to return it. The other two couples were a sea-officer and his wife, who had not seen each other from the day of their marriage till they met in Wichnor Hall: and a simple couple in the neighbourhood; the husband, a good tempered man, and the wife, dumb."

Sir Philip left, as I have said, no male heir; and Wichnor went, as the marriage portion of his daughter Joan, to her Welsh husband Rees-ap-Griffith. But a branch of the house remained in Gloucestershire, where Somerville Aston, first held by John de Somerville in 1250, was passed down in uninterrupted succession for five hundred years (see Atkyns' Gloucestershire). The Somervilles lived in a moated house, now ruinous, on the south side of the church that was their burial place. Dugdale recounts the tragic end of one of them. "John, who in 25 Eliz. being a hot-spirited Gentleman and about twenty-three years of age, but a Roman Catholique by profession, is said to have been so far transported with zeale for the restoration of that religion, by the instigation of one Hall a Priest, that he resolved to kill the Queen, and to that purpose made a journey to London, and that upon his apprehension he confesst his intent; but being arraigne'd, condemn'd, and committed to Newgate, within three days after he was found strangled in his lodging. How far forth he was guilty of this, God knows; for with what a high hand things were then borne through the power of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester is not unknown to most men; which Earl had a particular spleen against Mr. Arden of Park Hall, father in law to this Gentleman, as by sundery aged persons, of credit, I have often heard." The last heir was a poet—William Somerville, author of "The Chase:" a kindly and hospitable man, who spent more money than he had, and (according to Shenstone) was driven to drink himself into pains of body in order to get rid of pains of mind. He died in 1742, having settled his estate or what remained of it, (it had been accounted worth,1,500 a year) on his Scottish kinsman, James, thirteenth Lord Somerville.

No more remote kinsman ever enjoyed an inheritance. The connection between them dated as nearly as possible six hundred years back. Lord Somerville derived from a William de Somerville, who, about the year 1150, witnessed a charter of Malcolm King of Scotland for Sawtrey Abbey in Huntingdonshire (Mon. i. 851), and in 1158 was indebted to the Crown twenty marks of silver, but was in Scotland (Rot. Pip.). He had attached himself to the fortunes of King David I., from whom he received a grant of the lands of Carnwath. His grandson further obtained in 1174 the barony of Linton in Roxburghshire. According to an old MS. in the Advocate's Library, quoted by Sir Walter Scott, "he was made by King William (the lion) his principal falconer, and got from that king the lands and baronie of Linton, in Teviotdale, for an extraordinaire and valiant action, which, according to the manuscript of the family of Drum, was thus: In the parochen of Lintoun there happened to breede a monster, in forme of a serpent or worme: in length, three Scots yards, and somewhat bigger than an ordinarie man's leg, with a head more proportionable to its length than greatnesse. It had its den in a hollow piece of ground, a mile S.E. from Lintoun church: it destroyed both men and beasts that came in its way. Several attempts were made to destroy it, by shooting of arrows, and throwing of darts, none daring to approach so near as to make use of a sword or lance. John Somerville[37] undertakes to kill it, and being well mounted, and attended with a stoute servant, he cam, before the sun-rising, before the dragon's den, having prepared some long, small, and hard peats" (bog-turf dried for fuel) "bedabbled with pitch, rosett, and brimstone, fixed with a small wire upon a wheel, at the point of his lance; these, being touched with fire, would instantly break out into flames; and, there being a breath of air, that served to his purpose, about the sun-rising the worme appeared with her head and some part of her body without the den: whereupon his servant set fire to the peats upon the wheel at the top of the lance, and John Somerville, advancing with a full gallop, thrust the same with the wheel, and a great part of the lance, directly into the serpent's mouth, which wente down its throat into the belly, and was left there, the lance breaking by the re-bounding of the horse, and giving a deadly wound to the dragon; for which action he was knighted by King William; and his effigies was cut in ston in the posture he performed this actione, and placed above the principal church door of Lintoun, where it is yet to be seen, with his name and sirname; and the place where this monster was killed is at this day called the Wormes Glen. And further to perpetuate this actione, the barons of Lintoun, Cowthally, and Drum, did always carry for crest a wheel, and thereon a dragon." The rude piece of sculpture that commemorates the exploit is still in its place; and a falcon on the knight's arm probably denotes his office of falconer. His son, Sir William Somerville of Linton and Carnwath, distinguished himself at a great tournament held at Roxburgh in honour of the marriage of Alexander II.: and the descendants were worthy representatives of the gallant knight, "brave even to madness," who first dared to meet the poisonous breath of the Linton Worm. We find them deeply engaged in the wars and politics of their day, wounded in battle, carried off prisoners, delivered up as hostages, and now and again receiving remissions and "pardons under the great seal." Thomas Somervile "held the office of justiciary of Scotland south of the Forth in November 1430, and appears to have been created a peer the same year, Thomas, Dominus Somervile, being one of the conservators of a truce with the English, 13th December, 1430." The eighth Baron, Gilbert, "splendidly entertained King James VI. at his castle of Cowthaly (called by the King in a jocular way, Cow-daily, because he observed a cow and ten sheep killed daily), and by his extravagance run through his estate." Probably for this reason, his brother, Hugh Somerville of Dram, who inherited the title in 1618, never assumed it: nor was it borne by any of his successors for upwards of a century, till James Somerville petitioned for its restoration, and it was adjudged to him by the House of Lords in 1723. A fortune followed it in due time: for in 1742 he came into the old family estate in Gloucestershire, bequeathed to him by the poet Somerville (see p. 104), and was enabled to "build an elegant house, and lay out plantations" at his own Scottish home, Drum. The last bearer of the title was Aubrey John Somerville, nineteenth Lord, at whose death in 1870 it is presumed to have become extinct.
Siward. This name appears in Brompton's "Liste des Conquerants d'Angleterre" as Sewrard. In the Roll of Carlaverock it is Suwart:—

"Richard Suwart, ke o eus converse,
Noire banniere ot aprestee
O crois blance o bouz flouretee."

This Siward was a Scottish knight, married to a sister of Simon Fresel, who, having more than once shifted his allegiance, was at that time serving in the English army. Edward II. appointed him Constable of Dumfries in 1309, and he is supposed to have died in the following year.

It cannot be this Scotsman who is here designated, but one of two Siwards who were of considerable note at the Conquest, the one in Shropshire, the other in Cheshire.

Siward :

surnamed Grossus, is more than once mentioned in Domesday, and was "a great assistant to Earl Roger in the foundation of Salop Abbey." According to Ordericus, he was a kinsman of the Earl's, and probably of Danish blood: "the name Siward is Danish rather than Saxon, and Earl Roger's great-grandmother was a Dane." He was consequently suffered to retain the manors in Shropshire that he had held under the Confessor, and bequeathed them to his son Aldred. The succession cannot be traced further. (See Eyton's Salop.)

The other Siward was one of the "Barones et Homines" enumerated by Hugh Lupus in his charter to Chester Abbey, and the ancestor of the Lancelyns, seated at Poulton-Lancelyn in that county till the reign of Henry VIII.

A Seward was among the twelve knights who, under William Rufus, went with Robert Fitz-Hamon to the conquest of Glamorgan, and formed the "Douze Peres" between whom he divided his newly-won territory. The Devonshire family of Seward of Stokeinteignhead probably derived from him: and Banks believes him to have been also the progenitor of the Sywards of Winterborn-Clinston, in Dorsetshire. Of this latter house was "Richard Syward, who, 26 Ed. I., was one of those who then had summons to attend a great council at Carlisle, furnished with horse and arms; on which occasion he is denominated a baron. But, excepting at this period, and in the following year to the same place, the name of Syward is not noticed as of baronial consideration.

"Matthew Paris mentions a Richard Sward, who, in the reign of Henry III., was a very martial person, and during that troublesome era made a conspicuous figure. In 1236, with Richard Earl of Cornwall, and many other noble persons, he was signed with the cross for an expedition to the Holy Land, after when, he died, anno 1248. He very probably was father to Richard before mentioned, 26 Ed. I.; and to Thomas Sward, who, by Matthew Paris, is represented juvenis militia praeclarus."—Banks.

Saunsouere :

or Sans-avoir; a family that belied its appellation by acquiring considerable property in this county. "It is," says Banks, "recorded to have been of very early note, inasmuch as Matthew Paris recites that Walter Sensavior was one of the first Crusaders, anno 1096, but afterwards miserably perished in that expedition of holy infatuation." The first mentioned in England is Sir Ralph Sanzaver, who in 1165 held one knight's fee in Devon of the King in capite. From him came another Ralph, "who had a license for free-warren at his manor in Spartegrave (Spargrove) in Somersetshire, and at Biggeneure (Bignor) with the hamlet of Rogate, in Sussex. This Ralph is probably the same who, in 45 Hen. III., had summons to attend the parliament convened to meet at London in that year, but which, according to Holinshed, the barons refused to attend. When he died there is no mention; but Hugh Saunzauer, 12 Ed. I., appears to have died possessed of the estates before mentioned; to whom succeeded Ralph Saunzauer, his son, according to Collinson, who settled a great dispute respecting certain lands appertaining to his manor of Saunzaver, in Somersetshire, with the Abbot of Glastonbury. This Ralph, though unnoticed by Dugdale in his History of the Nobility, is mentioned by him in his Lists of Summons to parliament, where his name is among those who, in the character of barons, were summoned the 22nd Ed. I., to attend the King to advise on the affairs of the realm, though no place of meeting was appointed in the writ. He died 8 Ed. II., being then seised with Christian his wife of Bignor in Sussex, Gratisden, in Huntingdonshire, and Croxton, in the county of Cambridge. He had issue another Ralph Saunzaver, but he never was noticed in the same baronial capacity as his father."—Banks. Was this the same Sir Ralph spoken of by Hasted as of Tramhatch in Kent, temp. Ed. III.? The arms of Hugh Sauzaveir are thus given in the Camden Roll; Azure, 3 crescents, 2, and 1, between 9 cross crosslets Or. In the reign of Henry VII., John Seintsaver, no doubt their descendant, was among the gentlemen of Somersetshire "qualified to be Knights of the Bath."

In Norfolk "Simon Senzaveir gave to the church of the Holy Trinity at Norwich a third part of his tithes at Trekestone, which gift he confirmed upon the altar before the monks of the place, for the soul of his brother Warine, whom the monks had taken into the bede roll of their brethren, when he died."—Blomfield. The first mention of the family in the Eastern Counties is in 1165, when Thomas Sanzaveir held of Walter Fitz Robert's barony in Essex.—Liber Niger.

Then we meet with them again in Cumberland. Gilbert Sanzaver witnesses Robert de Vaux's foundation charter of Lanercost Priory.—Mon. Angl.

Sanford :

This name was certainly to be found in Normandy, for it is several times entered in the Exchequer Rolls of the twelfth century. But the ancient Shropshire family of Sandford, though no doubt of Norman lineage, did not derive it from thence. They, like so many others, adopted the name of their English manor. In Domesday, Gerard de Tornai holds Sanford under Earl Roger; and it is believed that his son-in-law, Hamo Peverel, enfeoffed their ancestor Sir Richard in the time of Henry I. It has never since changed hands. "Sanford Manor is one of the very few Shropshire estates which may be said to be held by the lineal descendant, in the male line, of its earliest known Feoffee."—Eyton's Salop. As a local English name, first borne in the. twelfth century, it cannot, however, claim a place here.

Other Sandfords there were, not included in the Shropshire pedigree, that may possibly have imported the name from Normandy. Jordan de Sandford, in 1165, held four knights' fees de veteri feoffamento of the Abbot of Abingdon, and one of the Bishop of Ely in Cambridgeshire.—Liber Niger. John de Sanford (perhaps his son?) held the manors of Hormede, Fingrie, Ginges, and part of Wulfmeston, in the time of King John, "by serjeanty of service in the Queen's chamber;" and his son Gilbert, succeeding to the office, was Chamberlain to Queen Eleanor in the ensuing reign. He died in 1250, leaving a daughter and heiress, Alice, married to Robert de Vere, third Earl of Oxford. "By virtue of her inheritance, she carried the office of Chamberlain to the Queen into the Vere family, which before was the King's hereditary Great Chamberlain."—Banks. The name was then sometimes written Samford (though it is always Sanford in the earlier records v. Lib. Rub. Scacc. fol. 137, and Lib. Foed. vol. ii. p. 243), and Dugdale styles her father "Gilbert Lord Samford." "From thus obtaining the Samford estate, the subsequent Veres, Earls of Oxford, added the title of Samford to their baronial honours, but with what degree of propriety is somewhat questionable. There is no record to demonstrate that the Samfords were ever summoned to parliament as barons, or that they held their lands in capite of the Crown, per baroniam; and the mere serjeanty of the bedchamber is no proof that the manors to which that serjeanty was attached were ever erected into an hereditary baronial dignity."—Banks. Nicholas Sanford, who held Aston-Sanford of Richard Earl of Cornwall in Buckinghamshire, "a man not so memorable for his wealth as famous for his valour" (v. Matthew Paris) is conjectured to have been Gilbert's brother. He died two years after him, it is said of grief at the loss of his sister Cecilia, "the most beautiful woman of her day," who was the wife of Sir William de Gorham, and governess to Henry III.'s sister, Princess Eleanor. A Thomas de Samford, tenant of the Abbey of Abingdon at the same date, was probably likewise a member of this family.

Henry Sanford—of unknown lineage—was consecrated Bishop of Rochester in 1227, and died 1235. "Thomas Saunford was one of those who 24, Ed. I., had summons to attend at Newcastle upon Tyne, well furnished with horse and arms, for an expedition into Scotland, and to obey such orders and directions, as by the great council, which was commanded then to assemble, might be ordained: but, on this occasion, he is not mentioned in the capacity of a baron. He probably is the same who died 27 Ed. I., leaving Alda his sister heir to his lands in Chester and Devon."—Ibid.

Lastly, the old Somersetshire family of Sanford, seated at Ninehead Flory since the early part of the seventeenth century, bears arms that entirely differ from those of the Shropshire house. Henry Sanford, who died in 1644, married the heiress of Ayshford in Devonshire, and adopted her name in addition to his own.

Sanctes :

Sainct Tese is the corresponding name in Leland's list. This was probably derived from Saintes or Xaintes, the capital of Haute Saintonge in Acquitane, often mentioned in Edward III.'s wars. There was also, however, a Seigneurie de Santes, held by the De Launays in 1366. Of Gilbert de Launay, Lord of Santes, came the Seigneurs de Villerval. See Anselme. "Episcopus de Saintes" held lands in Hampshire, 1086.—Domesday.

The name is of very rare occurrence in records. Richard de Seign (if, which I think is more than doubtful, Seign stands for Saintes), in 1202, was one of the Justices Itinerant in Staffordshire. (Staff. Hist. Collect.) Thomas Seynt was of Kent, c. 1272. (Rotul. Hundred.) Sir Aylmer Saint was, as Holinshed tells us, one of the forty-six Knights of the Bath made at the coronation of Henry IV. "Sante was a Doctor of Divinitie, and was imbassador at Rome bothe for King Edwarde the Fourth, and Henrie the VII.th."[38]—Leland. The Saints (a Newcastle family) bore, in honour of their name, Azure, three cherubs Or, their wings countercrossed saltierwise: see Robson.

Sauay :

"Dominus Petrus de Sauvey" held land in Norfolk, Lincoln, Sussex and Kent, in the reign of Edward I.—Rotuli Hundredorum. In the Camden Roll, Henri de Sauueye bears Argent, an Eagle displayed Sable, and Amys de Sauueye the same eagle, beaked Gules.

Sauley :

Souley or Suylly in Leland's list, where the name is twice given. Holinshed also repeats it. Robert de Sully is entered by Duchesne in his Feoda Normanniae as holding one knight's fee of Hugo de Montfort. Raymond de Sully, in the time of William Rufus, went with Robert Fitz Hamon to the conquest of Glamorgan, and was one of the twelve knights that shared the territory they had helped to win. His descendants were seated at Iddesleigh, in Devonshire, where they had "a fair house and two parks;" and before 1292 had acquired a share in the barony of Torrington through one of its five co-heiresses. A second Raymond de Sully, who died about 1316, was the son of Walter de Sully and Mabel, second daughter and co-heir of Roger de Somerie, Lord of Dudley, by Nichola his wife, a co-heiress of Hugh de Albini, the last Earl of Arundel. "He died seised of his mother's inheritance at Barewe and elsewhere in the co. of Leicester. The name of his wife is not expressed; but he is stated to have had a daughter Elizabeth, who died without issue."—Banks. In the same reign Henry, styled Dominus de Sulle, was appointed Governor of the Channel Islands, and sent on an embassy to France and "other countries" in 1324.—Ibid. Another contemporary was Sir John Sully, "a doughty chevalier, one of the four barons of this province that subscribed to the answer sent to Pope Boniface VIII. in the name of all the temporal lords of this kingdom assembled in parliament at Lincoln, in answer to his letter wherein he forbid King Edward I. to vex the Scots further by wars."—Westcote's Devon. In 1310 he "went to the holy wars," where he greatly distinguished himself. "Sir John de Sully, renowned for his exploits in the Holy Land against the Saracens, in which he was weakened by many wounds, return'd home after many yeares discontinuance; whereupon his officers, bringing in the accounts of his rents, which amounted to a great masse of mony, he caused his cloake, being of clothe of golde, to be spread on the grounde, and commanding the mony to be put thereon, cast himself thereinto, that it might be sayd for once he tumbled in gold and silver; whereof he afterwards gave one part to his wife, a second to his officers and tenantes, and a third part to the poor."—Sir William Pole. This childish excursion into Tom Tidler's ground is his last recorded act, as he died not long after his return to England. According to Westcote, his seat was at "Rookesford" (Ruxford, in the parish of Sandford, two miles from Crediton) "lately the land of Chichester, and alienated to Davye." There was formerly to be seen in Crediton Church "a fair monument of alabaster" of which no vestige now remains, "of a knight clad in his armour, with his lady lying by him: at his feet, a lion; at her's, a lamb. It is said to be the interment to John de Sully." Yet it seems more likely that the effigy of a crusader with a plain shield, lying under an arch in Iddesleigh Church, is intended for him. Both monuments are likewise claimed for his son and namesake, the last Lord of Iddesleigh. This Sir John Sully "fought at Halidon, Cressy, Poictiers, and in Spain; and at the reputed age of 105 (in 1387) gave evidence at his residence in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy:—he died soon after, and is said to have been buried at Crediton; but the figure of a Crusader at Iddesleigh is also assigned to him."—Worth's Devon. Iddesleigh passed by his gift to his cousin Lord Martyn; and his share in the barony of Torrington was inherited by Guy de Bryan, (v. Lysons.)

Collinson, in his History of Somerset, speaks of a Sir Raymond de Sully who held some land at Allestone-juxta-Hunspill in the time of Ed. III., and left a daughter Sarah, married to William Malet Lord of Enmore. Were it not for a slight discrepancy in the dates (Collinson is not invariably accurate) and the difference in the daughter's Christian name, we might safely conclude this to have been the son of Walter de Sully and the Somerie heiress.

Sules :

(Soules, Leland): from Soules, arrondissement of St. Lo. "The men of Sole," according to Wace, were conspicuous at the battle of Hastings, "striking at close quarters, and holding their shields over their heads so as to receive the blows of the hatchet." The fief of Soules was held of the Honour of St. Lo at the time of the Conquest; but was soon afterwards granted to the chapter of Bayeux. Under Henry II., there was a William de Soules who held three knights' fees in Normandy; two of them in the Comte of Mortaine.—M. de Gerville. John Soule, of Salop and Oxon, and Ralph Soule, of the latter county, occur in the Hundred Rolls about 1272. In the Camden Roll the arms are thus given: "Munsire Bartho de Sulee l'escu d'or a deux barres de gueules." The Kentish family of this name (of whom John de Soles bought Betshanger in 1347) derived it from the manor of Soles (Domesday) in the parish of Nonington. This family was in early times most powerful in Scotland, where it gave its name to the barony of Soulistoun—now Saltoun—in East Lothian. Ranulph de Soulis witnesses a Stirling charter of David I.: and either he, or one of his successors, is styled Pincerna Regis. They were frequent benefactors to Newbottle Abbey and other monasteries; and "their power," says Sir Walter Scott, "extended over the South and West Marches, where they appear to have possessed the whole district of Liddesdale, with five rich baronies in Roxburghshire. Near Deadrigs, in the parish of Eccles, in the East Marches, their family bearings still appear on an obelisk. William de Soulis, Justiciarius Laodoniae, in 1281, subscribed the famous obligation, by which the nobility of Scotland bound themselves to acknowledge the sovereignty of the Maid of Norway and her descendants; and in 1291 Nicholas de Soulis appears as a competitor for the crown of Scotland, which he claimed as the grandson of Margery, a bastard daughter of Alexander II., who, could her legitimacy have been ascertained, must have distanced all other competitors. His grandson was John de Soulis, a gallant warrior, warmly attached to the interests of his country, who, with fifty Borderers, defeated and made prisoner Sir Andrew Harclay, at the head of three hundred Englishmen, and was himself slain fighting, in the cause of Edward the Bruce, at the battle of Dundalk, in Ireland, 1318. He had been joint-warden of the kingdom with John Cummin, after the abdication of Wallace in 1300, in which character he was recognized by John Baliol, who, in a charter granted after his dethronement, and dated at Rutherglen (1302), styles him Custos regni nostri. The treason of William, his successor, occasioned the downfall of the family. This powerful baron entered into a conspiracy against Robert the Bruce, in which many persons of rank were engaged. The object, according to Barbour, was to elevate Lord Soulis to the Scottish throne. The plot was discovered by the Countess of Stratherne. Lord Soulis was seized at Berwick, although he was attended, Barbour says, by three hundred and sixty squires, besides many gallant knights. Having confessed his guilt in full Parliament, his life was spared by the King; but his domains were forfeited, and he himself confined in the castle of Dumbarton, where he died. From this period, the family of Soulis makes no figure in our annals."

Tradition, however, tells a widely different tale. It recounts how Lord Soulis retreated to his Border castle of Hermitage, and fortified it, by the help of a familiar sprite named Redcap,[39] whom he held in thrall by magic spells; how he forced his unwilling vassals to labour, like beasts of burden, in dragging materials for the work; and how, worn out by his cruelties, they laid their case before the King. They could not tell how to help themselves. Not only was the sorcerer of prodigious bodily strength, but he was held to bear a charmed life, not to be harmed by "forged steel," and not to be bound by chain or "hempen band." Again and again did they present themselves with their complaints and grievances, till at last the King, wearied and irritated beyond endurance, peevishly exclaimed, "Boil him an ye list, but let me hear no more of him!" The messengers, accepting this as their answer, departed forthwith; and when the King, thinking over his hasty words, and of the savage temper of the men to whom they had been spoken, hurriedly sent over to the Border to recall them, the work was already done. They had managed to seize Lord Soulis in despite of Redcap, and carried him to the Nine Stane Rig (an old Druidical circle on the hill descending to the Water of Hermitage), where they swung a huge cauldron on an iron rod laid across two of the stones, kindled a fire beneath, and made it red-hot. Then, rolling up the wizard in a sheet of lead, they plunged him in, heaped on fresh fuel, and boiled him till they had melted "lead, and bones, and a'." It is said that this cauldron was long preserved at Skelfhill, a village between Hawick and the Hermitage. The stones used are still pointed out; and on the place where they "boiled the pot" no grass has ever been known to grow. The old castle itself—half buried as most old buildings are—is believed to have sunk into the ground "under the load of its iniquity": and the wizard's chamber still harbours the demon to whom Lord Soulis, before crossing its threshold for the last time, flung the keys over his left shoulder, bidding him keep them till his return. Once only in seven years Redcap unlocks the door. "Into this chamber, which is in reality the dungeon of the castle, the peasant is afraid to look; for such is the active malignity of its inmate, that a willow inserted at the chinks of the door is found peeled, or stripped of its bark, when it is drawn back."—Sir W. Scott. The Borders are rife with stories concerning this wicked Lord Soulis. Close under his castle wall is the deep black pool in the Water of Hermitage where his great Northumbrian rival, the Cout of Keeldar, was held down by the spears of his troopers till they had drowned him. A young chief of the Armstrongs, who had once saved his life when in great jeopardy, and sheltered him under his own roof at Mangerton, was brought as a guest to the Hermitage, and, while sitting at supper, treacherously put to death.

Sorell :

Bardsley, in his 'English Surnames,' describes this as a nickname given to red-haired persons. "The young hind, from its early indefinite red, is known as 'Sorrell'; and Aubyn, in his 'Lives,' describes Butler, author of Hudibras. as having 'a head of sorrell haire.'" Hinds are, however, never called sorells; this appellation properly belongs to the young fallow deer, who grows from a fawn into "a pretty, pleasing prickett," thence to a sorell, a sore, and finally becomes a buck. Nor are we, I trust, bound to draw the inference that Agnes Sorel's hair was red.

This name is of very early occurrence in Leicestershire. Henry II. confirmed to Leicester Abbey by charter the churches of Thornton and Siresham, the gift of Thomas Sorrel; Simon Sorel witnesses a deed of Robert Blanchemains, Earl of Leicester, about 1180; and Lucas Sorell was a landowner in the time of John.—Nichol's Leicestershire. This is the last mention I can find of them in that county.

In Yorkshire Helias Sorel, for the health of himself and of Quinild his wife, gave some lands in Billingley to Monk Bretton.—Hunter's Deanery of Doncaster. In Gloucestershire Robert Sorell witnessed Edward II.'s charter to Keinsham Priory (Mon. Angl.). Tebbald Sorell, of Norfolk, occurs about 1199 in the Rotuli Curiae Regis: and there is some subsequent mention of the family in that county during the reign of Henry III. Thomas and Simon Sorel then held of the Earl Warren; Thomas gave some lands to Sibton Abbey in Suffolk; which were afterwards confirmed by Simon his brother. John Quirel, alias Sorel, and Agnes his wife were benefactors of Castleacre Priory in 1257.—Blomfield's Norfolk. In the Rotulus Magnus Pipae of the reign of Henry I., I find entered William Sorell of Suffolk. Thomas Sorel, resident in the Liberty of the Bishop of Ely in Cambridgeshire, was summoned to serve against the Scots in 1322.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. Two others of the name, Richard and Robert, are also mentioned; the former in Wiltshire. In Essex, there was a John Sorell, living before 1626, whose son of the same name bought Hide Hall in 1650; the line ended with Richard Sorel in 1728. They bore Gules, two lions passant Ermine.—Morant's Essex.

Somerey :

from Sommeri, near Rouen. Roger de Someri is on the Dives Roll. William de Sumeri held the lordship of Catsfield, in Sussex, in the time of Henry I., when Helia, his son, is also mentioned. They were near neighbours and frequent benefactors of Battle Abbey. Simon de Sumeri feoffed to the Abbey a mill-pool at Piperenges (this name still survives under the grotesque alias of Pepper-in-Eye), and Samfrid de Sumeri gave lands in Beausse and Ninfield, which his nephew Robert confirmed; besides some gifts from others of the family.[40] They first emerge into importance in the early years of the thirteenth century, when John de Somerie (the same John who, before 1210, feoffed land in Bexhill to Simon, Bishop of Chichester) attained baronial rank through his marriage with Hawyse Paganel. She was the sister and sole heir of Gervase Paganel, Baron of Dudley, and brought him a great inheritance in Staffordshire, with Newport-Pagnell and thirteen knight's fees in Buckinghamshire. Their son Ralph had to pay three hundred marks for livery of these lands, and was further mulcted of a sum of 50 in aid of Coeur de Lion's ransom. He exchanged Wolverhampton, part of his mother's barony, for three other manors in Staffordshire with King John, and died in 1210. William his son was then a minor, and at his own death in 1221 he again left an heir under age, Nicholas de Somerie, who, with all his lands, was committed to the charge of Ranulph Earl of Chester. Seven years afterwards he, too, died, and died childless, whereupon the inheritance devolved on his uncle Roger, the husband of Nichola de Albini, one of the sisters and co-heirs of Hugh Earl of Arundel. She "had for her principal Seat," Dugdale tells us, "Barewe in Cheshire"; and in 1244 their joint possessions amounted to fifty-one knight's fees. Sir Roger followed the King to Gascony in 1252, and on three subsequent occasions was summoned for service against the Welsh; but fell into disgrace in 1261 for venturing to castellate his manor house at Dudley without the customary Royal license. His works were summarily prohibited; but two years afterwards, when he took part for the Crown in the baronial war, the requisite permission was forthcoming, and they were resumed, but, as it would seem, not altogether completed in his lifetime. He was taken prisoner at Lewes, and died soon after Edward I.'s accession. His son, Roger II., was the father of the two childless brothers with whom the line was brought to a close. The elder, Roger III., either died in his minority, or did not long survive it; and John, the younger, succeeded in 1299, "being not then of age." He was summoned to parliament by Edward II. in 1308; served in seven Scottish campaigns, and died in 1321, when he can scarcely have been much over forty. Dugdale pourtrays him as one of the local tyrants who made their rule intolerable to their neighbour. "In 4 Ed. II. it was reported that John de Somery, Baron of Dudley, had taken upon him so great authority in Staffordshire, that no man could have Law or Reason by means thereof: and that he domineer'd there more than a King; as also that it was no abiding for any man in those parts, except he well brib'd the said John de Somery for protection, or yeilded him much assistance towards the building of his Castle; and that the said John did use to beset Men's Houses, in that Country, for to murther them; as also thereby extorted large summes of money from them." He adds that the King sent William Trussel and Alan la Zouch, as his commissioners to enquire into the matter, but does not inform us of the result.

Lord de Somerie's heirs were his two sisters. The eldest, Margaret, who had married John de Sutton, succeeded to Dudley Castle, the town of Dudley in Worcestershire, Pensnet Chace, and other manors in Staffordshire. Her son John had summons to parliament as Baron Dudley in 1342. The other, Joan, the wife of Thomas Bottetourt, had for her share Bradfield and two other manors in Berkshire, with Rowley-Somery, etc., in Staffordshire.

This was certainly not the only family of the name. Stephen de Someri held a barony in Cambridgeshire prior to the reign of Stephen: and in 1139 Roger de Somerie paid five marks of silver for livery of the lands he derived from his mother:—no doubt the same Christian de Somerie who was a benefactress of the nuns of Stratford. She, with her sons, had bestowed upon them some land at Haselingfield in Cambridgeshire; her grant being confirmed by King Stephen. Courthope makes Stephen father of the John de Somerie that married the heiress of Dudley; but neither his name nor that of Roger appear in the records of the Sussex Someries. In the time of Henry III., there was a John de Somerie, the son of Adam, who was in arms with Simon de Montfort, and is conjectured to have belonged to Hertfordshire, where Adam and Stephen de Somerie are mentioned in 1289. Stephen, who had an elder brother named Roger, had died s.p. in 1240, leaving four sisters to inherit. Sir John de Somerie, of the same county, has already been mentioned as occurring in Sir H. Nicolas' Roll of Arms of 1308-1314, where we also meet with a Sir Perceval[41] Somerie of Warwickshire, bearing the baronial lions counterchanged. Then there was a Robert de Somerie, called "the brother of the Lord of Dudley," but unnamed in any of the Somerie pedigrees, who in 1299 held land at Bishampton in Worcestershire, and was knight of the shire in 1315. He left a daughter Julian, married to Thomas de Luttelton, ancestor of the Lords Lyttelton of Frankley. Richard de Somerie had likewise an estate at Bishampton in 1315: Roger de Somerie is noticed in the Cal. Inq. ad quod damnum in 1320 and 1326 in connection with the same place; and in 1339 Thomas de Somerie was patron of the church there.
The name was in process of time abbreviated; like St. Omer, it became Somer: and there is little reason to doubt that John Somer, the son of a Worcestershire attorney, who became illustrious as Lord Chancellor of England, and is said to have added an s as an intended improvement to his patronymic, belonged to this family.

Besides Rowley-Somery in Staffordshire, there is a manor in Bedfordshire named Great Hampstead-Someries.

Sent Iohn :

from St. Jean-le-Thomas, near Avranches. "The men of St. Johan," are spoken of at Hastings in the Roman de Rou; and their leader, according to family tradition, had the charge of the transport and munitions of the invading army, or which reason his posterity ever after bore the horse-hemes (or collars) as their cognizance.[42] The name is missing in Domesday; but in the reign of William Rufus John de St. John was one of the twelve knights that invaded Glamorgan with Robert Fitz Hamon, and received the castle of Falmont or Faumont as his share of the conquest. He was the younger son of William de St. John (who first came to England), and succeeded his childless brother Thomas, Lord of Stanton-St. John in Oxfordshire, who was a benefactor of St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, in 1112, and with whom Dugdale commences the pedigree. John had two sons: 1. Roger; and 2. Thomas, who inherited Stanton St. John. Roger married a great Sussex heiress, Cecily, the daughter of Robert de la Haie, who brought him the honour of Halnac (now Halnaker) that had been granted to her father by his kinsman Henry I. He, again, had two sons, with whom his line expired; and a daughter named Muriel, married to Reginald de Orival, whose only child in the end became the heiress of Halnaker. This Mabel de Orival was the wife of Adam de Port, Baron of Basing in Hampshire; the great-grandson of the Hugh de Port who fought at Hastings, and is entered in Domesday as holding fifty-five manors in that county alone. Basing was thus the head of a great barony, and held by the representative of a potent Norman house. Yet the son of Adam and Mabel adopted his grandmother's name and arms as his own, and was the founder of the existing family of St. John. Before continuing their descent, however, I must revert to the male line, represented by Roger's younger brother Thomas.

He was living at Stanton St. John in 1166, and bestowed lands on the monks of St. Peter's, as his father had done. His son, Sir John de St. John, went with Coeur de Lion to the Holy Land, and, at the siege of Acre, was one of the chosen knights whom the King, "on the inspiration of St. George, had distinguished by causing them to tie a thong or garter around the leg." According to another account, the King himself tied on this leathern thong "(for such he had then in hand), whereby being put in mind of the future glory that should accrue to them, with assurance of worthy rewards if they overcame, they might be roused up to behaving themselves stoutly in the wars, &c." Further, "after a long interval of time and divers victories obtained by him, the King, returning to this country, determined to institute this most noble Order of St. George, on whose protection the English so much relied." This account of the origin of the Knights of the Garter was given in 1527 by the Master of the Rolls at the investiture of Francis I.; without vouchsafing a reference to any historical proof, or explaining its application to the mysterious motto, "Honi soit qui mal y pense." It is almost needless to say that it has not been accepted by modern authorities. "Even admitting that Richard I. did make use of this device in the Holy Land, as a signal or distinction of a party going out on some warlike exploit, yet that he thence had occasion to frame a distinct Order of Knighthood afterwards, there is not the least mention, or any ground to imagine."—Ashmole.

The next heir, Sir Roger, took up arms with the barons against Henry III., and was summoned to parliament by them after the victory of Lewes; but was slain at Evesham in the following year. His eldest son John died s. p., but he left another, named Roger, who obtained 46 Hen. III. license to fortify his house at Lageham in Surrey,[43] and to hold it as long as he and his heirs should remain loyal to the King. This obligation was not long observed, for he joined the baronial standard within less than two years of that time, and was one of the Council of Nine appointed to govern the kingdom after the battle of Lewes. His son was summoned to parliament as Lord St. John of Lageham, as were his grandson and great-grandson; but no summons was accorded to the next in succession; with whom the direct line terminated in 1353. There remained a nephew, Peter, who also died s. p., and other collateral heirs, descended from Nicholas de St. John (a younger son of the first Baron) who were seated at Glimpton in Oxfordshire, "and continued," says Burke, "for several generations."

With them expired the male line of the house, and its representation passed to the Barons of Basing. One of these, John de St. John, who was eminent in the Scottish wars of Edward I., was a baron by writ in 1299; and "li preus Johan de St. Johan," to whom, as the oldest and most distinguished commander in the army, the charge of the young Prince of Wales was entrusted at the storming of Carlaverock. His heir, "ki de son pere avoit le nom," succeeded
him two years afterwards, and was followed by Edmund, the last Lord St. John of Basing, who died during his minority in 1347, leaving two sisters as his heirs. Margaret de St. Philibert, the eldest, lost her only child in infancy, and the barony was inherited by the second, Isabel de Poynings, whose husband had summons to parliament in her right in 1368. Her great-granddaughter conveyed it to the Paulets in the time of Henry VI. This heiress, Constance de Poynings, was the grandmother of the first Marquess of Winchester, who built a great palace on the site of the venerable castle of Basing, where Queen Elizabeth was twice entertained, and Philip and Mary spent their loveless honeymoon. It covered more than fourteen acres of ground, but one poor gateway is now all that is left of it, for it was demolished by act of parliament in 1645, after having stood the famous siege that has given it a place in history. John, fifth Marquess of Winchester,

"Ark of his age's faith and loyalty,"

as he is called by Dryden, declared that "if the King had no more ground in England than Basing House, he would defend it to the last extremity," and victoriously kept the rebels at bay for more than two years, two thousand soldiers having fallen before the walls, till Cromwell at last surprised the garrison, and took it by storm.[44] Many of its inmates perished by fire and sword—among them a woman and six priests; and one poor player, who begged hard for quarter, was shot through the heart by Major-General Harrison with the words, "Cursed is he that doeth the work of the Lord negligently." A vast amount of booty, computed at 200,000 in jewels, cash, and furniture, was taken; and after having been "slighted" and dismantled, the noble old house was left to perish ignobly as the common stone-quarry of the neighbourhood. The motto Aymez Loyaulte, which the "Loyal Marquess" had adopted, and inscribed with his own hand on his window-pane, and the ancient badge of the house, the crowned Key of Basing, encircled by a knotted cord (the old emblem of troth), are still borne by the family, though the honoured ruin, with the whole of the great Domesday domain, has long since passed into other hands. The barony of St. John of Basing is now in abeyance between the descendants of the two co-heiresses of the last Duke of Bolton; Lady Mary, Countess of Sandwich, and Lady Katherine, the wife of the first Duke of Cleveland.

The name of St. John was carried on by a surviving branch of the Barons of Basing, derived from a younger son named William, who had for his appanage Faumont Castle in Glamorganshire, and lived in the reign of Edward I. His descendant in the sixth generation, Sir Oliver St. John of Penmark in the same county, first became possessed of Bletsoe and Lydiard Tregoze, temp, Henry VI., by taking to wife a great heiress, who was the grandmother of Henry VII. "Margaret, granddaughter of Lord Beauchamp of Bletsoe, who, on failure of male issue, became his sole heir, married Sir Oliver St. John, whose family were already possessed of large estates in Bedfordshire, inherited, by a female heir, from the Paveleys. Her second husband was John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, by whom she had one daughter, Margaret, the wife of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and mother of King Henry VII. This illustrious lady, who was foundress of St. John's and Christ's Colleges at Cambridge, is said to have been born at Bletsoe. That her mother, the Duchess of Somerset, resided there in great state, may be collected from the epitaph of Ralph Lonney, formerly in the church. He is styled Cofferer and Keeper of the most noble Margaret Duchess of Somerset, then married to a third husband, Leo Lord Welles. The greater part of the mansion has been long ago pulled down; but vestiges of the ancient castellated building are plainly discernible."—Lysons' Bedfordshire. Margaret de Beauchamp had two sons by her first husband: 1. Sir John, of Bletsoe, ancestor of the extinct Earls of Bolingbroke and the present Lords St. John of Bletsoe; 2, Sir Oliver, of Lydiard Tregoze, the ancestor of the Viscounts Bolingbroke.

The eldest son, Sir John, was the great-grandfather of Oliver, who received the title of Lord St. John of Bletsoe at the accession of Queen Elizabeth in 1558. The fourth Lord was created Earl of Bolingbroke by Charles I. on a similar occasion in 1624. He survived his son and heir Lord St. John, who was killed fighting against the King at the battle of Edge Hill, having been, according to Lord Clarendon (who gives him a very evil character) one of the first that received a commission to command a troop of horse in the army of the Parliament. At his own death in 1646, the Earldom passed to his grandson, Oliver, and ended with Oliver's brother Paulet, third Earl, in 1711. The barony then devolved on one of the descendants of Sir Rowland St. John, fifth son of the third Baron of Bletsoe, the immediate ancestor of the present Lord.

Sir Oliver, the second son, described by Leland as "a stout black Man," who inherited from his mother Lydiard-Tregoze in Wiltshire, was the progenitor of several men that have left their mark on the history of their time. Of him, in the fourth generation, came another Sir Oliver, a brave and resolute soldier, who, for his services as Lord Deputy of Ireland, was created Viscount Grandison in that country in 1622, and received an English peerage as Lord Tregoze of Highworth four years afterwards. The latter expired with him in 1630, for he died s. p., but the Viscountcy passed, by special limitation, to the son of his sister Barbara. She was the wife of Sir Edward Villiers, and the ancestress of a distinguished family; for no less than four Prime Ministers are numbered among her immediate descendants. His estate at Battersea went to another nephew, Sir John, the head of the family, who was created a baronet in 1611, and lost three of his seven sons in the King's service during the Civil War.

The two youngest—one of whom, Sir Walter, became his heir, and was the founder of Battersea School—both married daughters of Chief Justice St. John, "that great lawyer over whose birth was the bar-sinister," a scion of the elder branch. Sir Walter was the father of Henry, created Viscount St. John in 1716, and the grandfather of another Henry, the "all-accomplished St. John," who had been raised to the peerage as Viscount Bolingbroke four years before.

There can be no need for me to enlarge upon so threadbare a theme as the "great but ill-regulated genius" of Lord Bolingbroke. All alike admit that he was a man of splendid talents. His intellect was of the rarest and loftiest order: keen, incisive, logical, comprehensive, inexhaustible in fertility and resource; "his penetration resembled intuition;" and he united the two gifts so seldom found together, of writing and speaking equally well. His style is absolutely faultless—a perfect model of pure English diction; and he was pronounced to be the most eloquent man of his day. "I would rather," says Pitt, "have a speech of Bolingbroke's than any of the lost treasures of antiquity." Yet, with all his unequalled powers, his career was a failure. "Ever pursuing fortune, and as constantly disappointed by her," his life was given up to fruitless intrigue, and he has the unhappy fate to be

"Remembered
As one who could do all things but succeed."

His great gifts were marred by a feeble and impetuous character, that left him at the mercy of every passing impulse and emotion; swayed hither and thither by the capricious tyranny of passion. "His head was hot, but his heart was cold;" and his private life was profligate and scandalous. He quickly gained distinction in the House of Commons; was appointed first Secretary of War, and then Secretary of State; and took his new place in the House of Lords in 1712.[45] But, two years later, he was deprived of the seals by George I. for his intrigues with the Court of St. Germains; fled to France to avoid the prosecution that was impending over him, and was attainted. He entered the service of the Pretender, and was for a short time his Secretary of State. Then, being summarily and curtly dismissed, "he resolved to make his peace at home, and obtained promises of pardon. A peerage was accordingly granted to his father, Sir Henry St. John, with remainder to his younger brothers, in 1716; but it was not till 1723 that his pardon passed the Great Seal, without, however, giving him back his forfeited estate, or his seat in the House of Peers."—Coxe's Walpole. He died in 1751. "To the last philosophy was the ornament of his discourses, but ambition the mainspring of his life. Only a few months before, he had been secretly mingling with and in some degree directing the cabals of the Prince of Wales, and eagerly planning his own advancement in the peerage.

His great anxiety seemed to be that he might die an Earl. Yet in the progress of a painful and at length fatal disease he showed a far higher degree of courage and firmness than might have been expected from a spirit which rested not on hopes of immortality."—Stanhope's History of England. He left no heirs, though he had been twice married;—the last time to a niece of Madame de Maintenon, the widowed Marquise de Villette; and by a special provision in the patent, his title passed to his half-brother, Frederick St. John, whose descendant now bears it.

Sent George :

from St. George, near St. Lo, in the Cotentin. Helias de St. George occurs in Sussex in the time of Henry I. (Mon. i. 593): and Baldwin de St. George, at about the same date, witnesses a charter of William Peverel of Dover (Mon. i. 382). The family, who came to England at the Conquest, and bear on their shield the red cross of St. George, claim to have been seated at Hatley-St. George in Cambridgeshire for fully five hundred years; but Lysons' account somewhat abbreviates this tenure. "The manor of Hatley-St. George was, as early as the reign of Henry III., in the family of St. George, who had their chief seat and a park here. Among the descendants of this family were Sir Richard St. George, Clarencieux, Sir Henry St. George, Norroy, and Henry St. George, Garter King of Arms; the latter, in whom the male line became extinct, died in 1715 at the age of ninety-two. The estate appears to have been alienated many years before his death." Eudon-George in Shropshire took its name from William de St. George, who held it about the year 1240. Sir Baldwin St. George, knight of the shire for Cambridge 1381, married the heiress or co-heiress of John d'Engayne, who brought him several manors in the county. Sir Richard, Clarencieux King of Arms, the first herald in this family of heralds,[46] and stated to be eighteenth in descent from the first Baldwin de St. George, had two younger sons who both settled in Ireland. One of them, Sir George, was grandfather to another Sir George, created Lord St. George in the peerage of Ireland in 1715. His title expired with him, but in 1763 was revived in favour of St. George Usher, who was the son of his only child, Mrs. Usher. The other brother Richard had a numerous posterity. From him descend the St. Georges of Parsonstown, the St. Georges of Wood Park, co. Armagh, the St. Georges of Woodside, Cheshire, the St. Georges of Camma Lodge in Roscommon, and the St. Georges of Woodsgift, who received a baronetcy in 1766.

Sent Les :

or Senlis: Dugdale spells it St. Liz, according to the accepted English orthography; from the town so named in France. Simon de Senlis and his brother Garnerius, who together came to the Conquest of England, are described in the Monasticon (v. 90) as the sons of "Raundoel le Ryche," but I can find no further account of their lineage. Yet it is clear that Simon was of high account and consideration, for in 1076 the Conqueror offered him the hand of his niece Judith, dowered with her two Earldoms of Huntingdon and Northampton. She had been married to Waltheoff, the son of Siward Earl of Northumberland, at the time that he had made his submission to the Conqueror, and received back his father's principality four years before. But she had proved an evil wife, for when the Earl was charged with being a favourer and accomplice of the Earl of Norfolk's rebellion, it was she "who had stood forth as his accuser in the ears of her uncle:" and though he maintained his innocence to the last, he was executed at Winchester in 1076. In this treason to her own hearth, the Countess Judith had probably a second and more congenial husband in view; but she indignantly refused to marry Simon de Senlis, who "halted on one leg," and incurred the full measure of the Conqueror's wrath by her disobedience. He seized her castle and honour of Huntingdon, and gave her town of Northampton to the disappointed Simon, "with the whole Hundred of Falkeley, then valued at 4o per annum, to provide shoes for his horses." She fled, with her three daughters, in great terror to the Isle of Ely, where Hereward then offered an asylum to all malcontents and refugees, and there, and "in other obscure places, they were exposed to shift for themselves." She reappears, however, as a great landowner in Domesday, and the foundress of a nunnery at Elstow, near Bedford; for she lived to be deeply sensible of her guilt, and "in great penitency continued all her life a widow." She is said to have visited her husband's tomb at Croyland—then venerated as the shrine of a martyred saint and working miracles of healing—with the offering of a superb pall; "but the gift was thrown back by unseen hands."

Meanwhile, Simon, no whit discouraged, had patiently bided his time; and about 1089—or thirteen years after he had been rejected by the mother—he wooed and won her eldest daughter, Maud. She brought him the two long coveted Earldoms of Northampton and Huntingdon as her marriage portion; and was the mother of three children; Simon, his successor; Waltheoff, Abbot of Melrose; and a daughter named after herself. Her husband was the founder of the castle of Northampton and the neighbouring Priory of St. Andrew's; and in his latter years assumed the cross, dying in 1115, on his way home from Jerusalem, at the French Abbey of Our Lady of Charity. "Maud consoled her widowhood with a loftier marriage. She became the wife of David of Scotland, one of the sons of Malcolm and of the holy Margaret, and who himself became one of the most renowned princes who ever wore the Scottish Crown. Through this marriage came the long connexion between the Earldom of Huntingdon and the royal house of Scotland, and through it too the blood of Waltheof, and thereby of the long list of his forefathers, human or otherwise,[47] passed into the veins of the later Kings of England, and also, if genealogists are to be trusted, into those of many of their subjects."—Freeman.

Simon II. succeeded to the Earldom of Northampton only; for the Earldom of Huntingdon was, by special grace of Henry I., conveyed to his stepfather, David of Scotland, who, on ascending the throne on the death of Alexander I. in 1124, transferred it to his only son Henry. It was not till Henry died in 1152 that, after an interval of thirty-seven years, it reverted to Simon. This Earl, called by a hostile contemporary "a man forward in promises but slow in performance," took part with Stephen, and "shared the bad fate" of the battle of Lincoln. He married Isabel de Beaumont, and died about 1154, leaving Simon III., his son and heir. Again the honours were divided. Simon III. became Earl of Northampton; but the Earldom of Huntingdon was obtained from Henry II. by Malcolm IV. King of Scots, the eldest son of Prince Henry (who had not lived to succeed his father on the throne), and therefore the grandson of David I. and the heiress Maud. It was, however, apparently not granted to him on account of his lineage, but in lieu of the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, "which he then rendered to the King." When Malcolm died after a thirteen years' reign, it passed to his brother and successor William the Lion, who forfeited it by joining the rebellion of the barons in favour of Prince Henry. The King, who was then in Normandy, sent over orders that an army should be forthwith levied to seize the castle and honour of Huntingdon, and deliver them to Earl Simon as the rightful heir. On receiving these "acceptable tidings," Simon himself took the field; and appearing before the castle with a large force, obliged the King of Scots to surrender it into his hands. Thus the grandson of the first Earl actually became the eighth bearer of this erratic title. But the contest for its possession was far from being at an end; for his right was disputed by David Earl of Carrick (the younger brother of William the Lion): and the strife was prolonged with such persistence that "the King, moved with anger, swore, That neither of them should have it: and so caused the Castle to be demolished."—Dugdale.

Earl Simon, in 1165, certified to eighty knight's fees, and "notwithstanding King Henry's rash Oath, enjoy'd the Earldom till his death in 1184." He had married a very great heiress, Alice, sole child of Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln, who brought him her father's princely Honour; but they had no children, and the Earldom of Northampton expired with him. That of Huntingdon was given by the King to William the Lion, who at once made it over to his brother; and the long-vexed question of David's claim was finally set to rest.

This third Simon had two sisters, Amice and Hawise, of whom Dugdale tells us nothing, except that they were, at the time of their father's death, in the custody of Hen. II. But he speaks of a branch surviving in the male line, derived from a junior Simon, who was a benefactor of Delapre Abbey, and the father of another Simon, mentioned under King John as having a suit for one knight's fee in Cumton against David Earl of Huntingdon. Their descendants, "fixing at Seton in Com. Rutl. assumed that place for their surname; whose Heir-female Temp. Hen. VI. became the Wife of Sir William Fielding of Newnham in Com. Warr. Knight. From whom the Right Honorable Basil, now Earl of Denbigh, is Lineally descended."

Sesse :

in Leland's list, Sesee; probably from the city of Seez, on the river Arne, in Normandy. Simon de Sais, of Gloucester and Stafford, occurs in the Pipe Roll of 1130. Thomas and William de Sais witness Geva Ridel's foundation charter of Canwell Priory in Staffordshire; and Robert de Ses Fulk Fitz Fulk's charter to Rowcester Priory in the same county (Mon. Angl). Hugo de Seis vel Saxo was a benefactor of Leicester Abbey; and about the year 1210 Gilbert de Seis occurs as a tenant to Chartley Priory. "This," says Mr. Roper, "was the Seis whose heir was married to Villiers, by which match he had Brokesby, as appears by several deeds in my custody." Nichols, on the other hand, tells us that it was William de Seis of Donington who was the father of Juliana de Seis, who became the wife of Alexander de Vilers in the time of Henry III. The house that William built at Donington-on-the-Heath (as it is now called), an oblong square with buildings projecting on the North side, is still perfect, and a fine example of the domestic architecture of that age. Reginald Sesse owned a tenement in the city of Durham, fourteenth century.—Surtees. William and Robert de Sais witness a grant to Chester Abbey of William de Meschines, whose tenants they were in Lincolnshire. Sir Desgarry Seys and Radegund his wife are afterwards mentioned in the county, as well as Cadogan Seys, their heir; but "appear to have been Welsh settlers, and had extensive possessions in Wales."[48]—Ormerod. The Seys of Shropshire had probably a similar origin. Griffin Seys held land at Marton in 1263. Robert Seys, at the Assizes of 1256, was denounced as one of the murderers of William de Albo Monasterio by Clemencia his widow; and outlawed in the Curiae Comitatus.—Eyton's Shropshire. John Gouiz, 22 Richard II., granted the manor and advowson of Durweston and Knighton to John Seys and Martin Moulish.—Hutchins' Dorset.

Saluin :

The French house of Salveing was seated in Dauphiny: and "Loyaulte de Salveing" was a proverbial saying in the province. The English Salvins, however, claim no descent from it, deriving their name from Le Silvan, probably assumed by their ancestor from his dwelling in Sherwood Forest. The patriarch of the line "Joceus le Flamangh," who came to England at the Conquest, held the third part of a knight's fee in Cukeney in Nottinghamshire, and two ploughlands of the King "by the service of shoeing the King's palfrey on all four feet, with the King's nails, as oft as he should lie at his manor of Mansfield; and if he lame the King's palfrey, or prick him, or shoe him too strait, he shall forfeit to the King a palfrey worth four marks." His grandson Thomas built a castle at Cukeney during the war between Stephen and the Empress Maud, "when," says Surtees, "almost every landed gentleman in England turned his house into a peel or castlelet:" and after the peace, in Henry II.'s time, founded Welbeck Abbey. His only child was a daughter: but his brother, Ralph le Silvan, of Woodhouse, carried on the line, and was the father of Osbert Silvan, Sheriff of Notts in 1140. "His descendants held the manor of Woodhouse, in the Forest of Sherwood, at least as late as 1330, but were more frequently styled of Thorp-Salvin,[49] a small parish on the extreme Southern border of Yorkshire. From this principal stem, before 1260, branched a younger line of Herswell and North Duffield: but the exact point from which the Salvins of Newbiggin branched off does not seem clearly ascertained. George Salvin, who died 5 Hen. V., acquired very extensive possessions by marriage with the sister and co-heir of Peter Lord Mauley, of Mulgrave. Their knightly descendants continued in wealth and splendour for several descents: but their fortunes gradually declined, and most of their extensive estates were alienated before 1700. The line terminated with Thomas Salvin, an officer in the Austrian army, who died unmarried: his only sister, Mary, married Sir John Webb, Bart.; their daughter and sole heiress, Barbara, married Anthony, sixth Earl of Shaftesbury, whose only issue, Barbara, born 1788, and now wife of the Honourable William Ponsonby, is the sole representative of Salvin of Newbiggin, and co-heir of the ancient Barony of Mauley."—Surtees. The title of De Mauley was granted to her husband in 1838, and is now borne by her son.

Of the other branches of the family, above enumerated, one only remains. A cadet of the house of Herswell in Yorkshire, Gerard Salvayn (great-grandson of the Sir Gerard who was High Sheriff of Yorkshire 24 Ed. III.) married Agnes, styled Lady of Croxdale, in the county of Durham, about the end of the fifteenth century. She was the grandchild and sole heiress of Robert de Walton, Treasurer of Brittany in 1350, and the picturesque domain that she brought to her husband has descended in uninterrupted succession, through fifteen generations, to the present owner. Its ancient name was Croixdale, from a cross that once stood in the deep glen below the house. This glen—probably from being so gloomy, and overhung by great rocks that the sun is said to have scarcely touched the roof of the old mill which stood in the narrowest part—was believed to be haunted by evil spirits. "To banish the infernal inhabitants, a cross was erected here, which gave name to the adjacent lands: so the desert of Cross Fell, in Cumberland, is in old authors and charts styled Fiend's Fell; and since the erection of a cross thereon, to vanquish the legions of Satan, it has obtained the present name of Cross Fell."—Hutchinson's Durham.

Say :

"Cil de Saie," mentioned by Wace in his account of the battle of Hastings took his name from the vill of Saium or Say, about nine miles to the west of Exmes, the caput of Roger de Montgomeri's Norman Viscountcy, and held under Roger in Normandy, as he afterwards did in England. He is known as Picot de Say, for Ficot, or Picot, at first a sobriquet only, is given as his recognised appellation in Domesday; though the son and grandson that inherited his barony were always styled De Say. There is still extant the charter by which he with his wife Adeloya, and his two sons, Robert and Henry, bestowed lands in 1060 on the Abbey founded by his suzerain at Seez. He came over to England in Roger's train; and was one of those to whom, according to Orderic, the new Earl "gave commands" in Shropshire. Twenty-nine manors were allotted to him; and Clun, as the largest of them, gave its name to his barony. In 1083, he, with the other principal men of the county, was summoned to attend at the dedication of Shrewsbury Abbey. His son Henry succeeded him, and was followed in the next generation by Helias, "whose era was nearly co-equal with Stephen's usurpation. It was probably during this period of civil convulsion, that the Baron of Clun converted Clun into an independent jurisdiction."—Anderson's Shropshire. He left an only daughter, Isabel, Lady of Clun, who was three times married, conveying her barony first to William Fitz Alan; then to Geoffrey de Vere; and lastly to William Boterell. On her death in 1199, it passed to the son of her first husband, William Fitz Alan II., and is now held by his descendant and representative, the Duke of Norfolk.

The junior branches of this family were unusually numerous. Those spoken of by Eyton in Shropshire alone form no inconsiderable list. Within thirty years of Domesday, Theodoric de Say, a cadet of the Barons of Clun, was enfeoffed by Roger de Lacy of Stoke, afterwards called Stokesay. One of his descendants, Hugh II., was possessed of Moreton Say as early as 1243, and about 1250 exchanged Stokesay with his suzerain, John de Verdon, for some property in Ireland, where he took up his abode. Robert de Say held Moreton Say in 1255, and, with William de Say, had summons to attend a great Council at Westminster. Roger de Say, in 1203, was a tenant of Robert de Buller's at Hope Bowdler and Amaston, and left Lucia and Amice his co-heirs. Then we have Eustachia de Say, co-foundress of Westwood in Worcestershire, who, in the time of Henry I., married Hugh Fitz Osborn, Baron of Burford and Richard's Castle, "Most accounts," says Eyton, "would induce us to associate her with the Barons of Clun or the Lords of Stokesay. Either supposition is, as far as I know, without foundation. Nevertheless, Eustachia must have been a person of some importance, for she left her own surname with her descendants." Both her sons married Cliffords, sisters of the Fair Rosamond, for whose "soul's health" the elder was a benefactor to Godstow in 1176. Hugh de Say, the second, eventually succeeded to Richard's Castle, and transmitted it to his son Hugh II., killed in the Welsh wars, whose daughter Margaret carried the barony to the Mortimers. His younger brother Richard was seated at Rochford. Hopesay was another of their manors.

Yet, in none of these pedigrees do we find the name of Engelram de Say, Stephen's gallant soldier, who took prisoners two of the Empress Maud's chief adherents, Reginald de Dunstanville and Baldwin de Redvers, and was himself taken prisoner at the battle of Lincoln, where, "when others turned their backs, he manifested his courage, fighting stoutly to the last."—Dugdale.

The Barons Say descended from William de Say, who married Agnes, daughter of Hugh de Grentemesnil, and gave his name to Hamme-Say (now Hamsey) in the county of Sussex. "Soon after the Conquest, the De Says built a castle here upon a little peninsula formed by the sudden winding of the Ouse, of which very slight traces now remain, and continued in possession till 1383."—Lower. In 26 Hen. III. they held fourteen knight's fees in the county of the Honour of Warren. William's grandson and namesake married the divorced wife of Hugh Talbot, Beatrix de Mandeville, who lived to be the sole heiress of that renowned house. She was the mother of two sons, William and Geoffrey. William died in his father's lifetime leaving two daughters, of whom the elder, Beatrix, was the wife of Geoffrey Fitz Piers, one of the greatest men of the kingdom, who, after a long contest, succeeded in obtaining the vast Mandeville inheritance in her right. When the last Earl of Essex died in 1190, his aunt Beatrix de Say, then a very old woman, claimed the lands and barony on behalf of her surviving son Geoffrey, and her claim was allowed; but in the end Fitz Piers carried the day, and, endowed with Mandeville's lands, sat in Mandeville's place as Earl of Essex (see Mandeville).

The despoiled Geoffrey found, however, an heiress of his own, the sister of Walkelin Maminot, who brought as her marriage portion a Kentish barony of twenty-seven knight's fees; and his son Geoffrey II. obtained a large estate in Norfolk by his wife Alice de Cheney. This latter Geoffrey was one of the twenty-five barons appointed to enforce the observance of Magna Charta. The next heir, William de Say, Constable of Rochester, fought on the King's side at Lewes, and died in 1294, as he was about to follow Edward I. to the wars of Gascony. Geoffrey III., his son, at that time a boy of fourteen, was the first Lord Say, having been summoned to Parliament in 1313. His successor, Geoffrey IV., a Banneret, and Admiral of the King's Fleet from the river Thames westwards, did such good service in France and Flanders, that, 23 Ed. III., "in expectation of the like for the future, he was entertained to serve the King in his Wars during his whole Life, with twenty men at Arms and twenty Archers."—Dugdale. He married Maud de Beauchamp, the daughter of Guy Earl of Warwick; and had (besides two sons who died young), William, third Lord, and three daughters; Idonea, married to Sir John Clinton; Elizabeth, married to Thomas de Aldone; and Joan, married to Sir William Fiennes whose grandson had summons to Parliament as Lord Say in 1447 (see
Fiennes).

The third Lord Say had only two children; John, fourth Lord, who died during his minority, while in ward to the King, in 1382; and Elizabeth, who became his heir, and was then sixteen years of age. "She married first Sir John de Falvesley, who fought the French in the battle of Rottingdean, and was there taken prisoner. He died without issue in 1392, and was buried at Lewes Priory. His widow re-married Sir William Heron, who also died without posterity. Both the husbands of Elizabeth were summoned to parliament as barons."—Lower's Sussex.

The manor of Straffend or Stratfield, since Stratfieldsaye, was granted to Robert de Say by Henry III,; and passed from his descendants to the Dabridge-courts.—Woodward's Hants. Lawford-Says, in Norfolk, was held by Sir John Saye in 1478.

Solers :

from Soliers, near Caen. In the fifteenth century the De Forbins held Soliers, and two hundred years afterwards took their title from it on receiving a Marquisate. See Anselme. "The family came to England at the Conquest. Thurston de Solariis settled in Hereford, and Humphrey his brother with Bernard de Newmarch, 1088, in Brecon (Jones, Brecon, i. 92), where the family continued in the seventeenth century. Richard de Solariis in 1165 held three fees of ancient enfeoffment (Liber Niger.) Walter de Solars held Hope-Solar, Herefordshire, in the thirteenth century."—The Norman People. We also find; in the same county, Hopton-Solers, Bridge Solers, Solers-Dillwyn, and Neen Solers. "So many of this name are mentioned in connection with property during a lengthened period in the counties of Hereford and Gloucester, that it is difficult to identify them with any genealogical accuracy. It seems probable that the term "de solariis" was a nomen commune, and that the parties of the same designation were not descendants of a common ancestor" (Cook's 3rd vol. of Duncumb's Herefordshire). They held Neen-Solers at the end of the twelfth century, and had held Hope-Solers for several generations as mesne-lords before Simon de Solers became its owner through his wife Isabel Stokes, the youngest of two co-heiresses (the elder, Alice, married Robert le Archer, and brought him Aston). "William de Solers inherited Pauntley in Gloucestershire thro' his mother, only child of John de Pauntley. He left two sons, Richard and Simon. Walter, son of Richard, was mesne-lord of Hope, and a Thomas de Solers occurs as owner of Hope and Pauntley 51 Hen. III.; but whether he was Simon's son is uncertain. Sir John, Thomas's son, married Joan de Sitsylt (Cecil), and left an only daughter and heir Maud, married to William Whyttyngton of Warwickshire."—Ibid. Her grandson was the famous "model merchant of the Middle Ages," Sir Richard Whittington, three times Lord Mayor of London, whose picturesque story has been familiar to us from our nursery days.[50] According to "the local tradition of four centuries, he was born at Hope-Solers; though Lysons, in his Memoirs, suggests Pauntley, contrary to the hitherto accepted tradition. The fact that Sir William his father died under sentence of outlawry, suggests that the isolated dwelling of Hope-Solers would be the safest retreat."—Ibid.

Shipton-Solers in Gloucestershire came through a co-heiress of the Pohers in the time of Henry III., and in the following century passed to the Tyrrels.—v. Atkyn's Gloucestershire. Simon de Solers, of Wyneston in the same county, was pardoned in 1322 as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, on condition of his serving the King in his wars. John de Solers, of Potteslop in Gloucestershire and Dorsinton in Herefordshire, in the same year was one of the Commissioners of Array for Gloucester, and in 1324 was summoned from Herefordshire to the great Council at Westminster.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs.

The family was, it would appear, to be found in other counties. Richard de Soliers, of Notts and Derby, occurs in 1189-90. (Rot. Pip.)

Saulay :

a duplicate.

Sent Albin :

from a place so named near Evreux: another West-country family. Mauger de St. Albyn witnessed the foundation charter of Barnstaple Abbey in the time of the Conqueror, and his posterity remained for many generations in Devonshire. Their earliest recorded residence was Pickwell, in the parish of George Ham, where Sir Mauger de St. Albino was seated in the latter days of Henry III. "This knight and his lady are interred in the church, under a fair monument of free stone, with their representations neatly cut; and he lying in his armour makes show of large stature, something more than ordinary. The inhabitants report from their ancestors that he was of giant-like stature, and therefore named Major St. Aubyn, mistaking Major for Mauger or Maugis, a common name in those days. He was of so great and extraordinary strength that he was able to cast a huge main stone a very large length. The stone is yet there to be seen, and the throw marked out by two erected monuments yet extant, and the stone is so weighty that two strong men of this age are but able to lift it."—Gilberts Cornwall. In 1280, it appears by a charter that Stephen de St. Aubyn possessed Hengestridge (now written Hentsridge), where he lived, and that the bezants of the family coat were then on a cross, as the Cornish branch bears them, while the Somersetshire St. Aubyns have them on a bend. Baldwin, his descendant, was in 1369 settled at Paracombe, of which the manor and advowson were still retained in the last century by the St. Aubyns of Alfoxton. About a hundred years later John de St. Aubyn transplanted the family into Somersetshire by his marriage with Joan Popham, who, on her death in 1493, devised Alfoxton to their son, who has transmitted it to a long line of successors.

Clowance, "for many ages the seat of the Seyntaubins" in Cornwall, had been acquired somewhat earlier by Geoffrey de St. Aubyn, through his wife Elizabeth Kymyel: "from whence downwards we look upon this Family as Cornish."—Wotton's Baronetage. Yet it seems evident that they had been settled in the county at least during one generation; for Sir Guy de St. Aubyn was Sheriff of Cornwall 2 Richard II., and married a co-heiress of the old house of Sergreaulx, Seriseaux, or Ceriseaux. But this Alice Sergreaulx re-married Richard Earl of Oxford, and passed away her possessions to the children of her second husband. Fifth in descent from Geoffrey was Thomas, Carew's "Mr. Saintabin, whose very name (besides the Conquest roll) deduceth his first ancestours out of France. His grandfather married Greinville; his father one of Whittington's heirs, on which latter estate he, in a long and peaceable date of years, exercised a kinde, liberal, and never discontinued hospitality. Himself took to wife the daughter of Mallet, and with ripe knowledge, and sound judgment, dischargeth the place which he beareth in his country."—Survey of Cornwall. His grandson John married the heiress of Francis Godolphin of Trevenege, and bought from the Bassets, who had been greatly impoverished by the Civil Wars, the picturesque hold of St. Michael's Mount in 1660. The next heir, created a baronet in 1671, was the first of five successive Sir Johns, several of whom again added to their estates by marriage. About the beginning of the last century, the third Sir John St. Aubyn took to wife Catherine Morice, who eventually inherited from her brother Sir Nicholas Stoke Damarell, "now by far the most valuable manor in the West of England."[51] For more than six centuries it had remained an obscure hamlet, while the neighbouring vill of Sutton had developed into the burgh of Plymouth, "a naval port of resort of the first rank." But it had no dockyard. "Until 1690, the royal ships at Plymouth were wholly dependent upon the accommodation of private yards. William of Orange saw the need of remedying this state of things soon after he came to the throne, for plans for 'a dock in the Hamoaze' were prepared in 1689; and in the following year a little creek was utilized in the construction of the first basin and dock. This was the germ from which has grown the great naval arsenal of the West, the works of which now all but monopolize, in one form or another, the water-side for miles along the eastern shores of the Tamar estuary."—Worth's Devon.

The last and fifth Sir John St. Aubyn died in 1839 without legitimate issue. The old home at Clowance was then inherited by the son of his sister, Mrs. Molesworth; and the representation of the family passed to the descendants of the younger son of John St. Aubyn, and the Godolphin heiress, in whose favour the title was revived a few years ago. With it, by virtue of an old entail, they hold the golden manor on which stands the town of Devonport, and still dwell

"Where the great vision of the guarded Mount
Looks towards Numancos and Bayona's hold."

Furthermore, on the occasion of Her Majesty's Jubilee, June 21, 1887, the title of Lord St Levan was conferred upon Sir John St. Aubyn.

Sent Martin :

from St. Martin in Normandy. "This family descends from Walter, Lord of St. Martin, who about 980 married a niece of Duchess Gunnora. William his son was father of Roger, Lord of Mortemer, and of Ralph, Sire de Garenne, and of the Sire de St. Martin, from whom came the family of St. Martin in Normandy and England."—The Norman People. Notwithstanding the splendour of their lineage, no St. Martin is to be found in Domesday, either as tenant in chief or mesne-lord, though "Le Seigneur de St. Martin" is entered in the list of the combatants at Hastings given by Tailleur in the Norman Chronicle. Roger de St. Martin was Lord of Hempton, Norfolk, in the time of Henry I., and founded a Priory for Black Canons of the Order of St. Augustine, dedicated to St. Stephen. He had been enfeoffed by his kinsman Earl Warrenne, and his descendants continued there till the reign of Ed. II.—v. Blomfield's Norfolk. Was he the same Roger de St. Martin that is mentioned in Richard, second Earl of Chester's confirmation charter to St. Werburgh's? In Essex, Abel de St. Martin has left his name to "the capital manor of Halsted, call'd Abel's, which name is still retained in the Court Rolls. His habitation was on the left hand side of Heningham Lane, in a house still called Abel's, but now very much decayed and mean. His heirs held two knights' fees in Halsted and Belchamp of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who died 47 Henry III."—Morant's Essex. They bore Sable, six lioncels Or.

Two of the name occur in the Liber Niger: Alured de St. Martin, who held of the Earl of Eu in Sussex: and William de St. Martin, who held of the Abbess of Wilton in Wiltshire. Alured, who appears as a witness to one of Henry II.'s charters, and is frequently mentioned in the Norman Exchequer Rolls, must have had many other possessions besides the solitary knight's fee credited to him in Sussex. He married the widowed Countess of his suzerain, Alice, eldest daughter of William de Albini "with the strong hand," Earl of Arundel, and Queen Adeliza; and in 1176, with his brother Robert, founded the monastery of St. Mary's near Salehurst. Robert then built a bridge over the Rother, which was called after him Robert's Bridge, and gave its name to the new foundation, as well as to the town that grew up around it, always written Pontus Robertus in the muniments of Battle Abbey. The Countess of Eu endowed it with seventy acres of her land. I can find no further mention of the St. Martins in Sussex: but the Wiltshire branch flourished till the latter end of the fourteenth century, and have left their name to Barford St. Martin in that county. They acquired a third part of the barony of Waleran the Hunter through the heiress Joan de Nevill, and held Ulsefeld St. Martin in Hampshire, and part of Bardolveston in Dorsetshire. Laurence, the last heir-male, died an idiot in 1383, and the inheritance passed to his nephew Henry, the son of Sir John Popham by his sister Sibyl. Another sister, Joan de St. Martin, the elder of the two, would appear to have died unmarried.

A romantic story is told of a knight of this family about sixty years before. "On Monday before Ascension Day, 1317," writes Walsingham, one of the greatest heiresses of the kingdom, Alice de Lacy, the only child of Thomas Earl of Lincoln, Constable of Chester, and wife of the Earl of Lancaster, was carried off from her husband's house at Camford in Dorsetshire, "by a certain knight of the house of John, Earl of Warrenne," as was alleged, with the King's assent, and conveyed "in great triumph" to the Earl's castle at Reigate. But, "by the way, the conductors supposing they had seen flags or banners between the hedges and woods of Halton and Farnham afar off (which was nothing but priests in their surplices walking in procession with the people in the fields, according to their custom), were struck with a great fear, thinking the Earl of Lancaster, her husband, had been coming with a power to revenge her injury, and so ran away, leaving the lady almost alone. But the matter being discovered, they returned with threatenings and pomp: with whom there was a low, lame, hulch-back'd fellow, called Richard de St. Martin, who being back'd with great aid, challeng'd the miserably derided lady as his wife." He declared that she had been contracted to him before her marriage with the Earl of Lancaster, and had lived with him as his wife: and although "reputed a most noble lady all her lifetime before," the Countess was forced to acknowledge this to be true. "Whereupon the said Richard, triumphing over her, presumes to challenge the Earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury in the King's Court, as in right of his wife." He certainly did not succeed in establishing his claim in Westminster Hall: and as Camden tells us that Alice de Lacy was only nine years old when she became Countess of Lancaster, the allegation of a previous clandestine marriage is an absurdity. But that she had always been well "reputed," is, on the other hand, a glaring and complete falsehood. She was a woman of notoriously bad character, repudiated by the Earl several years before his death, who "lived in unlawful familiarity with Eubolo Le Strange," her second husband, long before she married him. Singular as it may appear, it seems proven that this little hunchback was a favoured lover, and that the pretended abduction was in reality concerted between them. Dr. Whitaker, in alluding to this "very disgraceful story," adds; "On the authority of a memorandum in Dodsworth's MS., I will mention that the fact which gave rise to the tragedy of Sir John Elland, of Elland, was a fray between the retainers of Earl Warrenne and the husband of this lady, on her account."

In Sir Francis Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs, I find mention of a Henry de St. Martin, Lord of Hollyn, Yorkshire, in 1316: and of a John de St. Martin, who at the same date held parts of the manors of Chilton and Easington in Buckinghamshire.

Sourdemale:

for Surdeval, as it stands in Leland's list. "Ricardus de Surdeval, in 1086, was one of the two great tenants of the Count of Mortaine in Yorkshire, holding of him, out of some one hundred and eighty manors no less than fifty-five in various parts of the county; more than most of the tenants in capite possessed. He seems to have accompanied his lord from his Comte of Mortaine, and to have come from Sourdeval-le-Barre, near the town of Mortaine. We have no doubt a brother of Richard in Robert de Sourdeval, one of those Normans settled in Italy, who went with Bohemund, Prince of Tarentum, to the Holy Land in the first crusade. (Ord. Vit. ix. iv.)

"Richard has not been met with as a benefactor to the monasteries, nor even as witness to a charter. He probably died not long after the date of the Survey; and some of his manors were, in the next reign vested in Ralph Paynell, apparently in right of his wife Matilda, who will have been daughter and co-heiress, if not sole heiress, of Richard. He must, however, have brought one kinsman at least with him; and in Eudo de Surdeval, the second Abbot of Furness, in the reign of Henry I., and in Peter and William de Surdeval, who, as tenants of Walter Espec, the Baron of Helmsley, witness the foundation charter of Rievaulx Abbey, 1131, we probably have nephews. William de Surdevalle, in the next generation, gave lands in Ampleforth to Byland Abbey."—A. S. Ellis.

The Seigneurs de Sourdeval were, according to M. de Gerville, a branch of the House of Verdun, and took the name of Le Moigne in Normandy. They were long seated in Holderness. Amandus de Surdival, in 1280, was a benefactor of Routh Priory: and "John de Surdeval" (with Thomas de Monceaux) "4 Ed. III. received the Ring's mandate to appoint and array the men of Holderness, and lead them by night and by day to join the King at Carlisle and proceed to the Scottish marches, no one capable of bearing arms to be excused under forfeiture of body and goods."—Poulson's Holderness. This John was of Beningholme; but Amandus was seated at Routh, and sometimes styled De Routh—the name borne by all his descendants. They continued there till the time of Henry VII., when Brian Routh's heiress married John Cutt; and bore Barry of six, Gules and Azure, a bendlet engrailed Sable. Two brass effigies within the altar rails of Routh Church commemorate Sir John de Routh and his wife, living in 1420: and another figure of a crusader, brought there from the church-yard, is traditionally believed to represent one of the family. This latter is of the time of Henry III., and greatly shattered. Sir John and his wife, as good Lancastrians, both wear the collar of SS. "The unusual mode in which the knight's anclace is attached to the right side should be noticed. This mode of fastening is visible only on a very few brasses—as here, and at Brabourne in Kent." The name of Surdeval is found in Yorkshire as late as 1539. At the Dissolution of the monasteries, a presbyter named Randulph Surdevell received a pension of 6.—Ibid.

William Sturdival occurs among the gentry of Huntingdonshire in 1433.

Seguin :

Sengryn, according to Leland. Many of this name are to be met with in the Hundred Rolls of the time of Edward I. About 1272, Alan Segeyn, Segin, or Segyn, with John, Robert, and Agnes, Robert's daughter, held in Kent: Hugh in Oxon; Richard Segrim or Segin both there and in Lincoln; and Elias Walter, Henry, and Roger Segrim in Bucks.

Sent Barbe:

or St. Barbara. In Normandy a town and two villages bear the name of this saint; but from which of them the existing family is derived it would be hard to say. The town—Ste. Barbe-en-Auge—contained a Priory of Canons Regular, founded by King Stephen, and endowed by him with lands in England.

William de St. Barbara, Dean of York, was elected Bishop of Durham in 1143, during the usurpation of the See by Cumin. He was chosen, almost by stealth, by some monks that had made good their escape to York, and "was with difficulty prevailed upon to accept the arduous office." His misgivings were amply justified by the event. For sixteen months he was virtually excluded from his diocese, and driven from one place of refuge to another. He was first the guest of Roger Conyers, the Hereditary Constable of Durham, one of his few loyal subjects, at Bishopston; then had to seek sanctuary in the church of Yarrow; whence, for his greater security, he was transferred to Lindisfarne; and finally retired, "helpless and disspirited," to Newcastle. Meanwhile, the soldiers of Cumin, "sallying from the impregnable fortress of Durham, spread everywhere terror and devastation. On such of their opponents as fell into their power the most savage cruelties were exercised.... Cumin seems to have possessed an inventive genius that might have done credit to an Inquisitor General. Some of his prisoners were suspended across ropes, with heavyweights attached to their neck and feet; others were repeatedly plunged in the frozen bed of the river: of others the naked feet, protruded through an aperture in the wall, were exposed to all the severity of the night."—Surtees' Durham. At length, however, when the cause of the Empress Maud, which he had always championed, became desperate, Cumin judged it wisest to submit, and the Bishop, on entering Durham, found his sanguinary rival, attired in the humble garb of a penitent, prostrated at his feet.

St. Barbara was enthroned as Prince Palatine in October 1144, and ruled for nine years in peace and honour, spending his revenue "in restoring the ruined churches and public buildings of his diocese. He lived in harmony with the Monasteries; and though it was not in his power from the pressure of the times to bestow on their Church either possessions or ornaments, he merited their affection and esteem by the generous and unaffected kindness of his disposition. His person was venerable, his manners simple and dignified, and his eloquence impressive."—Ibid. Nothing whatever is known of his lineage.

I now come to the old Somersetshire family of St. Barbe, still represented in the neighbouring county of Southampton. They were tenants of the Abbot of Glastonbury, of whom they held South Brent, and are often mentioned in the monastic Chronicle. It is there pointed out, as a remarkable coincidence, that the coif and veil of the holy Barbara were among the relics preserved in the Abbey with which they were so early and so long connected. Their first ancestor, Robert de Sainte Barbe, is said—according to the too familiar phrase—to have come over with the Conqueror; but their tenure can scarcely have been of so ancient a date, as their name is not found in the earliest lists. About one hundred and fifty years later occurs a second Robert, whose grandson, Richard Seintbarbe, received in 1295 from the Abbey as a life-pittance or corrody, "a yearly pension of ten pounds, to be paid out of the exchequer of Glastonbury at the feast of Easter and St. Michael, by equal portions; and also a winter robe yearly to him and Richard his son and heir, during their lives, of the same suit that the Lord Abbot's esquires were wont to wear, with convenient fur thereunto belonging." For this, according to the received custom, he must have surrendered either the whole or the greater part of his estate: content to dwell as a comfortable pensioner, under the wing of the great Abbey, fed, clothed, and sheltered from harm or aggression. Those that came after him might take care of themselves; "for this fashion of corrody," writes Kingsley, "was one which brought much land to monks, and grudging to heirs at law." In this case, however, the son at least is included in the provision.

Richard's grandson, John, married Margaret Langland, whose mother had been a Furneaux: and when the great Furneaux inheritance came to be subdivided in 1420, Ashington (also in Somersetshire) fell to the share of the St. Barbes, and became their principal residence. Some seventy years later, on the decease of another Richard St. Barbe, the family formed three distinct branches, seated respectively at Ashington, Salisbury, and Whiteparish. Edward St. Barbe of Ashington, representing the elder line, acquired through a Fleming heiress the estate of Broadlands in Hampshire, which was sold to Viscount Palmerston in 1723, on the death of his great-grandson John, who left no posterity. This John had received a baronetcy from Charles II. in 1663: and is described on his monument at Ashington as "possessed of those amiable qualities that birth, education, travel, greatness of spirit, and goodness of heart produce." The second, or Salisbury branch, had ended earlier, with an heiress, Mrs. Usher, whose daughter Mary married Henry Colley, and was the great-grandmother of the Duke of Wellington and Marquess Wellesley. The third, which was seated at Whiteparish, still survives. Its founder, William St. Barbe, (the youngest son of the above mentioned Richard) obtained an introduction to the household of Henry VIII. through Cardinal Wolsey, who had originally been rector of Limington, a parish adjoining Ashington, and did not forget, in his new elevation, the family from whom he had probably received kindness when he was only a poor unknown village priest. William was named gentleman of the Privy Chamber, and so far gained his master's favour, that at the dissolution of the monasteries, the King granted him the College of St. Edmund at New Sarum, of which Whiteparish formed part. His son Edward built a house there, but it was alienated in 1576; and his descendants are now seated at Lymington in Hampshire.

Several others of the name that are incidentally mentioned, do not appear in this pedigree. William Barbe witnessed a deed relating to the Abbey Church of Bath and a grant of the manor of Bermondsey, both in the reign of Henry I.: and in that of Henry II., Roger Barbe occurs in the chartulary of Repton Priory. Henry St. Barbe was one of the Commissioners appointed to perambulate Gillingham Forest, Dorset, in 1300: and Jordan de St. Barbe, 1322-5, was an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, and received a writ of military summons.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs.

Sent Vile :

"Will'mus de Senevile" occurs in the Cheshire Domesday (p. 104) as one of the heirs of Richard de Kingslegh; and Simon de Senevile held at Lokington in Leicestershire 25 Ed. I. But I believe this name stands for Sandville, with which it corresponds in Duchesne's list, and is consequently a duplicate. See Sandvile.

Souremount :

In the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1198-1203, I find mention of a "De Soramonda," in the bailifry of Jordan de la Laund, to whom he paid a fine for license to marry. Peter de Surcomunt, 1165, held half a knight's fee of Gervase Paganell in Staffordshire.—Liber Niger. "He was heavily fined on the Stafford Pipe Roll of 22 Hen. II., under pretence of an infraction of the Forest Laws, but in reality for his participation in the rebellion of the King's sons. A note against his fine of twenty marks, stating it to be collected in Berkshire, denotes the locality of this fee, but I have been unable to identify it."—Staffordshire Historical Collections, vol. i. The name is occasionally written Suzcolmunt. Agnes de Scirmound occurs in Oxfordshire about 1272.—Rotuli Hundredorum.

Soreglise :

Of this name I am unfortunately unable to give any account at all. I have never met with it anywhere. It has some affinity to Belenglize, a Norman seigneurie mentioned in the Exchequer Rolls of the twelfth century. Or is it simply a contraction of Sainte-Mere-Eglise, the well known Cotentin barony near Valognes?

Sanduile :

or Sandeville, from Sandarville, near Chartres. "In 1165 William de Sandville held four fees of the honour of Skipton, York; and Gervasius de Sandville one fee (Liber Niger). William de Sandville, temp. Hen. II., witnessed a charter of Boxgrove Priory, Sussex (Mon. i. 593). Manasses de Sandville held lands in Hants in the thirteenth century (Testa): and Thomas de Sandville or Saunderville in 1322 was summoned from Berks for service against the Scots (Palgrave's Parl. Writs)."—The Norman People. He was joint Lord of West Enborn and East Enborn, as also of South Moreton and Fowles Cote in Berkshire.—Ibid. But here my information ends.

Sauncey :

or Sacie; Latinized Salceto; from Sassy, in the arrondissement of Avranches, near Pontorsin sometimes spelt Sacie. and given as Saussai on the Dives Roll. The "sire de Sassy" figures among the combatants at Hastings in Wace's Roman de Ron. "The name appears in the Battle Abbey Roll, but we have no farther account of the lineage in England."—Sir Francis Palgrave. This is scarcely correct, for two barons of the name are entered in Domesday: "Osbernus de Salceid," holding in Devon, and "Radulphus de Salceit," holding in Hereford, whose descendants are to be met with in many parts of the country. Another Ralph de Salcei was seated in Gloucestershire 1155-1158 (Rotul. Pip.): and in 1189-90 Rogo de Saci held of the Bishop of Winchester; Robert de Salceio was of Buckinghamshire, and William de Salceio of Oxfordshire. Kiddington, in the latter county, came into their possession "soon after the Conquest. They were a family of high rank and distinction, though unnoticed in history, and were seized of very considerable lands and jurisdictions, not only in Oxfordshire, but in Buckinghamshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Herefordshire and Northamptonshire, where I am of opinion that Salcey Forest took its name from them."—Warton's Antiquities of Kiddington. It is supposed that the old church of Kiddington (of which the chancel only is now left) was built by one of them in the reign of Stephen; and they presented to this church, as well as to that of Asterley, in 1221 and 1232. "It is probably owing to the defect of the Lincoln registers, that we do not find much earlier presentations from this family to these benefices. About the year 1200, Sibill de Saucey married Richard de Willescote, or Williamscote, who, dying before or during 1232, left his son Thomas heir."—Antiquities of Oxfordshire. They were seated at Harpole in Northamptonshire. Adeline, the heiress of Norman de Montfautrel, was the mother of Sir Robert de Saucei, Sheriff of the county 7 Hen. II., whose son, another Sir Robert, left five daughters his co-heirs. Baker's Northants.

In Leicestershire Anketin de Saucey gave his name to Newbold-Saucey, a parcel of the fee of Harcourt; and Overton-Saucey passed to Simon de Saucey from the Bernevilles. The heir of Robert de Saucey held, in 1240, of the Honour de Ferrers; and Simon, in 1287, was a benefactor of Ouston Abbey; his son Robert and his grandson Robert confirmed the grant. Their residence was in the neighbourhood of Newbold, at Saucey, or Sauvay Castle, between Laund and Withcote; afterwards the seat of Lord Basset of Weldon. In old deeds the name is sometimes written Salcey. "I find," says Nicholls, "by the pedigree of Archer of Tamworth, that William Archer (whose grandson died in 1299) married Margery, daughter and heir of Sir John Sawcy of Orton-Sawcy, co. Leicester. This family had large possessions in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, which fell amongst co-heirs in or about Henry III." Lastly, we find Emeric de Sacy, early in the thirteenth century, holding Burton-Sacey (Burton Stacy it is now called) and Newton-Sacey in Hampshire, with lands at Pembere and Selborne. Burton Sacey, with its belongings, was held by new feoffment as one knight's fee. Some of his estate was by gift of Henry III.: and it further appears, from a grant made in 1224 at Southampton, that he enjoyed a yearly pension of 20. "In 1221, the Sheriff of Hants was ordered to proclaim that, unless sufficient cause should be shown to the contrary, the day of the market in the manor of Emeric de Sacey de Burton should be changed from Saturday to Friday. Some years later, we find Richard le Hayward, one of Emeric's men (the hayward of his manor, in fact) trespassing against the men of Burton, and taken into the custody of the Sheriff."—Woodward's Hampshire. In 1324 the Sacy lands had passed—probably through an heiress—to the Coudreys.

Sirewast :

for Sifrewast, or, according to the French orthography, Chiffrevast. "The Norman castle of Tamerville appears to have been held by the family of Siffrevast, so well known among our baronage. They quartered Percy and Anneville."—Sir Francis Palgrave. This must refer to the year 1412, when Robin, Sire d'Anneville de Montaigu, acquired the seigneurie of Chiffrevast through the daughter of Robert de Percy, whose wife had been the heiress of Jean de Chiffrevast. "This marriage gave the name of Anneville de Chiffrevast to a branch of the house of Anneville, who possessed Chiffrevast down to the first twelve years of the present century, when it was sold to Le Brun, afterwards Due de Plaisance."—Recherches sur le Domesday. From this it seems clear that the French line terminated with Jean de Chiffrevast, who died in the latter part of the fourteenth century. In England the family continued for about two hundred years more, and was extremely numerous. The first of whom I find mention is Robert de Sifrewast, whose grants to Leicester Abbey were confirmed by Henry II.—Nichol's Leicestershire. They were seated in Dorsetshire at an early date, having, according to the county historian, Hutchins, been "more anciently seated in Oxfordshire," where Nicholas Sifrewast occurs about 1272. (Rot. Hundred.) Coker calls them "men of great antiquity and good note;" and John Cifrewast and Robert Cifrewast several times appear as knights of the shire during the reign of Edward II. At that time they were divided into two distinct branches; one seated at Hook and Crowell, and ending with John Cifrewast, who died a minor in 1360, leaving his inheritance to his sister, married to Maltravers; and another at More-Crichel, which survived till 1581. The tomb of the last heir male bears this inscription:

"Lord of More-Crichell was he by descent,
Three hundred years possess'd in lyne and name."

His daughter Dorothy conveyed the estate to the Napiers, from whom it passed to the Sturts, its present possessors.

In Wiltshire, Richard de Scifrewast is found in the Hundred Rolls of Edward I. "Roger Sifrewast or Cyfrewas was a principal tenant of Chitterne under the Earl of Sarum, and also held some lands in capite. From him the property descended to his son Sir Richard, whose daughter and heir married John de Tichborne, Sheriff of Wilts 14 Ed. II.—Hoare's Wilts. "Robert de Sifflewast, in the thirteenth century, held two knights' fees of the Bishop of Winchester, and was succeeded by his son William. In 1255 Bartholomew Peche gave 600 marks for the custody of the lands in Berks, Hants, and Essex, and heirs (with the right of giving them in marriage) of William de Sifrewast, deceased."—Woodward's Hampshire. Hampsted Cifrewast was one of the Berkshire manors.

Again, in Herefordshire, Syferwast, an estate in the parish of Cowarne Magna, "now called Cowarne Court, was anciently held by a family of that name. Sir John Syferwast died about the close of the fifteenth century, leaving a daughter and heiress married to * * * Berrington."—Duncumb's Herefordshire.

Their coat is preserved in the "Sixth Nobility Roll of Arms," now in the British Museum. "Le Sr Cifrewast" bears Azure, three bars gemelles, a chief Or.

Sent Cheueroll :

Saltucapris, or Saltucaprioli; from Saultchreveuil in the Cotentin. The crest, "a goat statant," was in allusion to the name. "The family held a fief in Derby from the barony of Chaurces. In the thirteenth century, Patricius de Saucheverel held one knight's fee at Sallow and Hopwell, Notts and Derby (Testa de Nevill, 13). The descent is regularly traced from him."—The Norman People. Ralph Sacheverel of Hopwell in Derbyshire, and his son John, were among the esquires who, in 1474 bound themselves by indenture to serve William Lord Hastings in peace and war. John married Joan, sole heiress of William Zouche of Bulwich, who brought him Morley, the principal seat of his descendants; and was knighted by Richard III. before the battle of Bosworth, in which he was slain. His younger brother Richard obtained an estate in Notts. "After the attainder of Humphrey Duke of Buckingham, Ratcliffe-on-Soar came to Sir Richard Sacheverel, who left it to Ralph Sacheverel, his brother or near kinsman; in which name and family it continued till Henry Sacheverell, the last owner there, estated the same on Sir Thomas Hutchinson, his sister's son; but he, out of tenderness to his cousin Eleanor, the wife of Roger Columbell, the sole daughter and heir of the said Henry Sacheverel his uncle, agreed to divide it between them. This Eleanor, after her husband Columbell's decease, married her servant William Hasard, who proved a good husband to her, and a kind and faithful father to her children."—Thoroton's Notts. The great Hungerford heiress, who brought to her first husband, Edward, second Lord Hastings, the three baronies of Hungerford, Botreaux, and Molines, remarried, after his death in 1507, Sir Richard Sacheverel of Ratcliffe-on-Soar.

The Sacheverels of Derbyshire continued to flourish till the beginning of the last century. It was to Mistress Lucy Sacheverel that Richard Lovelace, "the most amiable and beautiful person that eye ever beheld," addressed the exquisite lines written "To Lucasta on going to the Wars." She had reproached him for his unkindness in leaving her. He replies:

"True, a new mistresse now I chase,
The first foe in the field!
And with a stronger faith imbrace
A sword, a horse, a shield.

"Yet this inconstancie is such
As you, too, must adore;
I could not love thee, deare, so much,
Loved I not honour more."

He took service with the French King, and was so badly wounded at the siege of Dunkirk that he was left for dead. When, after a tardy and protracted convalescence, he at last returned to England, it was to find his Lucasta married.

The name, abbreviated to Cheverel, is of very old date in Dorsetshire, where they were seated at East Stoke and at Chantmarle—the latter place acquired through an heiress in the time of Henry VI. During the seventeenth century they again began to call themselves Sacheverel. "What relation they bore to the Sacheverels of Newhall, co. Warwick, and of Morley, co. Derby, does not appear; but those bore the same arms as these. The family are by some writers deduced from Nottinghamshire; and there were, till very lately, some in Warwickshire."—Hutchins' Dorset. John Cheverel was Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 1471 and 1472. Little-Cheverell, in Wiltshire, bears their name.

One of this family attained great notoriety in the reign of Queen Anne by "the most petulant railings against Dissenters and Low church men." Strangely enough, he was himself the son of a clergyman who had been thrown into prison as a Nonconformist, and died in Dorchester gaol. This Dr. Sacheverel, "whose memory is precious in the West of England," had been burnt in effigy by his Somersetshire congregation for preaching a sermon on the day of Charles II.'s accession from the text, "But if ye do wickedly, ye shall be consumed, both you and your King." When brought to trial for refusing to read the book of Common Prayer "he behaved himself so well, that the Judge said to those about him, 'Have you no other man then in your country to single out for a pattern of your severity?'" He left a numerous family, in very poor circumstances. One of the sons, Henry, was adopted by an apothecary who was his godfather, and sent him, when only fifteen, to Magdalen College, Oxford, where he was the "cotemporary and chamber-fellow of Addison." He took holy orders, began life as a college tutor, and in 1705 was appointed preacher at St. Saviour's, Southwark. Four years later, "resolved to force himself into popularity and preferment," he preached the two famous sermons—one at Derby Assizes, the other at St. Paul's—for which he was impeached in the following year by the House of Commons. They were "written," says Bishop Burnet, "without either chasteness of style or liveliness of expression;" yet forty thousand copies of them were sold, for "the Lord Treasurer Godolphin was so described" (under the name of Volpone) "that it was next to naming him:" the Church was declared in danger, and they further maintained the doctrines of non-resistance and passive obedience, which seemed to impugn the Revolution of 1688, and consequently the Queen's title to the crown. During his trial, which lasted for the better part of a month, he was the hero of the hour: multitudes followed his coach, pressing forward to kiss his hand. "The words upon which all shouted was," says an eye-witness, "the Church and Sacheverel! and such as joined not in the shout were insulted and knocked down: before my own door, one, with a spade, cleft the skull of another who would not shout as they did." The Guards had to be called out to quell the riots. He was found guilty, but censured "very gently;" his sermons were publicly burnt, and he was suspended from preaching for three years; yet this ridiculous prosecution, which overthrew the Ministry, laid the foundation of his fortunes. During his suspension, he made a sort of triumphal procession through the country: in the same month that it ended, the Queen presented him with a valuable rectory; and soon after, a considerable estate at Callow, in Derbyshire, was left to him by his kinsman George Sacheverel. Little more is heard of him, except by quarrels with his parishioners. He died in 1724. "He was a bold insolent man, with a very small measure of religion, virtue, learning, or good sense."—Burnet. In Feckenham Park, Worcestershire, Sir Godfrey Kneller, "to mark the folly of the age, has drawn a picture of Dr. Sacheverel carried away by the Furies." On the other hand, some doggerel rhymes, current at a Cornish election, forbade voters to return any man who was not

"Sound as a bell
For the Church, the Queen, and Sacheverel:"

The Sacheverels bore Argent, on a saltire Azure, three water-bougets of the first.

Sent More :

This name, freighted with so lofty a destiny in the years to come, was taken from St. Maur, near Avranches. "Wido de St. Maur came to England 1066, and was deceased before 1086, when William Fitz Wido his son held a barony in Somerset, Wilts, and Gloucester, and ten manors in Somersetshire (of which Portishead was one) from Geoffrey Bishop of Coutances. He made conquests in Wales c. 1090, which his family afterwards held. He had 1. Peter de St. Maur, who granted Portishead to the Hospitallers (Mon. ii. 530) and was ancestor of the Lords St. Maur, barons by writ 1314, who bore Argent two chevrons Gules: 2. Richard Fitz William, who inherited the Welsh barony, and t. Stephen granted four churches in Wales to Kadwalli Abbey (Mon. i. 425). This marcher barony was re-conquered soon after by the Welsh. His son Thomas de St. Maur held three knts. fees from Humphrey de Bohun in Wilts (Liber Niger), and had issue Bartholomew, who witnessed the charter of Keynsham Abbey, c. 1170 (Mon. ii. 298). His son, William de St. Maur, conquered Penhow and Woundy, Monmouth, from the Welsh about 1235, and was the ancestor of the Seymours."—The Norman People. This is the only. attempt that I have met with to connect the historical house of Seymour with the baronial St. Maurs, who bore totally different arms, though Camden believes them to be of the same stock, as seems most probable. But the genealogy of the Lords St. Maur, given by Dugdale, does not extend to nearly so distant a date; for it commences with Milo de St. Maur, who fought in the Barons' War against King John. His line ended with his grand-daughter; but the male heir, Geoffrey—whose connection with him does not appear—was the grandfather of Nicholas, summoned to Parliament in 1314. The third Lord St. Maur acquired a second barony through Muriel his wife, the heiress of Lord Lovel of Kari, who brought with it the estates of Winfred Eagle in Dorsetshire, and Castle Kari in Somersetshire. His grandson was the first baron who received summons as Seymour, and the next in succession, Richard, proved the last heir male. He died in 1409, and his titles passed to his posthumous daughter, Alice, Lady Zouche of Haryngworth.

The Dukes of Somerset undoubtedly derive from William St. Maur, who in the thirteenth century possessed himself of Woundy and Penhow, where he took up his abode. "The church of Penhow was dedicated to St. Maur; their park there was called by their own name; and here likewise they had their castle, which continued in the family till Henry VIII.'s time."—Collins. The seal of his son Roger (who died about 1299) shows the Vol[52] or Wings conjoined in Lure, still borne by his descendants, circumscribed Sigill Rogeri de Seimor. In the time of Edward III. they removed from their Welsh home into Somersetshire, where they had acquired a share in the great Beauchamp inheritance through Cecily, the eldest and most richly dowered of the three heiresses of the last Lord Beauchamp of Hache, who was the wife of a second Roger de St. Maur. Both their son and grandson were again matched with heiresses. The former married Joan de la Mare; the latter Maud Esturmi (see Esturmi), who first transplanted the Seymours into Wiltshire. As the last representative of the ancient Foresters of Savernake, she was very richly dowered, and her house of Wolf Hall thenceforward became their home. Although their possessions thus grew apace, they remained unpretending country gentlemen, till, nearly a century and a half afterwards, by a sudden and violent transition of fortune, they rose, at a single bound, to the highest pinnacle of place and power.

Sir John Seymour, who had been knighted for his bravery by Henry VII.'s own hand on the field of battle of Blackheath, and was no less distinguished at the Battle of the Spurs, became one of the Knights of the Body (now Grooms of the Chamber) to Henry VIII., and as such was in constant attendance at Court. His daughter Jane was placed in the household of Anne Boleyn, and attracted the attention of the King, who transferred the crown from the Queen to her maid of honour. He married her the day after poor Anne's head had fallen on the block; and in the following year she became the mother of the anxiously-expected Prince of Wales. She only survived his birth for twelve days: happy in dying thus early, before Henry's fierce love had turned to hate, with the bloom of her fair name "untarnished by the breath of reproach," honoured and lamented by all.

The Seymours had participated in her fortunes, and risen with her rise. Her father died about six months after she became Queen; but her eldest brother Edward was created Viscount Beauchamp on her wedding day, with the grant of a coat of augmentation, bearing the Royal lions and fleur de lis, ever since quartered with the Seymour Vol, and Earl of Hertford on the birth of her son. Yet he was merely placing his foot on the first steps of the ladder, for his advancement kept pace with his ambition, great as that was, till, on the accession of his nephew, he was proclaimed Lord Protector of King Edward VI. and of the realm. At the same time he was created Duke of Somerset, "whereby," as the patent recites, "the name of that family from which our most beloved mother, Jane, late Queen of England, drew her beginning, might not be clouded by any higher title or colour of dignity." By a special provision, it secured the title to the children of his second wife, giving the elder sons a reversion in the succession only on failure of her heirs male. He had first married Katherine Filliol, whom he repudiated (see vol. ii., p. 52), and was then the husband of Anne Stanhope, described on her monument in Westminster Abbey as "a Princesse descended of noble lignage," traced on her mother's side from the Plantagenet Kings. She was the daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope by Lady Elizabeth Bourchier, who derived from Anne, sole heir of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest son of Edward III. She has been represented as a proud, imperious, meddlesome woman; but the only two indictments against her are that she procured the above settlement on her children, with which, as its cause was her predecessor's crime, she had not necessarily anything to do, and that she had great "contests" for precedence with her sister in law, the Queen Dowager.[53]

The new Protector, "ardent, generous, and enthusiastic, the popular successful general," was, according to Froude, incapacitated for sovereign power by "a large vanity and a languid intellect;" and his few years of rule record "the story of authority unwisely caught at and unwisely used. Yet, for the most part, he had failed in attempts which in themselves were noble." We have all read of his pride and ostentation; of his pulling down a parish church and blowing up a chapel to make room for his new palace in the Strand; of his desecrating the N. cloister of St. Paul, and digging up the bones of the long-buried dead, to be carted away to Finsbury Fields. But, on the other hand, we are told that he was greatly beloved; "never man had the hearts of the people as he had;" and at his execution, men and women crowded round the block to dip their handkerchiefs in his blood. When his great adversary, Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, was himself led a captive through the streets of London two years afterwards, a woman shook one of these treasured handkerchiefs in his face, crying, "Behold! the blood of that worthy man, that good uncle of that excellent King, which was shed by thy treacherous machinations, now, at this instant, begins to revenge itself upon thee!" It was Dudley who had charged him with the real or pretended conspiracy for which he suffered the death of a traitor in 15523 and about a month later, Sir Ralph Vane, Sir Miles Partridge, Sir Michael Stanhope, the Duchess's brother, and Sir Thomas Arundell, her half-brother, were also executed on Tower Hill as privy to the plot.

His brother Thomas, who was created Lord Seymour of Sudeley on the same day that he became Duke of Somerset, had preceded him on the scaffold by four years. "He resembled the Protector in an ambition that was disproportioned to his ability, in an outward magnificence of carriage, in personal courage, address, and general accomplishments. But here the likeness ended;" for in him the higher and nobler qualities of the elder brother were altogether wanting. "He was," says Latimer, "a man farthest from the fear of God that ever I knew or heard of in England;... and the realm was well rid of him." He had been named Lord High Admiral of England, and loaded with grants and favours; but continued none the less incurably envious and dissatisfied. Ever tormented by his brother's pre-eminence, he had the audacity to ask the hand of the Princess Elizabeth before her father was cold in his grave. Failing in this, he turned to the widowed Queen, Katharine Parr (with whom he had had sundry love passages when she was Lady Latimer), and actually persuaded her into a clandestine marriage within four months—some even say within three—of her husband's death. When she died in childbed the following year, he secretly renewed his suit to Elizabeth, won over her governess and her chamberlain to his side, and succeeded in pleasing her in no common degree. But, schooled to prudence by early adversity, she was wary even as a girl of sixteen, and took care not to commit or compromise herself. For these and other intrigues, he was thrown into the Tower, and beheaded without any form of trial in 1549. His brother, who sought to save him, had to sign his death-warrant, and it was commonly said that "with his left hand he had cut off his right" in so doing. But the odium he incurred would seem to have been undeserved.

Anne Stanhope had brought the Protector three sons and six daughters. The eldest son was stripped of all his lands and titles by special act of parliament, when he was only thirteen, and continued in "this disconsolate condition" till Queen Elizabeth, on her accession, created him Earl of Hertford. Three years later, the Court was electrified by the discovery that he was secretly married to Lady Katherine Grey, who—Lady Jane being dead—was, by the will of Henry VIII., the next in succession to the throne. The vials of Elizabeth's wrath were at once discharged upon the heads of the unfortunate pair; and to add to her indignation, it was found that her cousin was soon to give birth to a child. The marriage, treated as a State conspiracy, was declared annulled; and both husband and wife thrown into the Tower as traitors and criminals, there to linger through many miserable years of captivity. Lady Katherine, at least, never left her prison-house again alive. All this unhappy lady's children—three sons and one daughter—were born in the Tower, where, by bribing the jailor, she and Lord Hertford still contrived to meet. But latterly her confinement was made more severe; she was never allowed to see the husband to whom she was devoted, and pining under the grief of hopeless separation and cruel treatment, she died after a lingering illness in 1567. Lord Hertford remained nine years in prison; and though the validity of the marriage was afterwards tried by common law, and fully confirmed, he was censured by the Star Chamber for having "vitiated a maid of Royal blood," and condemned to pay a fine of,15,000.

Edward, Viscount Beauchamp, their eldest son, died before his father, also leaving three sons; Edward, who died young; William, second Earl of Hertford, and Sir Francis, created Lord Seymour of Trowbridge in 1641, whose grandson succeeded as fifth Duke of Somerset. The tragedy of Lord Hertford's marriage was exactly repeated by his eldest grandson. He, again, won the affection of a lady who stood dangerously near the throne;—Lady Arabella Stuart, the daughter of the Duke of Lennox, who was uncle to James I. This attachment, formed in childhood, was discovered in 1609; and Mr. Seymour (as he then was) and Lady Arabella were "summoned before the Council, sharply reprimanded, and warned as to their future conduct." Such warnings are vain; the couple were shortly after privately married, and when the marriage came to light in 1610, it was once more treated as a crime against the State. Not a moment was lost in consigning them to prison; but this time Seymour alone was committed to the Tower, while Lady Arabella was confined elsewhere. Nevertheless, they managed to communicate, and to concert and carry out a plan of escape. Lady Arabella, dressed in men's clothes, got safely out of prison and made her way to the appointed trysting-place at Blackwall; but Seymour was not there; and after waiting for him as long as she dared, she embarked and sailed without him. Seymour, arriving behind his time, followed in another vessel, and landed without accident in Flanders. Lady Arabella was less fortunate; she was captured in Calais Roads by a man of war that had been sent in pursuit, and brought back to the Tower, where she died half crazed in 1615. As she left no children, Seymour was then permitted to return from exile, pardoned, and restored to favour; "the dread of the King lest an heir should be born uniting the claims to the throne of the Stuart and Suffolk branches of the Royal family" having ceased. He afterwards married Lady Frances Devereux,[54] the daughter of Elizabeth's favourite; was created Marquess of Hertford in 1640, and commanded the Royal forces in Somerset, Wilts, and Dorset during the Civil War. When Charles I. was ordered for execution, he, with three other peers (the Duke of Richmond and the Earls of Southampton and Lindsay) offered, if the King's life might be spared, to suffer death in his stead; and when this act of devotion was not permitted, they asked and received licence to pay their last duty to their master by laying him in his grave at Windsor. At the Restoration he received the Garter from the young King on the day after his landing at Dover; and in the following September—a month before his death—the attainder of his great ancestor was reversed, and he was restored as Duke of Somerset. "I have done," said Charles II., when announcing this act of grace to his parliament, "what a good master should do for such a servant." He was succeeded by a grandson who died at twenty, unmarried; and whose sister Elizabeth, Countess of Ailesbury, carried away the great Seymour estates in Wiltshire to the Bruces, through whom they were transmitted to her descendants in the female line, the present Marquesses of Ailesbury. This young Duke's uncle, Lord John, then bore the title for four years, also dying s. p., and it then reverted to his cousin Francis, third Lord Seymour of Trowbridge. He was killed early in life by one Orazio Botti at Lerice, in mistake for another gallant who had insulted the Italian's wife; and the next and sixth Duke was his brother Charles, "a man," says Macaulay, "in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease." His first wife was the heiress of the Percies, and I have elsewhere given an account of their children (see vol. ii., p. 379). The story of his second marriage is characteristic. He was far too royal to seek a bride for himself, but having decided to marry one of the numerous daughters of Daniel, Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham, he deputed his chaplain, Matthew Hutton, to go to Burley and report upon the Ladies Finch. His report, still preserved at Petworth, saves appearances by speaking of the four brides-expectant as "Bookes upon the subject of Religion and Morality, which I shall describe to your Grace by the ranks they stand in upon the Classes:—

The first is markedL C—Edit—30
The second is markedL B-1—Edit—26
The third is markedL H—Edit—22
The fourth is markedL B-y—Edit—20

The stile of L C and L H is improved with a degree of learning which is wanting in the other two; and these differ again from one another in this, that the stile of L C is more even and uniform, the sense stronger and containing finer Rules of AEconomy; whereas L B—1 is brighter, and has more flights of Witt. The stile of L H is distinguished by a certain degree of skill in Geometry and Mathematics, and several points are prettily enough illustrated by similitudes from Painting and Limning. L B—y has the advantage in the fineness of the Paper and beauty of the Impression; but the stile of it is not embellished either with Learning or Mathematicks as the others are." Neither the Earl or Countess touched upon the subject of his visit; the negotiations were carried on with "my friend Mr. E." (Edwards, either their chaplain or secretary) who described the young ladies, and then asked, "in a pleasant manner, whether your Grace had given over buying of Bookes, and mentioned C and H as very well deserving your Grace's purchasing." The praises of Lady Charlotte were sung in her absence, as she was then in London; but though it is admitted that, while "not any of them were set off with any uncommon, outward ornament" (Horace Walpole calls them the "black funereal Finches") "L C has the least" of all, yet she was persistently designated for his choice, and became Duchess of Somerset in 1725. The mathematical Lady Henrietta married the Duke of Cleveland; and the unlearned Lady Betty was the wife of the famous Chief Justice Lord Mansfield; while poor Lady Bell, with all her bright flights of wit, was left out in the cold.

Lady Charlotte brought her august husband only two daughters; and with his son Algernon, seventh Duke, who died in 1750, the last of the male descendants of the Protector's second marriage failed.

The Dukedom then passed to the long disinherited elder branch, which had altogether escaped the strange vicissitudes of fortune of the more loftily placed descendants of Anne Stanhope. Seven Sir Edward Seymours had followed each other in peaceful and uninterrupted succession, when, after an exclusion of two hundred years, the title reverted to them in 1750. The first of these had been restored in blood by Edward VI. the year after his father's execution, and received a share of his lands, including Maiden Bradley in Wiltshire, and the castle and honour of Berry Pomeroy in Devonshire, which had been purchased by the Protector. The third Sir Edward made of the old castle "a very stately house" at the cost of the then great sum of 20,000. "The number of the apartments of the whole," writes Prince, "may be collected hence, if report be true, that it was a good day's work for a servant but to shut and open the casements belonging to them. Notwithstanding which, 'tis now demolished, and all this glory lieth in the dust." It had never been entirely finished, and was left desolate in the very next generation, when, as the home of a staunch and uncompromising Cavalier, it was burnt and plundered by the Parliamentary army. No attempt was made to rebuild so vast and costly a pile, and the family took up their abode at their present seat of Maiden Bradley. The next Sir Edward was, as "the head of a strong Parliamentary connection called the Western Alliance, the leader of the Protestant Tories in the House of Commons," and, according to Macaulay, "one of the most skilful debaters and men of business in the kingdom." He was unanimously elected Speaker in 1673, and had the credit of being the first country gentleman who was ever called to the chair, till then invariably occupied by a lawyer. At the Revolution he went to meet the Prince of Orange at Exeter, and William, intending to be very civil, received him with the words, "I think, Sir Edward, that you are of the family of the Duke of Somerset." Seymour—one of the proudest of men—instantly corrected him. "Pardon me, Sir," he said, "the Duke of Somerset is of my family." This pride of place as the head of the house never forsook him. When Queen Anne, of whose household he was Comptroller, offered him a peerage in 1703, he would accept it only for his younger son Francis, preferring for the elder the slender chance—then apparently a sufficiently remote one—of succeeding to his ancestral Dukedom. Yet, within fifty years, this improbable event had actually come to pass, and the long looked-for title devolved upon his grandson, the seventh Sir Edward Seymour, and ninth Duke of Somerset, from whom the present and fourteenth Duke is directly descended.

Francis Seymour Conway, who was created Baron Conway by Queen Anne in 1703, was the second of his six sons by his second marriage with Letitia Popham, on whom their cousin, Earl Conway (whose own mother had been a Popham) settled the whole of his great domain in England and Ireland. The elder brother, Popham, a young gentleman known about town as Beau Seymour, had been killed in a duel by Colonel Kirke, and Francis, thus becoming the heir, had taken the name of Conway, and inherited the English estates with the stately mansion of Ragley, and a wide tract of fertile land in the co. of Antrim. The titles of Earl of Hertford and Viscount Beauchamp were revived in favour of his son in 1750, who further received a marquessate, with the Earldom of Yarmouth, in 1793, and is now represented by the sixth Marquess. But the title came to his father in 1870 shorn of more than half its fair inheritance, for the great Conway estate in Ireland had been separated from it by his predecessor, and bestowed upon Sir Richard Wallace.

Sent Scudemore :

The prefix to this name here given, and given, as far as I am aware, here only—alludes to its sacred significance, as a contraction of Escu d'Amour, the Shield of Divine Love. "The Surname of the Scudamores," as their historian tells us, "was derived from their bearing Scutum Amoris Divinis, which was antiently their arms, and in all Probability was given upon some gallant Action done by them in Defence of the Christian Faith." Their Cross patee fitchee Or was, however, in course of time exchanged for the arms of the great heiress through whom they were transplanted into Herefordshire. She bore three stirrups leathered and buckled Or:—scarcely a fitting substitute for the Escu d'Amour as the emblem of Divine Love; and in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir John Scudamore, who held an office at Court, thought it well to recall the memory of the original bearing. "And to make his Atchievement in all points complete," says Guillym, "he hath annexed this Motto or Device placed in an Escrole underneath his Shield, Scuto Amoris Divini. Manifesting thereby his confident affiance in the most puissant protection and never failing helpe of the Almighty against all adverse events and occurents: grounding his assurance upon the saying of the Kingly-Prophet David, Psal. v. 13: 'For thou Lord wilt give thy blessing unto the righteous, and with thy favourable kindnesse wilt defend him as with a shield.' This noble knight hath so honourably deserved, both of his Country in generall, by procuring (together with his Lady) the Building of the goodly Bridge neere unto Rosse, over the River Wye, and likewise of my selfe in particular: as I held my selfe obliged in a double band of loving respect to yeeld him in this place, this due acknowledgement of his worthy vertues."

The family was first seated in Wiltshire, where Walter de Escudemore was Lord of Upton, near Warminster, in the time of Stephen. "In 1165 Geoffrey de Scudimore" (perhaps his son) "was a baron in Wilts (Liber Niger), and had sub-enfeoffed Waleran de Scudimore and Walter Gifford. He also held four fees of ancient enfeoffment from Robert D'Evias of Hereford (Ibid.)"—The Norman People. The latter was by "the finding one white Warhorse Every Year for the Service of a Centinel at the Castle of Ewyas, under his Custody or Guard." Peter de Schidimore was Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 1197 and 1199: and Sir Godfrey Scudamore Sheriff of Wilts in 1258. He married the heiress of Gifford of Brimsfield, and was the father of Sir Peter, "a man of eminence" who kept great state at Upton, and founded a chantry in the church. His effigy, and that of his wife Margery, remain in the N. aisle, still called Scudamore's Aisle. It was his grandson Thomas who, though a younger brother, "became a greater man than the elder, by marrying Clare, daughter and heir of Ewyas." The line of Upton-Scudamore ended with his nephew Peter, whose heiress married John de Keynes; and their former manor-house has disappeared, but, from some traces that were yet visible in the last century, is conjectured to have stood "in a fair meadow adjoining the church-yard." Besides Upton, Norton Skydmore and Warminster Skydmore bore the name in Wiltshire.

The posterity of the fortunate younger brother continues to flourish in Herefordshire. His wife Clare (or Clarice) was the eldest daughter of Clare de Ewyas, Lady of Ewyas Harold, and both he and his son Philip took her name. Philip's grandson and namesake "first planted himself at Holme-Lacy," which came to him from the Tregoz family, and is still, after the lapse of four hundred and fifty years, the home of his descendants. Sir John Scudamore, Gentleman Usher to Henry VIII., was High Sheriff of Hereford for three years: and his grandson (Gwillym's Sir John) was one of Queen Elizabeth's Council for the Marches of Wales, and Standard Bearer of the Gentlemen Pensioners. He and his son Sir James were both of them intimate friends of Sir John Bodley, and contributors to the noble library that he bequeathed to Oxford. Sir James had been knighted at the siege of Cadiz, and was "renowned for chivalry": "a man," says Fuller, "famous and fortunate in his time"; and preserved from oblivion in our own as the "gentle Sir Scudamour" of Spenser's 'Faerie Queene.'

John, the next heir, inherited the literary tastes of his father and grandfather, and was so ardent a student at Magdalen College, that his friend Bishop Laud bade him "Book it not too much." He entered parliament and received a baronetcy when he came of age in 1620; was created Viscount Scudamore of Sligo by Charles I. in 1628; and seven years afterwards appointed Ambassador to the Court of Louis XIII. He gave offence at Paris by refusing to attend the Huguenot church at Charenton, as former Ambassadors had done, "but furnish'd his own Chappel in his House, with such Ornaments (as Candles upon the Communion Table and the like), as gave great Offence and Umbrage to those of the Reformation there, who had not seen the like; besides that he was careful to publish upon all occasions, 'That the Church of England look'd not on the Hugenots as Part of their Communion.'"—Clarendon. Yet he had a plan concerning which he corresponded with Hugo Grotius, for "uniting all the Protestant Churches against their common enemy the Church of Rome."

Another faithful and diligent correspondent was his old ally Bishop Laud, who used to visit him at Holme-Lacy on his way to and from his (then) diocese of St. David's, "and found his Entertainment as kind and full of Respect, as ever he did from any Friend." By him the Bishop was first informed of the murder of the Duke of Buckingham, and writes in reply: "Now the Court seems new to me, and I mean to turn over a new Leaf in it, for all those Things that are changeable. For the rest, I must be the same I was, and patiently both expect and abide what God shall be pleased to lay upon me."

Evil days were in store for his friend as well as for himself. Lord Scudamore suffered greatly during the Civil War. He was taken prisoner by Sir William Waller at Hereford, sent up to London, there committed to the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, and kept in close confinement for nearly four years, which so grievously injured his health that he "hardly survived." Some of his houses were burned, his estates sequestered, his goods plundered and sold, and his losses in all computed to exceed 37,000. Yet he found means to be generous and hospitable to those in worse straits than himself; most of all the distressed clergy; and Fuller calls him "a nursing Father of the Church. There is no good Thing," he adds, "could be said of any good Man that cannot justly be said of him." His last years were spent in the country, where he devoted himself to gardening, and had the credit of bringing into cultivation the Red Streak Cyder Apple,

"that once
Was of the Sylvan kind, unciviliz'd,
Of no regard, till Scudamore's skilful hand
Improv'd her, and by courtly discipline
Taught her the savage nature to forget,
Hence called the Scudamorean plant."
—Phillips' Pomona.

At his death, in 1671, he was succeeded by a grandson, and then by a great-grandson, with whom the title expired in 1716. This last Viscount only lived to be thirty-two, and left as his sole heir his daughter Frances, first married to Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, from whom she was divorced; and secondly to Charles Fitz Roy. By her last husband, who took the name and arms of Scudamore, she again left an only child named Frances. This second heiress was the wife of the Honourable Charles Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, but died s. p. in 1820. Holme-Lacy then devolved upon Sir Edwyn Francis Stanhope, who represented a sister of the first Lord Scudamore's, and is now held by his descendant, Edwyn, tenth Earl of Chesterfield.

Within the last twenty years, the family still existed in the male line at Kentchurch in the same county, where they are said to have been seated since the time of Edward IV.: but it is not known when they branched off from the parent stock. The line ended with a Colonel Scudamore, whose daughter, Mrs. Lucas, is the mother of the present owner of Kentchurch, Mr. Scudamore-Lucas. They held the parish of Rowlston, of which "the name is a contraction of Rowland's town, and probably refers to some distinguished member of the Scudamore family, bearing this Christian name."—Duncumb's Herefordshire. In the time of Henry VII., Philip Scudamore of Rowlston married his kinswoman, the heiress of Kentchurch, and was the direct ancestor of its present possessor.

Neither in this nor the Holme Lacy pedigree do I find the name of Barnabas Scudamore, the gallant Cavalier who defended Hereford Castle against. the Scottish army under the Earl of Leven, till the King's advance from Worcester raised the siege. More than once Lord Leven had called upon him to surrender. "My Lord," was his reply, "I am resolved to endure all mines and storms which shall be made against this place, and doubt not, by God's assistance, to render His Majesty a good account of it."—Ibid.

Toget :

one of the many spellings of Touchet, variously given as Toget, Tochet, Tuscet, Thochet, &c. It is the next name but one to this on the Roll, as "Tuchet." Toket is probably another version. A Sir Roger Toket joined the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion.

Tercy :

for Torcy or Torchy; from the Norman fief and honour of Torcy. Both the "Sire de Torcy" and the "Seneschal de Torcy" appear in the list given in the annals of Normandy (published by Foxe) of "those that were at the Conquest of England:" the latter among the "Archers of Val de Real, and of Bretheul, and of many other places." The De Torcys certainly continued in Normandy up to the end of the last century, and bore Quarterly of 4; 1 and 4, Gules; 2 and 3, Lozengy Or and Gules, a bend Or. Ithier de Torcy was a crusader. A Marquis de Torcy was one of the signatories of the Treaty of Utrecht; and one of the name, belonging to the Bailliage de Caen, was among the Norman nobles assembled in the Church of St. Stephen, at Caen, in 1789.

In England, Hugh de Torci, and his brother Hasletus, are found in Devonshire during the reign of Henry I.—Rotulus Magnus Pipae. But I can find no further notice whatever of them in the county, and very little elsewhere.

Adam Tourcy gave one acre in Turner-riding to Selby Abbey.—Burton's Mon. Ebor. "In 10 Ric. II. a fine was levied between Eve, daughter of Harvis de Merlai, petent, and Ralph de Torcy, tenant, of forty acres of land in Hillington."—Blomfield's Norfolk.

Tuchet: from Notre Dame du Touchet, near Mortaine, in Normandy. The ruins of the old castle are still visible near the parish church: and the race of its ancient possessors is not extinct. M. de Touchet, Chevalier de St. Louis, was President of the Society of Antiquaries of Normandy in 1825, and his father, till shortly before the first Revolution, retained the Seigneurie of Beneauville, which they had held from the beginning of the thirteenth century. Their arms, Azure three hands Or, are different from those borne by the English Touchets.

Their ancestor, Orme, who possessed considerable estates in Cheshire, was surnamed the Harper, and Sir Peter Leycester fancifully derives their name from "Citharista, or Touch it." The Cheshire pedigrees generally state that his son Matthew "was the father of Simon Touchet, Lord of Buglawton and Tattenhall in the time of Hugh Kevelioc, who is said to have succeeded thereto on the death of Henry, son of Henry, son of Josceline de Touchet; but all agree in his descent from Orme."—Ormerod's Cheshire. They were seated at Buglawton shortly after the Conquest, and the manor of Tattenhall, which in Domesday belonged to William Malbeding, was vested in them by grant of Randle Gernons, Earl of Chester, in the time of King Stephen. Sir Robert Touchet, in 1319, "was one of the barons who, with the Earls of Lancaster and Hereford, assembled at Sherborne in Elmedon, and swore to stand by each other until they had amended the state of the realm; but notwithstanding this oath, Sir Robert Touchet, with many others, submitted to the King."—Ibid. His grandson, Sir John, made his mark in the French wars, chiefly at the relief of Aquillon and the siege of Rheims, 33 Ed. III., "and was slain in a desperate engagement with the Spanish fleet before Rochelle, 44 Ed. III." His wife Joan was the daughter of one of the greatest soldiers of the age, James Lord Audley, the hero of Poictiers; and the eldest of the three co-heiresses between whom his barony fell in abeyance. Their brother, Nicholas Lord Audley, only survived his father six years, and died in 1392, leaving no posterity. Joan was then already dead; but the barony, after some protest, was adjudged to her son Sir John; and he assumed the title of Lord Audley in 1403, being then "actively employed in military arrangements in Wales."

From this time forth the Touchets ranked high in power and influence in the kingdom, and played a stirring part in its annals. The next Lord Audley fell in battle with the Earl of Salisbury at Bloreheath in Shropshire, while commanding the Lancastrians of Chester and the adjoining counties. His son changed sides, took part with the House of York, and was appointed Lord Treasurer of England by Richard III.; and his grandson, joining in the Cornish insurrection of 1497, was taken prisoner at Blackheath, and "was drawn from Newgate to Tower Hill in his own Coat of Arms, painted on paper, but reversed and torn, and there Beheaded." Another Lord Audley was made a Knight Banneret in 1586 for his bravery at the battle of Zutphen; and his successor, who was for some time Governor of Utrecht, received the Irish Earldom of Castlehaven from James I. in 1617. The second Earl was executed on Tower Hill in 1631, "for certain high crimes and misdemeanours:" but both the titles were restored to his son by a fresh creation three years afterwards. This son served the King loyally in the Civil War, first under the Duke of Ormonde, and then as commander-in-chief in Ireland; and was recompensed at the Restoration by a grant of "the same place and precedence that his ancestors the Lords Audley enjoyed," and his father had forfeited, with remainder to his brother Mervyn, and Mervyn's sons and daughters.

Mervyn succeeded to the Earldom in 1684, and was followed by a son, a grandson, and a great-grandson, but the line terminated with the last named, John, seventh Earl, in 1777. The Irish title then became extinct, and the old barony, by virtue of the remainder, passed to the Earl's nephew, George Thicknesse. His only sister, Lady Elizabeth (Collins calls her Lady Mary) then long since dead, had made an unequal match with a Captain Philip Thicknesse,[55] which her family never forgave. The Earl had good grounds for his objection to his brother-in-law. Even the polite peerages speak of the Captain as an "eccentric character," and he is described as "utterly devoid of every generous and manly quality, rancorous, slanderous, vindictive, and malicious." He was fined and imprisoned for libelling a brother officer. He wrote several books, "abounding in coarse, indecent, and revolting ribaldry," and amongst them his own Memoirs. "The account that he there gives of his first marriage, when he was forty-two years old, is the most shameful narrative ever penned by any man of himself. Under a feigned marriage he seduced the woman, who he expected was rich, in order that he might make his own terms with her parents before he really married her." She died after giving birth to three daughters, and he then, "according to his own story, at the suggestion of a learned and indecent old Judge, made love to a widow lady named Concanen, who was willing to marry him if a little longer time only were permitted her to forget the sainted and departed Concanen. In telling the story of this courtship, Thicknesse seemed to think it a fine joke. The widow, however, was unequal to the task of a courting match with the gentleman, for he goes on to tell us that when Lady Elizabeth Touchet heard of this courtship, she thought she would rather marry him herself, which she did. As the gallant gentleman puts it, 'So I left the widow to finish her second mourning, and was soon after married to Lady Elizabeth Touchet.'"—Historic Houses of Bath.

Lord Castlehaven never spoke to his sister again, and her epitaph (quoted by Banks) alludes to this life-long estrangement "in a quibbling comparison between the infinite mercy of the Lord of 'Heven,' and the unrelenting cruelty of the Lord of 'Haven:'"—

"Sacred to the Memory
of the Lady Elizabeth Thicknesse.
'The Lord of Heven forsook her not.'"[56]

The new Lord Audley, by Royal license, added the name of Touchet to his own, and his descendants bore the title for another hundred years. The last and eighteenth Baron—counting from the first writ of summons received by Nicholas de Aldithley in 1313—died in 1872, leaving no son, and the barony fell into abeyance between his two young daughters.

Dugdale speaks of another baron of this name, William Tuchet, who followed Edward I. to Gascony in 1296; then, on three several occasions, to Scotland; and was summoned to parliament in 1299. He was a man of ample possessions, as he received charter of free warren in all his demesne lands in Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire (where he held Thorpe Waterville), Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, and Buckinghamshire; with a Wednesday market and yearly fair at Levenhales—probably his principal seat—in the county of Hereford. Then follows another William Touchet—not his son, but the son of a Nicholas de Touchet, whose estate this William had inherited in 1310, when he received a writ of summons to the Scottish wars, which was repeated four years afterwards. In 1318 he was pardoned as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster; but in 1321, "upon the Insurrection of that Earl, and his defeat at Burrough-brigg, being there taken with him, he was hang'd at York."

Tracy: from the castle and barony of Tracy, near Vire, arrondissement of Caen. "The Sire de Traci" is named in Wace's account of the battle of Hastings. "The family does not appear to have been of much importance in England before the time of Stephen, who bestowed upon Henry de Tracy the Honour of Barnstaple in Devonshire; but the first of the name we hear of is Turgis or Turgisius de Tracy who, with William de la Ferte, was defeated and driven out of Maine by Fulk de Rechin, Count of Anjou, in 1073: and who was therefore in all probability the Sire de Traci in the army of Hastings."—Planche Henry de Traci is said to have been the only man in Devonshire who stood firm to Stephen against the Empress Maud. He was succeeded in his barony by his son, his grandson, and his great-grandson, but the latter, who died in 1273, left only a daughter, Eve, married to Guy de Brienne.

William de Tracy, who became notorious as one of the murderers of Thomas a Becket (see Fitz Urse), had extensive estates in Devonshire and Gloucestershire, and was the second son of John de Sudeley and Grace de Traci, heiress of another William, believed to be a natural son of Henry I. He probably succeeded to his mother's inheritance, as he took her name, and is described by the monkish chroniclers as a brave soldier, but of parricidal wickedness. After the bloody tragedy at Canterbury, he and his three accomplices sought refuge at Knaresborough Castle, from whence they went to throw themselves at the feet of Pope Alexander III. at Rome. He sentenced them to expiate their sin in the Holy Land, and they accordingly set out together on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. "Tracy alone, it is said, was never able to accomplish his vow. The crime of having struck the first blow—'primus percussor'—was avenged by the winds of heaven, which always drove him back. According to one story, he never left England. According to another, and, as we shall see, more correct version, he reached the coast of Calabria, and was seized, at Cosenza, with a dreadful disorder, which caused him to tear the flesh from his bones with his own hands, calling, 'Mercy, St. Thomas!' and there he died miserably, after having made his confession to the bishop of the place. His fate was long remembered among his descendants in Gloucestershire, and gave rise to the distich that—

'The Tracys
Have always the wind in their faces.'

Such is the legend."—Dean Stanley. But William de Tracy certainly did not die in Calabria. There is evidence to show that he actually set out on his pilgrimage, and he probably got as far as Cosenza; for, in the charter by which, he grants Doccombe[57] to the Chapter of Canterbury, as an oblation to make some amends for his crime, the first of the witnesses is described as Abbot of Euphemia. "There can be little doubt that this Abbey of St. Euphemia was the celebrated convent of that name in Calabria, not twenty miles from Cosenza, and about sixty miles north of the Straits of Messina."—Ibid. Thus it would seem most likely that he was detained by a severe illness at Cosenza, and believing himself to be on his deathbed, sought to make atonement to the Church by this deed of gift. It is plain that he must have lived to return home. "Within four years of the murder he appears as Justiciary of Normandy; he was present at Falaise in 1174 when William, King of Scotland, did homage to Henry II., and in 1176 was succeeded in his office by the Bishop of Winchester. This is the last authentic notice of him."—Ibid. There exists, however, a generally received tradition that he retired to his estates in the West of England, where "he lived a private life when wind and weather turned against him:" and, according to the local history of his native county of Gloucester, reached the good old age of ninety. His residence was at Morthoe, close to Woollacomb Bay, and the worthy folks of Devonshire aver that his tormented spirit may, even now, be heard moaning and lamenting on the Woollacomb sands, where it is doomed to wander restlessly to and fro, toiling to "make bundles of sand, and wisps of the same" for all time to come. They also believe that for a fortnight after the murder, he lay concealed in the Crookham Cavern, on the coast between Morthoe and Ilfracombe, and that his daughter—the only person entrusted with the secret—used to steal out thither at night to bring him food. He was, it is said, buried at Morthoe, where an effigy, by some believed to be his, remains in the church. But even in his grave he was not left in peace. "Morthoe," says Westcote, "is the place where for a time he rested at ease; untill some ill-affected persons seeking for treasure, but disappointed thereof, stole the leaden sheets he lay in, leaving him in danger to take cold." Woollacomb-Tracy, Bovey-Tracy, Nymet-Tracy, Newton Tracy, and Bradford-Tracy, still bear his name in Devonshire.

His daughter (an only child,) married Sir Gervase Courtenay, and their son Oliver called himself De Tracy, as did all his descendants. They were prosperous country gentlemen, seated at Toddington in Gloucestershire, and constantly to be met with on the lists of Sheriffs and knights of the shire. Sir William Tracy, who died about 1530, was one of the earliest champions of the Reformation, and having declared in his will, "I bestow no part of my goods to that Intent, that any man shall say or do to help my Soul, for therein I trust only to the promises of Christ," the document was condemned in the Bishop of London's Court, and his body taken out of the grave and burned by the Chancellor of Worcester. From his eldest son, William, came the Irish Viscounts Tracy; and Richard, the second—whom he had endowed with the manor of Stanway, a part of the domain of Tewkesbury Abbey granted to him by the Crown—was the ancestor of five baronets of the name. The last died in 1677, and Stanway passed to Ferdinando, second son of the third Viscount Tracy, and through Ferdinando's granddaughter to the Earls of Wemyss.

The elder line lasted for something less than another century and a quarter. Though Sir John Tracy of Toddington received in 1642 the title of Viscount Tracy of Rathcoole in Ireland, it does not appear that they were ever resident in that country, nor did they once intermarry with the Irish. The last and eighth Viscount left an only child, Henrietta, who on his death in 1797, inherited Toddington, and married her cousin, Charles Hanbury, who took her name and arms, and was created Baron Sudeley of Toddington in 1838. The family is now, however, extinct, and more than one claimant for the Viscountcy has laid his case before the House of Lords.

Tracies, in the parish of Newington, bears the name of its owners "in very early times," whose coat of arms "had a near affinity to that of the Tracys of Gloucestershire."—Hasted's Kent.

Trousbut :

or Trossebot. "Botevilain et Trossebot" are coupled together in the Roman de Rou as companions-in-arms that fought in the front rank at Hastings. Both of these are sobriquets. Trossebot, to my thinking, has some analogy with Talbot (Tail-le-bot): but this does not help to explain its meaning. Botte (coup-de-fleuret), means a pass or thrust (whence perchance we derive "bout"); and Taille-botte might very aptly designate a skilful swordsman, while Bouttevilain would be one that inflicted ugly wounds. But so many different meanings belong to Trousse that I cannot even hazard a conjecture as regards Trossebot; and in any case this is mere idle speculation. Their coat of arms, Trots bouts d'eau (three water-bougets) was obviously a rebus.

M. le Prevost is unable to trace the origin of this family in Normandy. The Troussebots are, however, "supposed to have been resident in the north-western part of the district of Neubourg, near the domain of Robert de Harcourt, whose daughter Albreda became the wife of William Troussebot."—J. R. Planche. This was the grandson of Pagan Trossebot, "in all probability the combatant at Senlac," and the son of Geoffrey Fitz Payne, who was seated at Wartre in Holderness before the time of Henry I., and there founded a Priory. Yet Orderic Vitalis contemptuously describes him as one of the men of low origin, whom, for their obsequious service, that sovereign exalted to the rank of nobles, raising them, as it were, from the very dust under his feet, heaping riches upon them, and setting them above Earls and Lords of castles (lib. xi. cap. 2). William Trossebot's services to the King were probably of a very different kind, as he was a stalwart soldier; but the only exploit recorded of him dates from the ensuing reign. "In 1138, being then castellan (munio) of Bonneville, he was successful in putting to flight Count Geoffrey of Anjou and his Angevine troops, having first set fire to the adjacent bourg of Touques, in which they had taken up their quarters for the night."—T. Stapleton. He married Albreda de Harcourt, the daughter of one of the two co-heirs of Pain Peverell, Baron of Brunne, and the heiress of the other, Maud de Dover, who had remained childless. They had, according to Dugdale, three sons, Richard, Geoffrey, and Robert (Mr. Stapleton adds another named William); and three daughters: Rose, married to Everard de Ros; Hillaria, to Robert de Boilers; and Agatha, to Hamo Meinfelin. None of the sons left heirs; and all Dugdale can tell us of them is that they were great benefactors to the religious houses. Geoffrey, the second, "did adde so much to what his grandfather had given to the Canons of Wartre that he thereupon had the repute to be the first Founder." The last of them died in 1195, and their sisters became co-heiresses of the great barony of Wartre. All three lost their husbands in early life, and neither Rose nor Hillaria would ever consent to marry again. Hillaria lived a widow close upon forty years, and rivalled her brothers in her munificence to the Church. Agatha, on the other hand, re-married William de Albini, Earl of Sussex, one of the barons in arms against the Crown. Blomfield recounts how "on Tuesday after the Feast of St. Dennis," eight days before King John died, Agatha came to his chamber at Lynn, and there paid the fine of one hundred marks of silver, which her husband had incurred for his rebellion. Of these three wealthy sisters, only Rose, the eldest, left surviving descendants, and to them the whole inheritance eventually accrued; but her two younger sisters both attained such a patriarchal age that her grandson was the first to enjoy it.

The name apparently did not die out with the baronial line. There were Trusbuts settled at Titleshall in Norfolk, "a family of good account," that survived for several centuries. Richard Trusbut lived under Henry III.; and his son John was seated at Shouldham in the succeeding reign. Another John, grandson of the above, was Captain of the Hobelers in the Scottish wars, 16 Ed. III. The last of the line was again John, whose heiress Jane married Nicholas Colt, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Privy Councillor of Edward IV.—Blomfield's Norfolk.

These Trusbuts did not bear the water-bougets of the Barons of Wartre, but Gyronny of eight, Azure and Ermine.

Trainel :

from Traisnel or Traignel in Champagne. In 1345, Jean Sire de Traisnel, knt., Councillor and Chamberlain to the King, filled the office of Grand Pannetier de France. He bore Vairy, and left by his wife, Marie de Brabancon, two co-heiresses. Margaret, the eldest, Lady of Traisnel, married Robert de Chateauvillan v. Anselme.

In England the Traisnels gave their name to Hatton-Traynell, near Shiffnal, in Shropshire, of which they were the first recorded possessors. By "a deed that," writes Eyton, "impresses me with the idea of very high antiquity—as high as the reign of Henry I. or Stephen 1100-1154, Adam Traynel of Hetton grants to his nephew Ivo his manor of Ivelith (Evelith), so rendering a Red Rose yearly at the Nativity of St. John the Baptist." This Adam was among the earliest benefactors of Buildwas Abbey; for, within fifty years of its foundation at the beginning of the twelfth century, he, with the consent of Reginald his son, had bestowed on it half his vill of Hatton. Reginald was succeeded, about 1202, by Robert Traynel (but by what relationship Eyton cannot determine), who died two years afterwards, leaving a son of his own name who did not come of age till 1215. About 1248, Robert II. made over to the monks of Buildwas "in frank almoigne" the remaining moiety of Hatton. The manor was held by Petit Serjeantry, the Traynels finding a foot-soldier to serve for fifteen days at Shrawardine Castle, Salop.—Testa de Nevill. In 1292, during a conflict between the Sheriff and his men and the Abbot of Combermere's party in Drayton Churchyard, one of the latter was killed; and "the Jury of the Hundred found John Traynel to have been guilty of the murder. He could not be found, and so was outlawed."—Eyton. The last occasion on which the name appears in the county is in 1339, when Richard Traynel witnesses a deed of John le Walisch at Leton.

Taket :

Gilbert Teket, Burgess of Stirling, and Philip Taket, Burgess of Perth, appear on the official deeds recording the "Submission of the two Boroughs" to Edward I. in 1295. Robert Taket was of Lincolnshire about 1272. (Rot. Hundred.) The corresponding name in Leland's list is Takel; and I am by no means clear that Takel is not here intended.

Trussel :

"Milo de Brai, father of Hugh Trussel, married c. 1070, Litheuil, Viscountess of Troyes; and c. 1064 founded Longport Abbey, Normandy. (Orderic Vital.) Guido Trussel was a distinguished Crusader 1096. (Ibid.) He was Lord of Montcheri and Seneschal of. France."—The Norman People. Osbert Trussel in 1165 was Lord of Billesley in Warwickshire, which he held of the Earl of Warwick. "From this Osbert is it that the several families of Trussell, viz. of Cublesdon and Acton-Trussell in Staffordshire; of Flore and Gayton in Northamptonshire: of Aylmesthorpe in Leicestershire; and of this and other places in Warwickshire are descended."—Dugdale. His son William married Agnes, one of the three co-heiresses of Robert Fitz Otes of Locksley, whose inheritance was distributed to them in 1178. To him succeeded Richard, who was in arms against King John in the retinue of his suzerain the Earl; and another Richard, slain at Evesham on the Baron's side. Billesley and his other lands became forfeited; but "William his brother went away with the estate," and married the heiress of Cublesdon in Staffordshire, Rose Pantulf.[58] From him descended another William, pardoned in 1313 as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster's, who again found a wealthy wife, Maud de Mainwaring, dowered with the barony of Warmincham and other estates in Cheshire, and was the grandfather of a soldier of great renown in the French wars. This last Sir William received an annuity from the Black Prince for his gallantry at Poitiers; and after attending Edward III. in his campaigns to the end of his life, was retained by indenture to serve Richard II. in all his wars with forty men at arms, and appointed in 1378 Governor of Calais. He died the year following, leaving no son. His only daughter Katherine, who had married her kinsman Sir Alured Trussell, was already dead; and his granddaughter Elizabeth, afterwards the wife of Sir Baldwin de Freville, succeeded him, but died childless.

Sir Alured was the grandson, and, on the death of his elder brother, the representative of a man of some celebrity and rare ability, Sir William Trussell of Flore in Northamptonshire, descended from a younger son of the William Trussell that married Rose Pantulf. He it was that, "vice omnium de Terra Angliae et totius Parliamenti procurator," solemnly pronounced the deposition of Edward II. by the House of Commons. The captive King stood before him, humbly clad in the "plain black gown" of a penitent, to receive his sentence in the following words: "I, William Trussell, proctor of the Earls, Barons and others, having for this full and sufficient power, do render and give back to you, Edward, once King of England, the homage and fealty of the persons named in my procuracy; and acquit and discharge them thereof in the best manner that law and custom will give. And I now make protestation in their name that they will no longer be in your fealty and allegiance, nor claim to hold anything of you as King, but will account you hereafter as a private person, without any manner of royal dignity." As Sir William concluded, the Steward of the Household, Sir Thomas Blount, broke his staff of office, as is customary at the funeral of a King; and the reign of Edward III. was assumed to have commenced.

But Trussell, as Dugdale tells us, "did abominate that cruell murther" which followed; and though his lands were seized upon as a rebel's, he quickly obtained his pardon on making his submission, and was no sooner pardoned than employed by the new King. He was appointed his secretary, sent on an Embassy to Spain, and named Eschaetor General S. of the Trent. Then followed, indeed, a period of trouble and disgrace under the hostile influence of Mortimer, during which he fled from the kingdom, as he had been forced to do once before by his old opponents the Despencers. But he did not long continue out of favour. In 1340 we find him Admiral of the Fleet from the mouth of the Thames westwards; two years later, on the occasion of a great expedition to France, in command of the whole fleet from the Thames to Berwick-upon-Tweed, and (according to Burke) summoned to parliament among1 the barons of the realm. To this, however, Banks takes exception, as in 1342 "the great council to be holden at Westminster is not called a parliament;" and further, "as his name is not again recited in any writs of summons, so that it cannot be inferred that any heritable barony was acquired."[59] None was evidently transmitted to his successors.

Sir Alured was, notwithstanding, "one of the most eminent men in Warwickshire," serving several times as knight of the shire, and once as Sheriff. True, he had early lost his heiress-wife and his heiress-daughter, Elizabeth de Freville, and at the death of the latter the great Trussell estates in Cheshire and Staffordshire reverted to her great-aunt, Margaret, the wife of Sir Fulk de Pembruge. But Sir Alured, "by Fine levied 6 Ric. II. between him as Plaintiff and Sir Fulk and Margaret his wife Deforciant" obtained Billesley, with Morton-Bagot and Milveston, for himself and his heirs-male: and with these a second marriage had already provided him. He had at least seven generations of descendants; the last mentioned by Dugdale—perhaps the last of the family—sold Billesley in the early part of the seventeenth century.

The "fair Inheritance of the Trussels" did not long continue with the Pembruges. Margaret had no children; and when she died in 1402 it passed to her kinsman Sir William, son and heir of Laurence Trussell, who derived from Warin, the third son of the first Sir William that was summoned to parliament, by Maud de Mainwaring. This line, again, expired in 1499 with John Trussell, a child of two years old, whose sister and heiress, Elizabeth, married Edward de Vere, fifteenth Earl of Oxford, and Lord Chancellor of England.

Trisoun :

for Tesson or Taisson, the Norman-French for badger: Tisoun in Leland's list. An r has been either substituted or mistaken for an e in the spelling of this name.

The Tessons, Lords of Cinglais, one of the most powerful houses of Normandy, are by some derived from Botho, a kinsman of Rollo; by others from the Counts of Anjou; and according to Des Bois, were first seated near Angouleme (from whence their Gothic origin may be inferred), and distinguished by feats of arms against the Saracens in the eighth century. "They obtained their sirname, the badger, from their peculiar talent of burrowing or fixing their claws wherever they could gain possession; a significant, if not a noble epithet. 'La-Roche-Tesson,'—it was also a common saying—'holds one third of broad Normandy: one third of Normandy belongs to La-Roche-Tesson.'"—Sir Francis Palgrave. Their castle of La-Roche-Tesson was near St. Lo: and their forest of Cinglais was among the most celebrated in the Duchy. When, in 1047, the Norman and French armies encountered at Val-es-dunes, near Cinglais, the lord of the fief appeared on the field with a great following, but held aloof from either party. "Raol Tesson de Cingueleiz saw the Normans and French advancing, and beheld William's force increasing. He stood on one side afar off, having six score knights and six in his troop, all with lances raised, and trimmed with silk tokens" (called guimples, no doubt their ladies' colours). "The King and Duke William spoke together: each armed, and with helmet laced. They divided their troops, and arranged their order of battle, each holding in his hand a baton; and when the King saw Raol Tesson with his people standing far off from the others, he was unable to discover on whose side he was, or what he intended to do. 'Sire,' said William, 'I believe those men will aid me: for the name of their lord is Raol Tesson, and he has no cause of quarrel or anger against me.' Much was then said and done, the whole of which I never heard: and Raol Tesson still stood hesitating whether he should hold with William.

"On the one hand the Viscounts besought him and made him great promises: and he had before pledged himself, and sworn upon the saints of Bayeux to smite William wherever he should find him. But all his men besought and advised him for his good, not to make war upon his lawful lord, nor to fail of his duty to him in any manner.... They said William was his natural lord; that he could not deny being his man; that he should remember having done him homage before his father and his barons; and that the man who would fight against his lord had no right to fief or barony.

"'That I cannot dispute,' said Raol, 'you say well, and we will do even so.' So he spurred his horse from among the people with whom he stood, crying Tur aie[60] and ordering his men to rest where they were, went to speak with Duke William. He came spurring over the plain, and struck his lord with his glove, and said laughingly to him, 'What I have sworn to do that I perform: I had sworn to smite you as soon as I should find you: and as I would not perjure myself, I have now struck you to acquit myself of my oath: and henceforth I will do you no wrong or felony.' Then the Duke said, 'Thanks to thee!' and Raol went his way back to his men."—Wace.

This Ralph Tesson, the founder of the Abbey of Fontenay, was the father of Ralph II., who married a cousin-german of the Conqueror's, and was present at Hastings, where he, and old Roger Marmion, "carried themselves as barons ought, and afterwards received a rich guerdon for their service." No such guerdon, however, appears to have been offered to Ralph, whose name is not written in Domesday; but we there find a Gilbert Tison or Tesson, holding a barony in York, Notts, and Lincoln. It is conjectured that Ralph II. was either slain in the battle, or died before 1086: when his eldest son, Ralph III., inherited the great fief of La-Roche-Tesson: and that Gilbert was his second son, who then received or succeeded to the English possessions that rewarded his services. "Gilbert has been called Lord of Malton and Alnwick (Reg. of Alnwick Priory); and though the former was Crown land at the date of the Survey, 'it is not improbable,' as Mr. Stapleton remarks, 'that the defence of Alnwick Castle in the turbulent district N. of Tyne was undertaken by this great military officer, and that he made it the caput of his barony:' and that 'the influence of Roger de Mowbray, the Earl of Northumberland, may have, in that case, drawn him in to share in the rebellion (1095) which ended in the expulsion from their seigneuries of many Norman barons, whom the chroniclers omit to name.'

"There is no doubt this barony was escheated about this time, and divided by William Rufus between Nigel de Albini and Ivo de Vesci. Under Henry I., Gilbert could never regain his estates, but he continued to hold a large share of them as tenant to the grantees, one of whom (Ivo), it is not improbable, was his son-in-law or brother-in-law."—A. S. Ellis. Dugdale makes Ivo de Vesci's wife Alda, the daughter and heiress of William Tyson, and granddaughter of Gilbert Tyson, who fell fighting on Harold's side at Hastings. But in this case the son would never have been allowed to inherit: and the statement that the Tysons were Saxon, although it has been generally accepted, seems to be no longer tenable. Neither could Ivo have received his bride and his barony at the hand of the Conqueror, since, as a matter of fact, he never obtained Alnwick until the following reign.

Gilbert survived till about 1131, and left at least two sons, Adam and Richard. "Adam Tison, who succeeded to his father, gave to Selby Abbey, with consent of Emma his wife and William his son, Atoncroft on Spalding Moor, and to the Knights Hospitallers his manor of Winkburne. He was also a benefactor to the Priories of Rufford and Thurgarton. William was living 1166 (Liber Niger), when he held his inheritance as seventeen knight's fees; fifteen of Roger de Montgomeri and two of William de Vesci. He seems to have left daughters and co-heirs, represented by Constable and Belver.

"The other son, Richard Tyson, had from his father, it is said, the manor of Shilbottel, in Northumberland and other lands (two knight's fees of the barony of Alnwick, 1166). He founded the chapel of the nuns at Gayzance, dedicated to St. Wilfrid, and witnessed the foundation charter of Alnwick Abbey by his feudal lord, Eustace Fitzjohn. The Hiltons are descended from the daughter and heiress of his grandson German Tyson, but Tysons still exist, derived from one of the younger sons."—A. S. Ellis.

"M. le Prevost speaks of an opulent family existing in France, that claims descent from the Norman Lords of Cingueleiz."—J. R. Planche.

Talbot :

This victorious name, that has triumphantly withstood the "waves and weather of time," and shone in the baronial rank for more than seven centuries, is believed to have been borne by a branch of the Counts of Eu, and can thus be traced back to the royal house of Normandy.[61] "The family originally bore Bendy of ten (the arms of the Counts of Eu being Barry of ten), and descends from Hugh Taleboth, probably a younger son of William, first Count of Eu (son of Richard I. of Normandy). He, about 1035, granted a charter in favour of Trinite du Mont, Rouen, which was witnessed by his brother Count Gilbert of Eu (Forester's Ordericus, iii. 452). William Talebot, his son, is mentioned in the foundation charter of Treport, Eu, by his cousin Robert Count of Eu, and was a benefactor to that abbey (Gall. Christ, xi. 15). This William Talbot came to England 1066, and had two sons, Richard, and Geoffrey."—The Norman People. Both "Ricardus" and "Gosfridus Talebot" are inscribed as under-tenants in Domesday; the latter held in Essex, the former in Bedfordshire under Walter Giffard, Earl of Buckingham. This elder brother was the founder of the great historical house of Talbot. He married a daughter of Gerard de Gournay, Baron of Yarmouth, and had two sons, Geoffrey, a zealous partizan of the Empress Maud, ancestor of the Talbots of Bashall; and Hugh, ancestor of the Earls of Shrewsbury, who was Constable of Plessey Castle in Essex, and, in his latter years, a monk of Beaubec in Normandy. From the beginning of Henry II.'s reign his descendants were seated in Herefordshire, where Eccleswell became the head of their barony; and fourth in succession to him we find Gilbert Talbot, in the middle of the thirteenth century, Governor of Monmouth and several other Welsh castles, and married to a Welsh princess, Gwendoline, daughter and eventually heiress of Rhys-ap-Griffith, King of South Wales, whose arms the Talbots thereupon adopted, and bear to this day. His grandson, another Gilbert, Justice of South Wales, who in 1331 had summons to parliament, was the first baron by writ; and each generation that followed added to the power and possessions of the house. His son Richard obtained Goderich Castle through his wife Elizabeth Comyn of Badenoch (the unfortunate woman who was kidnapped and kept in fear of death by the Despensers[62]); and the fourth Lord Talbot not only acquired the barony of Blackmere by marrying the heiress of the Le Stranges, but succeeded to the whole vast inheritance of the Earls of Pembroke, in right of his great-grandmother, Joan de Valence, whose daughter and co-heir this Elizabeth Comyn had been. His son in consequence claimed the hereditary right of carrying the Great Spurs at the coronation of Henry V. This Gilbert, the fifth Baron, Captain General of the Marches of Normandy, was joined with Gilbert de Umfraville in 1415 to "subdue all the Forts and Castles to the King's obedience," and married two wives of Royal blood; Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and Beatrix, the illegitimate child of John, King of Portugal. But he had only one daughter, born of the second marriage, Ankaret, who died in minority in 1431; and the brother who succeeded him was the celebrated Earl of Shrewsbury, the "victorious Talbot,"

"Whom all France, with their chief assembled strength,
Durst not presume to look once in the face."

The Talbots had always approved themselves stout and ready soldiers. They had shed their blood both by sea and land in the many wars of the three Edwards; and one of them, when challenging the right of a part of the Comyn estates, invaded Scotland on his own account with three hundred of his retainers, and won a complete victory at Gleddesmore. Another had attended John of Gaunt into Spain. But to this great captain was reserved a place in the history of England, and an eulogy in the pages of Shakespeare, that were to be the crown and glory of his house, and the pride of a long line of generations yet to come.

John Talbot, born in 1373, was summoned to parliament in 1409 as Lord Furnivall, in right of his wife Maud de Nevill, the eldest daughter and co-heir of the fifth Lord Furnivall, who brought him, with his barony, its great Yorkshire appanage. Five years afterwards, he was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, from whence he was summoned to join Henry V. in France. On his way thither he deposited for safe keeping in the Tower a famous rebel chieftain named Donat Mac Murrough, whom he had subdued and captured. He attended the King on his triumphant entry into Paris, and was by his side throughout his victorious career but it was not till after its close, when he commanded in chief during the regency of the Duke of Bedford, that his great military genius found full scope. Then it was that he showed himself in good sooth the terror and "the scourge of France;" and that his name became a tower of strength to his soldiers, and a weapon of offence against their adversaries—[63]

"So fear'd abroad
That with this name the mothers still their babes."

When, after a long series of successes, during which town after town had surrendered to his arms, he was at last defeated and taken prisoner at Patay by Joan of Arc in 1429, the discouragement among the English party was so overwhelming that several places at once fell off from their allegiance. He remained a captive four years, when he was exchanged for Ambrose de Lore, paying a heavy sum for ransom; and no sooner was he set at liberty than he took the field with fresh ardour, and achieved fresh triumphs. In 1442 he was created Earl of Shrewsbury (nomen et honorem comitis Salop): and in 1446, having been again sent to govern Ireland, he received, "in consideration of his great services, and blood spilt in the Warrs," the two Earldoms of Waterford and Wexford, "to the end that the said kingdom of Ireland might be thenceforth the better defended and preserved." With them he had a grant of the city of Waterford, with the castle, honour, land, and barony of Dungarvan; and the high office of Great Seneschal of Ireland in fee. He was by this time well stricken in years, yet ready as ever to buckle his armour on; and when his presence was needed in France, where the power and authority of the English were declining day by day, he promptly resumed his command, and once more met his enemies in the field. In 1451 he was appointed Admiral of the Fleet, and the year following Lieutenant of Acquitaine, having under him as captains of his men-of-arms and archers, his son (by his second wife), Lord Lisle, Sir John Hungerford, Lord Molines, Sir Roger Camoys, Sir John Lisle, and the Bastard of Somerset. He marched straight to Bordeaux, where "the bare fame of his approach frighted the French from the siege," put a garrison into the rescued city, and received the submission of many distant places, that hastened to send in their adhesion. For a moment it seemed as if the return of the terrible old captain was to bring with it a return of the old success, when, on his way to the relief of Chatillon-sur-Dordon, in 1453, he met and gave battle near that town to the French, and was unhorsed and mortally wounded by a cannon ball. His death turned the wavering fortune of the day, and with him for ever departed the old English dominion in France, for which he had so long and so valiantly contended. He had won no less than forty pitched battles and "dangerous skirmishes," and died, as he had lived, sword in hand,[64] at the great age of eighty. Lord Lisle refused to leave his wounded father, and was killed by his side. Few passages in Shakespeare are more touching than the scene between the dying hero and the "young John Talbot," when the father entreats the son to fly and save his life—

"Shall all thy mother's hopes lie in one grave?"

and the son rejoins:

"Is my name Talbot? and am I your son?
And shall I fly? O, if you love my mother,
Dishonour not her honourable name,
To make a bastard and a slave of me;
The world will say,—He is not Talbot's blood
That basely fled, while noble Talbot stood."

On the day after the battle, the faithful herald who had worn his coat of arms all his life came to claim the body; kissed it, and, with tears trickling down his face, made his lament over his dead master.[65] "Alas! is it you? I pray God pardon all your misdoings: I have been your officer of arms forty years or more, it is time I should surrender it to you:" then, disrobing himself of his tabard, according to the custom observed at all feudal funerals, he flung it over his master's body. The Earl had desired that his bones might rest in his native land, and they were brought home and buried at Whitchurch in Salop. When the church was rebuilt in 1722, an urn was discovered which contained his heart, embalmed, and wrapped in a crimson velvet cloth.

He was twice married; first to the Furnivall heiress, by whom he had John, who succeeded him as Earl of Shrewsbury, with two other sons; and secondly to Lady Margaret Beauchamp, the elder of the two co-heirs of the twelfth Earl of Warwick, who brought him three more sons and two daughters. She was the great-granddaughter of the last Lord Lisle, and in honour of this descent her eldest son John was created Baron Lisle of Kingston Lisle in 1443, and Viscount Lisle the year before he was slain. Thomas, second Viscount, who fell in a private quarrel in 1469,[66] was the last heir male; and the barony passed to his sister Elizabeth, whose husband, Sir John Grey, was created Viscount Lisle.

The "great Alcides of the field" stands at the head of the longest existing roll of English Earls. Till now, no other house has rivalled the often vaunted illustration of the De Veres, who could count up twenty successive Earls of their own lineage; but in the present generation the title granted nearly 550 years ago to the victorious Talbot is borne by the twentieth representative of his name and blood, who takes rank in the peerage as Premier Earl of England. The elder line of his posterity ended with the eighth Earl in 1617, when the succession passed to the Talbots of Grafton, descended from a third son of the second Earl. Alathea, the heiress of his elder brother Gilbert, seventh Lord Shrewsbury, had previously carried away the whole array of ancient baronies—Talbot, Strange of Blackmere, Comyn of Badenoch, Valence, Montchensie, Furnivall, Verdon, and Lovetot (as used on his "lodging escutcheons," when he was sent Ambassador to France by Queen Elizabeth), to her husband the Earl of Arundel.

In the following century Charles, twelfth Earl, received a Dukedom. His father was the unhappy Earl Francis who was killed in a duel by his wife's paramour, Villiers Duke of Buckingham, while the shameless Countess herself stood by, in the disguise of a page, and held the Duke's horse. The son of this "wanton Shrewsbury" was "allowed to be," says Macaulay, "one of the finest gentlemen and finest scholars of his time. His person was pleasing, his temper singularly sweet; his parts such as, if he had been born in a humble rank, might well have raised him to civil greatness." He had early tendered his sword and purse to the Prince of Orange, and was among the principal promoters of the Revolution of 1689. Burnet relates that he "was one of the nobles whom William chiefly trusted, and one by whose advices he governed all his motions, and drew his declarations;" and no sooner were he and his wife proclaimed King and Queen of England, than the Earl of Shrewsbury was appointed one of their two principal Secretaries of State. "No man so young had, within living memory, occupied so high a post in the Government;" for he was then barely twenty-eight. "He seemed to be the petted favourite of nature and of fortune; but scarcely any other part of his life was of a piece with that splendid commencement." His temper proved weak and unstable; ill-fitted for the strain and stress of the time; he lost heart amid the vexations and responsibilities of office, and resigned the seals within the year. He wavered in his allegiance, and secretly tendered his services to James II: then repented and retracted: again took office in 1694 at the personal request of the King, who created him Duke of Shrewsbury and Marquess of Alton in the same year: once more resigned on the score of health in 1697, and finally left England in 1700. He was five years abroad, three of which were spent at Rome, where he fell in love with an Italian widow, whom he afterwards married. On his return home, though coldly received by his Whig friends, he was loaded with preferments by Queen Anne, who named him Lord Chamberlain, Ambassador Extraordinary to France, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and during the political crisis that embittered her last days, delivered to him the white staff of the Earl of Oxford: "so that at the Queen's death he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, High Treasurer of Great Britain, and Lord Chamberlain: three great employments never in the hands of one person before." He died in 1717, leaving no children to inherit his new honours, which expired with him. He was the first of his race that joined the communion of the Church of England, having abjured the tenets of Rome, on the discovery of the Popish plot, but at his death the Earldom reverted to a Roman Catholic heir, and so continued till the extinction of the elder line with the seventeenth Earl in 1858; when Henry, third Earl Talbot, established his right to the title and estates. He was the grandfather of the present representative of this renowned house, and the descendant of a great-uncle of George, ninth Earl, from whom came Charles Talbot, created Lord Talbot of Hensol on becoming Lord Chancellor in 1733. William, the next in succession, received the Earldom of Talbot on the accession of George III.; but it died with him, and was re-granted to his nephew and heir in 1784. The barony of Dynevor had been given to him in 1780 with special remainder to his daughter Lady Cecil Rice.

The Irish Talbots branched off from the English house at an early and uncertain date; but it must at all events have been subsequent to the twelfth century (the one given by Mr. Shirley), as they bear the golden lion of the Princess Gwendoline, first assumed by her husband Sir Gilbert Talbot, who died in 1274. The present head of the house is Lord Talbot of Malahide, whose Irish title dates from 1831, and his English peerage from 1856.

Of this stock was Richard, the youngest of the eight sons of Sir William Talbot of Cartown, who was created Viscount of Baltinglass and Earl of Tyrconnel in 1685, and Marquess and Duke of Tyrconnel in 1689 by James II. We first hear of him as the gay and handsome Dick Talbot, who "diced and revelled with Gramont," and married "the loveliest coquette of the brilliant Whitehall of the Restoration," Frances Jenyns, the sister of Sarah Duchess of Marlborough, and the widow of Count Hamilton. He was a man of savage and imperious temper, and very indifferent character, "of whom much ill has been written, and more believed;" but not the brutal bravo and bully represented by Macaulay. He had courage as well as wit, and remained unalterably faithful to the unhappy master in whose service he died. In 1687 he had succeeded Clarendon as Lord Deputy of Ireland; and while making preparations for the defence of Limerick in 1691 he was struck down by a fit of apoplexy, from which he never rallied. His honours were attainted; but he had left only two daughters, of whom one became Princess of Ventimiglia. His widow obtained permission to build a nunnery for Poor Clares at Dublin, in which she took the veil, and there, in 1730, La Belle Jenyns—once the petted and admired beauty of Charles II.'s Court—ended her days at the great age of ninety-two. There is a tradition that, at the time of her husband's death and forfeiture, she was left absolutely penniless, and not venturing to make her necessities known, gained her livelihood for some weeks as a sempstress. On the south side of the Strand then stood the New Exchange, originally built in the days of James I. from the rubbish of the old stables of Durham House, where long rows of shops were occupied by milliners and sempstresses, and the gallants of the day used to resort for a lounge in the afternoon. Here Pepys, among the rest, often came to gossip with the fair stall-holders; here Anne Clarges, afterwards Duchess of Albemarle, sold wash-balls, powder and gloves at the sign of the Three Spanish Gipsies; and here, it is said, Frances Jenyns, Duchess of Tyrconnel, disguised in a white mask, and always dressed in white clothes, kept a little shop, and became known as the White Milliner.[67]

The now extinct elder branch of the Talbots originally held of the honour of Lacy in Lincolnshire, and were transplanted into Yorkshire 37 Hen. III., when Edmond Earl of Lincoln granted to Sir Thomas Talbot in fee the manors of Bascholfe (Bashall) and Mitton in Craven. Sixth in descent from him was another Sir Thomas, who betrayed King Henry VI. to his pursuers, and for this "good service" received from Richard III. in 1484 an annuity to him and his heirs of 40 a-year. In 1485 his three sons also had annual grants made to them. The story of his treachery is thus told by Holinshed. "King Henrie was taken in Cletherwood, beside Bungerleie Hippingstones, in Lancashire, by Thomas Talbot, sonne and heir of Sir John Talbot of Basshall, and John Talbot, his cosin of Colebrie, which deceived him, being at his dinner at Waddington Hall,[68] and brought him toward London, with his legs bound to the stirrups." There was a tradition in the neighbourhood, recorded by Christopher Townley as current in his time, that the unhappy King, when betrayed by the Talbots, foretold nine generations of the family in succession, consisting of a wise man and a weak man by turns, after which the name should be lost. Something like these hereditary alternations of sense and folly—not uncommon in most families—may have happened; but I can only trace five generations that succeeded the traitor. The last heir—again Thomas—died in 1627; leaving two daughters, Elizabeth and Margery. Both were married—Elizabeth twice—but neither of them had children.

Touny :

for Toesni or Todeni, from Toesny, in the commune of Gaillon, arrondissement of Louviers, Normandy. Six of this name are on the Dives Roll; Raoul, Robert, Juhel, Ibert, Berenger, and Guillaume; but Juhel is inserted by mistake, for he was named De Toteneis, or Totness, from his Devonshire barony (see Maine). Raoul or Ralph de Toeni—called by Wace De Conches (from his barony of Conches, near Evreux, where his father Roger had founded an abbey), was the Hereditary Standard Bearer of Normandy, and, as such, offered the honour of bearing the consecrated banner at the battle of Hastings. "The Duke called a serving man, and ordered him to bring forth the gonfanon which the Pope had sent him; and he who bore it, having unfolded it, the Duke took it, reared it, and called to Raol de Conches: 'Bear my gonfanon,' said he, 'for I would not but do you right; by right and by ancestry your line are standard bearers of Normandy, and very good knights have they all been.' 'Many thanks to you,' said Raol, 'for acknowledging our right; but, by my faith, the gonfanon shall not this day be borne by me. To-day I claim quittance of the service, for I would serve you in other guise. I will go with you into the battle, and will fight the English as long as life shall last, and know my hand will be worth any twenty of such men.'"—Wace.

The De Toenis were "royal, descended from an uncle of Rollo;" and one of the greatest houses in Normandy. Ralph de Toeni was among Duke William's chief barons, and "through the malicious suggestion of some who bore a grudge towards him" had been at one time expelled from the Duchy, but by "the intercession of Friends" reinstated in his estates and office of standard-bearer. He appears as a great landowner in Domesday, and though his principal estates were in Norfolk, chose Flamstead in Hertfordshire as his chief residence. His mother was a sister of William FitzOsbern, Earl of Hereford, and on the failure of that family he received some share of their estates, with the castle of Clifford, which FitzOsbern had "newly built upon a piece of waste ground." He died in 1102, and was buried with his ancestors in his Norman Abbey of Conches. All his descendants made great alliances. His son Ralph married a daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland; Roger, his grandson, a daughter of the Earl of Hainault; and another Roger, his great-grandson, Constance de Bellomont, whose grandmother had been a daughter of Henry I., with whom he obtained some lands in Devonshire, originally granted by that King, and a gift from King John of the Norfolk manor still called Saham-Tony. Ralph, their son, was in arms with the rebellious barons, but was subsequently appointed one of the Barons Marcher of the Welsh frontier by Henry III., and died in the Holy Land, having been "signed with the cross" in 1239. The monks of St. Albans recount how his dead brother was brought back to life to induce him to build a monastery in the West of England. "Roger (a valiant and expert Soldier) lying on his Death Bed near Reading, his brother Ralph desired to have some Conference with him, and being then distant some thirty miles, rode with all speed, to come to his life: But when he got thither, finding him speechless and void of sense, with great lamentation he cryed out, 'My dear Brother, I conjure thee in the name of God, that thou speak to me:' adding that he would never eat again, unless he might have some discourse with him. And that thereupon the dead man sharply rebuked him for thus disquieting his spirit, by those importunate clamors; telling him, that he then beheld with his eyes the torments of evil men, and the joys of the Blessed; and likewise the great punishment whereunto he himself (miserable wretch) was destined. And going on in their discourse, Ralph replied, 'Shalt not thou then be saved?' 'Yes,' quoth Roger, 'for I have done one good work, though but a little one; that is to say, a small gift to the honour of the Blessed Virgin; for which, through God's mercy, I trust for redemption.' 'But,' quoth Ralph, 'may not these punishments whereunto thou art designed be mitigated by good Works, Masses, and Alms Deeds?' 'Yes,' quoth Roger: 'Why then,' quoth Ralph, 'I do faithfully promise thee, that for the health of our Souls, and the Souls of our Ancestors, I will found a Religious House, for good Men to inhabite; who for the health of our Souls, shall always pray to God.'" This may probably be taken as a fair sample of the means then employed for extending the possessions of the Church.

Third in descent from the crusader was Robert, the last of the line, who for his good service in the wars of Scotland and Gascony was summoned to parliament as Baron Toni in 1299. He is the knight of the Swan spoken of at Caerlaverock:—

"Blanche cote et blanches alettes
Escu blanche et baniere blanche
Avoit o la vermaylle manche
Robert de Tony ki bien signe
Ke il est du chevalier a cigne."

"According to the popular romance of the Knight of the Swan," says Sir Harris Nicholas, "the Counts of Boulogne were lineally descended from that fabulous personage,[69] and genealogists of former ages have pretended to trace the pedigrees of the Beauchamps, Bohuns, and Staffords to the same source, whence they say they derive their respective crests. It would therefore not be difficult to deduce the descent of Robert de Toeni from the Counts of Boulogne, and the accurate knowledge of genealogy that the poet has displayed in his account of Lord Clifford's pedigree, justifies the idea that he referred to Toeni's pedigree; an opinion further supported by the fact of the shield, on his seal affixed to the Baron's letter to the Pope, 1301, being surrounded by lions and swans alternately." He died s. p. in 1310, and his only sister Alice inherited. She was then a young widow of twenty-six, having been married to Thomas de Leybourne, son of William Lord Leybourne, the doughty Kentish knight who would know nothing of if or but:—

"Guillemes de Leybourne ausi,
Vaillans homs, sanz mes et sans si."

Her daughter Juliana was the famous heiress known as the "Infanta of Kent." Alice had two other husbands; Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick (Noir Chien d'Arden), and William la Zouche of Ashby. The name of this great house survives in different counties; it was given to Zell-Tony in Devonshire, Stratford Tony and Newton Tony in Wiltshire.

The first Ralph that came out of Normandy had a younger brother named Robert, Baron of Stafford, whom the author of the 'Norman People' believes to be the same Robert de Todeni who built Belvoir Castle (vol. i., p. 177). But though they may have been namesakes, they were distinctly different persons. According to Domesday, Robert held in all one hundred and thirty-one manors in different counties; and Dugdale supposes that he took his name from the then newly-built castle of Stafford, of which the Conqueror appointed him the first castellan. He lived till the time of Henry I., and founded an Augustinian priory at Stone in Staffordshire (on the spot where one Enysan de Walton had murdered two nuns and a priest), which became the burial-place of the family. By his wife, Avice de Clare, he was the father of Nicholas, Viscount of Staffordshire with whose grandson Robert the male line terminated. A sister named Millicent carried the barony, with a great inheritance, to her husband Hervey Bagot (" a Gentleman of an antient Family in those parts"; vol. i., p. 194), who thereupon bore the title of Lord Stafford. But he had to pay so heavy a fine to Coeur de Lion for permission to marry this heiress, and obtain livery of her lands, that he was forced to sell Drayton—one of her manors—to the canons of St. Thomas. Their son, who bore the name of his mother, founded one of the loftiest of our English houses, which rose to the highest point of splendour only to fall to the other extreme of reverse. Third in descent from him was Edmund Stafford, summoned to parliament in 1299, who followed Edward I. into Scotland, and distinguished himself in his service. He had two sons: Ralph, and Richard, ancestor of the Staffords of Clifton. Ralph, a renowned captain in the wars of Edward III., defended Aguillon triumphantly against the whole power of the French, commanded in the van at Cressy, and was appointed, first Seneschal, and then Lieutenant-General of Aquitaine. He was one of the Founder Knights of the Garter, Earl of Stafford by creation in 1351, and Earl of Gloucester and Baron Audley in right of his wife Margaret de Audley, daughter and heir of Hugh, Earl of Gloucester, who had married one of the co-heirs of Gilbert de Clare. The next Earl followed in his father's footsteps, for he was fighting in France in the train of the Black Prince when a stripling of only seventeen, and died in 1386 at Rhodes, on his way home from the Holy Land, leaving four surviving sons: Thomas, William, and Edmund, successively third, fourth, and fifth Earls, and Sir Hugh, who married Lord Bourchier's heiress, and was summoned to parliament as Baron Bourchier, but died s. p. Earl Edmund, who fell in the battle of Stafford, had married Lady Anne Plantaganet (the daughter of Thomas Earl of Woodstock by Alianore, one of the great Bohun heiresses), who had been already "in her tender years" the wife of his brother Thomas; and in honour of this illustrious alliance their only son Humphrey was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444, with precedence next to the blood royal. But this rank was disputed by Henry de Beauchamp, the new Duke of Warwick, and it was found that nothing less than an Act of Parliament, granting each precedence on alternate years, could adjust their rival claims. Humphrey, in his turn, "receiv'd deep scars in France and Normandy," and died fighting for the Red Rose at Northampton in 1460. His eldest son had been slain five years previously at St. Albans; and thus, three loyal generations, one after the other, faithfully laid down their lives for the House of Lancaster. The second son, Sir Henry, married Henry VII.'s mother, Margaret Countess of Richmond, the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, "allied, by blood or affinity, to thirty kings and queens": and John, the youngest, was created Earl of Wiltshire, but the line failed in his son.

Humphrey's grandson, Henry, second Duke, was married to Katherine Widville, the sister-in-law of Edward IV.; yet, on his death, took part against Edward V. (his own nephew), and offered his services privately to the Duke of Gloucester, promising "to wait upon him with 1,000 good Fellows, if need were." He was one of the emissaries sent to the poor Queen, then in sanctuary at Westminster, who succeeded "by fair pretences and promises in gaining her young sons out of her hands;" he connived at their murder; and bore Richard III.'s train at his coronation, with the white staff of Lord High Steward of England. The guerdon of his crime was dealt out to him with no niggardly hand. He was appointed Chief Justice of North and South Wales, and Lord High Constable, with a grant of the lands of Humphrey de Bohun, as cousin and heir of blood, and such great riches that "he then made his boast, that he had as many Liveries of Stafford Knotts, as Richard Nevill the late great Earle of Warwick had of Ragged Staves." Yet his allegiance to the new King proved of brief duration. Some doubt whether he actually got possession of the coveted Bohun estates; others conjecture he had "trouble of conscience," or perceived that Richard's regard for him was waxing cold: at all events, from some cause or other, he retired in dudgeon to his Welsh castle of Brecknock, and plotted fresh treasons. In concert with the Marquess of Dorset, the Courtenays, and others, he took up arms for the heir male of Lancaster: but "from extraordinary floods" (long remembered by the name of "Buckingham's Water") he could not pass the Severn; his Welshmen dispersed "for want of money and victual," and the rising ended in disaster. The Courtenays fled into Brittany, and the Duke himself was forced to seek shelter in the house of a servant "whom he had tenderly brought up, and above all men trusted." This fellow delivered him up to the King, and he was beheaded in the market place at Salisbury, "without Arraignment or Judgment" in 1483. The betrayer did not, however, receive the promised reward of 1,000; for the King refused to give him anything, declaring "that he who would be untrue to so good a Master, would be false to all other."

Buckingham left three sons: 1. Edward, third Duke; 2. Henry, who married Lady Wiltshire, the widow of his cousin Edward Stafford, the second and last Earl, and was himself created Earl of Wiltshire, but died s. p. in 1523, and 3. Humphrey, who died young. Edward, the heir, was restored by Henry VII. to his Dukedom and other honours, and appointed Lord High Constable of England. Henry VIII., two years after his accession, granted him license to empark 2,000 acres at Thornbury in Gloucestershire, where he commenced building a magnificent castle: and for some time he was in high favour at Court. Yet he, too, was to end his life on the scaffold. He had, from some trivial cause, a bitter quarrel with Cardinal Wolsey:—it is said that at a great Court ceremonial, when the Duke was holding a bason to the King, no sooner had His Majesty washed than Wolsey dipped his own hands into the water, and Buckingham, stung at the indignity "flung the contents of the ewer into the churchman's shoes." Wolsey swore to be revenged; a retainer named Knevet was found to swear that the Duke had conspired against his sovereign; and he was tried and condemned as a traitor. On receiving sentence, he said to the Lord High Steward, "My Lord of Norfolk, you have said as a traitor should be said to; but I was never any. I nothing malign you, for what you have done to me; but the eternal God forgive you my death. I shall never sue to the King for life, though he be a gracious prince; and more grace may come from him than I desire; and so I desire you and all my fellows to pray for me." He was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1521. "A butcher's dog hath killed the noblest buck in England," said Charles V., on hearing of his fate.

With him the princely House of Stafford fell to rise no more. His only son, stripped alike of lands and dignities, received back a small fraction of its splendid possessions, with "a seat and voice in parliament as a baron:" and this title was borne by several generations. Edward, fourth Lord Stafford, "basely married to his mother's chambermaid," was succeeded by his grandson Henry, with whom the direct line terminated in 1637; and the claim of the last remaining heir, Roger, was rejected by the House of Lords on account of his poverty. This unfortunate man, the great-grandson of the last Duke, was then sixty-five, and had sunk into so abject a condition that he felt ashamed of bearing his own name, and long passed as Fludd, or Floyde, having, it is supposed, assumed the patronymic of one of his uncle's servants, who had reared and sheltered him in early life. He was compelled to surrender his barony to Charles I., and died unmarried in 1640; leaving an only sister, Jane, who in spite of her Plantagenet blood married a joiner, and had a son gaining a poor livelihood as a cobbler in 1637 at Newport in Shropshire. No downfall could well have been more complete.[70]

All the kindred families of this name had then been extinct for a long time. The Staffords of Clifton (see p. 174) were barons by writ in 1371, and ended early in the following century. Another line (traced from Sir John Stafford, of Bromshull, co. Stafford) acquired Hooke in Dorsetshire during the reign of Henry IV. by the marriage of Sir Humphrey "with the silver hand"[71] to the widow of Sir John Maltravers. One of their descendants was created Baron Stafford of Suthwyk in 1464; and after the execution and attainder of Thomas Courtenay, Earl of Devon, in 1469, received his forfeited Earldom; but was himself beheaded at Bridgewater a few months afterwards. His two only daughters died unmarried.

One remaining branch of the royal Toenis still flourishes in the male line. Nigel de Toeni or De Stafford, a younger brother of the standard bearer's, held Drakelow, Gresley, and some other manors in Derbyshire and Staffordshire at the date of Domesday; the former "by the service of rendering a bow without a string; a quiver of Tutesbit (?) twelve fleched and one unfeathered arrow," sometimes called a buzon. Castle-Gresley took its name from his castle; and Church-Gresley marks the site of an Augustinian priory founded by his son William in the time of Henry I. Roger, the next heir, first bore the name of Gresley, that has been carried down to our own time by a long and honourable line of descent. His successors continued at Drakelow, and since the time of the first Edward have at various periods served as knights of the shire and High Sheriffs of their native county. Sir Geoffrey, in 1330, claimed the right of having a gallows at Drakelow and Gresley; Sir Nicholas, during the same reign, married a great heiress, Thomasin de Wasteneys; Sir William served Henry VIII. in his French wars, and dying issueless, was succeeded by his brother George, who was installed a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Anne Boleyn. Two others, Sir William and Sir Thomas, one Sheriff of Stafford, the other of Derby, were knighted by Queen Elizabeth; and the next in succession, George, received a baronetcy in 1611. "He was an active officer in the Parliamentary service during the Civil War, and was Lieut.-Colonel to Sir William Gell."—Lysons. In the beginning of the present century Sir Roger Gresley alienated much of the property; and, having no children, parcelled out the remainder in such a manner that, by annual sales, it should last him his life; but he died a comparatively young man, and Drakelow, "the only estate remaining in the county that has continued in the same family from the time of Domesday," is now held by his representative, Sir Robert Gresley.

Traies :

for Thays, according to Leland's version. He gives us "Thays et Tony": and again, further on, "Tay." This was a baronial name. "The family of Teutonicus, or Tyes, is frequently mentioned both in Normandy and England, and may possibly have descended from Baldric Teutonicus, ancestor of the Courcys and Nevills."—The Norman People. We find them early established in Yorkshire. "At a very small distance from the field of battle of Towton stands the antique and diminutive chapel of Leod, or Lede, which seems to have been domestic to the adjoining manor house. This was one of the seats of the ancient family of Tyas, styling themselves in Latin Teutonicus, five of whose tombs still remain in the chapel, which, as I recollect, is little more than eighteen feet long within. The inscriptions, in Longobardic characters, are partly visible, and four of the five bear the arms of Tyas, a fesse with three mallets in chief.

"This family De Tyas appear to have been magnificent persons. Sir Baldwin Teutonicus is styled nobilis miles, and a lady, probably his wife, nobilis
faemina. The following is a trait in their character of the same kind. A... (the year is omitted) Ed. I. In Rot. Cur. de Wakefield.

"Franco Tyas miles tulit actionem versus Germanum Mercer, qui arrestavit equum Wilmi Lepton armigeri sui ad dedecus & damnum praedit Franci, quia fuit sine armigero. Et praedictus Franco recuperavit centum solidos."

"The gravamen in this action was very singular. A poor mercer had arrested the horse of the plaintiffs esquire, in consequence of which the latter was unable to attend his knight to his great disgrace and loss. The plaintiff for this affront recovered one hundred shillings, equal, at least, to as many pounds at present.

"This Sir Franco, whom I trace pretty far into the reign of Henry III., must, I think, have been son of John Tyas, son of Sir Baldwin, and father of Henry, who seems to have been father of another Franco, the last of his name, who, when near the close of his life, made disposition of his estates. It seems evident that after his death they passed to the descendants of an heir female, several generations higher in the line."—Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete.

Dodsworth gives a more detailed and rather different pedigree commencing with Henricus Teutonicus, to whom, some time between 1195 and 1211, Roger de Laci granted the manor of Slaithwaithe, which passed to his brother Baldwin Teutonicus vel Ties, Lord of Lede, and in right of his wife Margery, also of Woodsome and Farnley, named from him Farnley-Tyas. He was the father of Sir Franco (the hero of Whitaker's story), who had a son variously named Henry and Richard, living 1279-1315, and married to a co-heiress of Neville of Mirfield. They had five sons: 1, Baldwin, s. p.; 2, Robert, a priest; 3, Franco II.; 4, Richard; and 5, John, Lord of Slaithwaite, whose heiress Margaret married Sir John Billingay. According to the same authority, Franco had an heir named Baldwin, and Richard two daughters only; whereas Hunter, the historian of South Yorkshire, asserts that Franco was a bachelor, and that from Richard "there seems to have descended a race of Tyas of Farnley who had property there, but not the manor."

The name was by no means confined to Yorkshire. There was a Waleran Teutonicus, who, in the time of Henry III., had the custody of the Isle of Wight during the minority of Earl Baldwin. Roger de Teie occurs in Oxfordshire 1194-98 (Rot. Curiae Regis). Sir Walter de Teys[72] in 1316 held Bromham, &c, in Bedfordshire, and Nunnington, &c, in Yorkshire. He was summoned to parliament at Northampton in 1307, and again the following year for the King's coronation. He received numerous writs of military summons, and in 1315 was "stationed in the Marches for defence thereof against the Scots."—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Sir Henry Tyes, who held lands in Oxfordshire, Berkshire, and Wiltshire, was a baron by writ in 1313. He served Edward II. in his Scottish wars; but, in 1322, taking part with the Earl of Lancaster, he was in arms against the King, attacked and burnt Bridgenorth, and "was one of the traitors that assisted in taking the town of Gloucester." He was made prisoner at the battle of Boroughbridge, and hanged for treason. Theodoric Teutonicus held of the King in Somersetshire, and Henry Teutonicus was a tenant of the new feoffment in Cornwall.—Testa de Nevill.

Tollemach :

"This must surely," says Sir Bernard Burke, "be a monkish interpolation. The inscription in the old manor house of Bentley, in Suffolk—

'Before the Normans into England came,
Bentley was my seat and Tollemache was my name,'

seems to set the matter at rest." Yet the name is found in Normandy. In the MS. Cartulary of Mont S. Michel (Public Library of Avranches) there are several writs regarding transactions between Thomas de St. John and the monks (fol. xxxv. verso) dated 1121, in which "Hugo Tallmascha" figures as a witness, showing a close connection with the St. Johns. Like Talbot, Giffard, Ridel, &c, Tollemache was a personal appellative, unconnected with land, and may possibly be derived from Tailler (to cut), and mache (corn salad). (See 'Notes and Queries,' 5th S. viii.) Sir Bernard Burke states it to be a corruption of the word "tollmack," tolling of the bell; but, as Mr. Freeman justly points out, "in what language 'tollmack' means tolling of the bell is not explained." Nor was there any Tollemache seated at Bentley at the date of Domesday; "Bentley in Suffolk is there mentioned three times; ii. 287, 287 b, 295 b. It passed through the hands of such well-known people as Earl Gyrth and Ralph the Staller: but, alas! there is no sign of Tollemache, of his bell, or of his verses." On the other hand, Hugo Talmasche—evidently the same Hugo who witnesses the Norman deeds of Mont St. Michel—subscribed the charter made by John de St. John in favour of Godstow, in Oxfordshire, in the reign of Stephen (Mon. iv. 363). There was evidently a near relationship between the Tollemaches and St. Johns, although its exact nature remains to be found out. "Hugo Talemasche appears again in company with John de St. John in the Pipe-roll of Henry I., p. 3: and in the Gloucester cartulary we find the gifts of Hugh Talamasche confirmed by Thomas de St. John. No one appears in Domesday by the name of Tollemache in any form; but there is a Hugh who holds lands at Stoke in Oxfordshire, partly of Walter Giffard, partly of Roger of Ivry. He may well be either the Hugh of the Pipe-roll and of the Godstow charter, or his father."—Freeman. Probably the next heir was another of the name, who, "when he took upon him the monk's habit at Gloster, gave to the Abbey one moiety of Hampton. His son Peter, and King Henry II., confirmed the gift."—Atkyn's Gloucestershire. Richard Talemasch, of Oxfordshire, is found in the Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1194-98.

In the following reign occurs the first notice of the Bentley family; though, at the death of the last heir male in 1821, they claimed to have "continued in the county of Suffolk, in an uninterrupted male succession, from the arrival of the Saxons; a period of nearly thirteen centuries." William Talmash gave lands in Bentley and Dodness to Ipswich Priory in the time of King John: and Hugh Talmash paid a fine to Ipswich, under Henry III., for freedom of toll for him and his villeins in that parish. Either he, or his son of the same name, held the manor of the Crown by knight service in 1296, and was the tenant of the Countess of Gloucester at Talmash Hall, in Bricet Parva. He, with two of his kinsmen, William and John, was summoned to attend the King at Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1300 for his expedition into Scotland. This John, whose arms remain emblazoned in York Minster, took the Black Cross, and received a summons to attend the great Council at Westminster in 1324 (Palgrave's Parl. Writs). Another Sir William, of earlier date, had acquired Hawstead, probably through Cecily his wife, in the reign of Henry III.; but his grandson left only a daughter, married to Bokenham; whence their manor was called Talmage's, otherwise Bokenham's.

Sir Lionel Talmash, late in the fifteenth century, married the heiress of Helmingham, in another part of the county, where he took up his abode. He twice served as High Sheriff for Norfolk and Suffolk in the reign of Henry VIII.; and built Helmingham Hall on the site of an old moated manor house, named from its former owners, Creke's Hall. It is a red brick building in the picturesque Tudor style, surrounded, as of yore, by its moat of clear water, plentifully stocked with fish, and crossed by a drawbridge, still in use, that, according to a fond tradition, has been regularly drawn up every night for the last eight hundred years. There can, however, be no cavilling as to the antiquity of the oak-trees in the park, for they take rank among the finest in the kingdom. Sir Lionel's heir, another Sir Lionel, entertained Queen Elizabeth for five days at Helmingham in 1561, on which occasion she stood godmother to his eldest son, and left the lute on which she had played behind her as a keepsake. It was her parting gift to her host, and is preserved,[73] with her spinet, the bed on which she slept, and her portrait, painted with bright auburn hair, in remembrance of this visit.

In the following century, a third Sir Lionel brought a Scottish Earldom into the family by his marriage with Lady Elizabeth Murray. Her father—a nephew of the Thomas Murray who had been first preceptor and then secretary to Charles I., was created Earl of Dysart and Lord Huntingtower in 1643, and is noted by Bishop Burnet for "one particular quality. When he was drunk, which was very often, he was on a most exact reserve, though at other times pretty open." Lady Elizabeth was, it is said, "a woman of great beauty and far greater parts," combining with the rather formidable reputation of being versed in divinity, history, mathematics, and philosophy, "a wonderful quickness of apprehension, and amazing vivacity in conversation." Not only did she inherit her father's honours, but in 1670—the year after Sir Lionel's death, she obtained a fresh patent, granting them "to such of her issue as she might nominate under her hand during her life." She was evidently a woman to whom nothing could be refused. "Cromwell himself, the stern Cromwell, was unable," we are told, "to resist her blandishments." She re-married the Duke of Lauderdale, and queened it to her heart's content, but left children only by her first husband. Her eldest son, Lionel, succeeded as third Earl of Dysart, and was followed by another Lionel, who had six sons and eight daughters; yet all this goodly progeny did not furnish a single heir-male in the next generation. The family was doomed to extinction. The first son died an infant: Lionel was the fifth, and Wilbraham the sixth Earl; George, a young midshipman, was killed by a fall from the masthead of H. M.'s ship Modeste; John, a captain in the navy, the only brother that was not childless, fell in a duel at New York, and his one son, a lad of nineteen, lost his life at the siege of Valenciennes; while William the youngest—again a sailor—perished in the Repulse frigate, during a hurricane in the Atlantic, with every soul on board. Of the eight sisters, four died very young: Lady Frances never married; Lady Louisa was the wife of John Manners; and Lady Jane, the youngest, had two husbands; first John Delap Halliday of Leasowes in Shropshire, and secondly John Ferry.

The two last named were the co-heirs of their brother Wilbraham, on whose death, in 1821, Lady Louisa succeeded as Countess of Dysart, and resumed her maiden name, still borne by her descendants. With the Earldom, they inherited Buckminster and the Lincolnshire property, and Ham House, near Richmond, that rare old relic of bygone days, which still lives and breathes in the past, unspoiled by the baneful touch of modern improvement.

The old house of Helmingham fell to the share of Lady Jane, with Peckforton in Cheshire, where a stately castle has since been built. Her eldest son by her first marriage, Admiral John Halliday, took the name of Tollemache, and was the father of the present Lord Tollemache, who received his title in 1874. Perhaps none in the whole peerage has a more amply secured succession; for the new peer boasts of eleven sons, four grandsons and several great-grandsons.

Tolous :

or De Toulouse, a princely name. "The Counts of Toulouse descended from Fulcoald, Count of Rodez 837, whose son Fridolind became Count of Toulouse 849 (L'Art de Verif. les Dates), and was ancestor of that Sovereign house, whose services in the Crusades, and whose ruin in the Albigensian wars, occupy so important a place in history. A branch of this illustrious house settled in England at the Conquest, and Hugh de Toulouse obtained grants from Richard FitzGilbert in Surrey. His grandson, Peter de Thalews (Tolouse), held more than two fees there in 1165 of the Honor of De Clare (Liber Nig.)."—The Norman People. The ingenious author of the above work has discovered that the existing family of Toler can be armorially identified with the Counts of Toulouse. "For a long time," he says, "I could not discover the origin of this family. I formed several theories, which I was eventually obliged to relinquish. At length no clue remained except the arms: a cross flory surmounted by another cross between four leaves erect. They were at first presumed to be of no great antiquity, as they do not present the simplicity characteristic of the ancient Armorial. It appeared, however, on further enquiry, that the leaves had not originally been included in the arms; for families of 'Tollers' and 'Towlers' were ascertained to have borne the same arms without any leaves, so that it was clear the leaves were merely the emblems of a particular branch. The inquiry was continued with the aid of this armorial, and the family traced in different parts of England in former ages, under a name continually varying in form—sometimes Towlers, then Tolers, then Towlowse, Towlous, Tolouse, until at length it clearly appeared that the latter, which was coeval with the Conquest, was the original form. This pointed to Toulouse in France as the place from which they had originally come; and, desirous to ascertain whether any trace could be found of a family named from a city so large as Toulouse (of which there seemed very little hope), I directed my attention to works containing information as to its early history. I turned to Anselme's great work on the peers and nobles of France, in hopes of finding, under his account of the Sovereign Counts of Toulouse, some reference to works which might enable me to pursue the inquiry. The volume was accordingly opened which contains the history of the Counts of Toulouse, when, to my extreme astonishment, I recognized the arms of the English Tolers or Towlers at the head of the history of that great house. Their arms were the hereditary emblems of that almost kingly race in all its branches—the well-known 'Cross of Toulouse' being a cross fleury voided (i.e. in skeleton), which English heralds had described as a cross fleury surmounted by another cross. Of course all these various families of Toler, Toller, and others, bearing the Cross of Toulouse, were identified as one in origin, and as, no doubt, descendants of the princely house whose name and arms they have borne from the eleventh century." This is the more curious, as the Tolers themselves have preserved no tradition of their splendid descent. The present Earl of Norbury only traces his pedigree from a successful soldier of Cromwell's, who migrated from Norfolk to Ireland during the time of the Commonwealth, and obtained a grant of land in Tipperary.

Tanny :

a baronial name derived from the Castle of Tani, in Normandy. Auvrai de Tanie is on the Dives Roll: and Robert de Tany witnesses William the Conqueror's charter to Selby Abbey, Yorkshire (Mon. Angl.). He held a barony in Essex, when the name was given to Stapleford-Tany, Chignall-Tany, and Latton-Tany. Hasculf, his son, who in 1140 had a great suit with Rualo de Abrincis, and also contested some property with William de Boville, was the father of Rainald and Gruel. Rainald, a benefactor of Bermondsey Abbey in Surrey, left no heirs, and Gruel, or Grailand, succeeded, and certified in 1165 that he held three knight's fees de veteri feoffamento. Then came another Hasculf; and lastly, Gilbert, whose next heirs were William de Fauburgh, Maud the wife of Adam de Legh, and Nicolas de Beauchamp. He died in 1220, seized of seven knight's fees in the counties of Essex, Cambridge, and Suffolk, the Lordships of Aungre (Ongar) and Auvilers forming part of his barony.

Some male descendants, however, there still were of this "very considerable Family," as Morant styles them; for in 1235, and the greater part of the three following years, Peter de Tani was Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire. Of his son John we are only told that he bestowed some land on Waltham Abbey, but his grandson, Sir Richard, was Sheriff of the two counties in 1260 and 1261, Conservator of the Peace in 1263, and matched with a great heiress, Margery, daughter of Richard FitzWilliam, who brought him Stapleford with eight knight's fees. He suffered seizure of his lands for taking part in the rebellion of 1264, but was restored to the King's good graces and his forfeited property through the mediation of Roger de Leybourne in 1267. Moreover, in the following year, he was appointed Constable of Hadley, and received a license to empark his wood of Stapleford within the Forest. He was succeeded by Richard and Roger (or Robert) his sons; and then by Laurence, the last male heir, who died in 1317, leaving his sister Margaret de Drokensford to inherit the estate.

"Of this family also was Lucas de Thani, who in 9 Edward III. was constituted Justice of all the King's Forests South of Trent; but the next ensuing year, being a valiant Souldier, and in that Expedition made into Wales; upon a skirmish with the Welch, who were too strong for him and his party, endeavouring to pass a Bridge (begun by the King, and not finished), he had the fate to be drowned, with many more in that Retreat. Others say, that it was by passing the River in Boats, which being overladen, sunk them."—Dugdale. The De Tanys bore Argent a Maunch Gules.

Touke :

from Touques, arrondissement of Pont L'Evesque, at the mouth of the river so called. "Le Seigneur de Touque" appears on the list of those who fought under William the Conqueror both in the Norman Chronicle and in the Roman de Rou. "Roger de Touques occurs in Hants 1130 (Rot. Pip.); Humphrey in Derby, William also in Derby, and Roger in Dorset in 1165 (Liber Niger). Sir Walter Touk was of Notts and Derby about 1300, and bore Sable billetee Or, a quarter Ermine. Sir Robert Touk at the same time was of Cambridge, and bore Barry of six. Reginald Thukes, in the time of Stephen, gave Hanworth to Gloucester Abbey."—The Norman People. Henry Touke served Edward I. in his Scottish wars, and obtained from him a grant of the lands of Maud de Carrick and Isabel, the mother of Eustace of Bothwell (Sir Francis Palgrave, History and Affairs of Scotland). Thomas Tuke was of Lincoln at the same date (Rotul. Hundred), and Ralph Toke of Hampshire, John and Thomas Toke of Oxfordshire, and Richard Toke of Wiltshire.

In Nottinghamshire the Toukes were to be found for about three hundred years. William de Tulc, or Tuke, during the reign of Stephen, held of Ralph Silvain in Kelham, part of the great Richmond Fee, and was a benefactor of Rufford Abbey. His son William confirmed and added to his gifts, and "7 Ric. I. gave account of two marks, for having his land again, whereof he was disseized for being in Nottingham Castle, as most of our Nottinghamshire gentry were at that time, with Earl John."—Thoroton's Notts. Henry, his heir, was living in 1218, and was followed by two Sir Walters, father and son, then by another Henry, and a Simon, mentioned in 1337. Here the pedigree breaks off: but in 1440 we find Thomas Touc, holding lands in North and South Clifton, Northwell-Woodhouse, Ossington, Holme, North Muskham, Sutton and Kelham, and Robert Touc occurs four years afterwards. Then "the principal manor that was Tuke's, from that family came to Foljambe," most likely through an heiress.

A branch was seated at Leke, in the same county, where Humphrey de Touke held of Robert de Ferrers, t. Henry II.; John, son of Sir William, and grandson of Sir Philip de Touc of Leke, was living 9 Ed. I.

Morant, in his History of Essex, tells us that "Sir Brian Tuke, Treasurer of the Chamber to Henry VIII., received from him the manor of South Weald. He was Sheriff of the county in 1553, and a man of learning. Leland highly commends him for his wonderful eloquence in the English language. He had been constituted in 1522 Secretary to the King for the French tongue; was Clerk of the Parliament, and in 1528, being one of the King's Secretaries, was sent Ambassador to France with Bishop Tunstall." He died 1545, leaving two sons: 1, Charles, s. p.; 2, George.

There is a Kentish family of this name, derived from Robert de Toke, who was present with Henry III. at the battle of Northampton in 1264. His great-grandson was seated at Westcliffe in Kent; and from him, in the fifth generation, descended John Toke of Bere, living in the reigns of Henry V. and Henry VI. He had three sons: 1, Thomas, of Bere: 2, Ralph, ancestor of the Tokes of Cambridgeshire, Dorsetshire, and Hertfordshire; and 3, John, s. p. Thomas married the heiress of Godinton, thenceforward the residence of the family, and was the father of John Toke, who received from Henry VII, as his reward for his expedition in a message on which he was employed to the French King, an augmentation of honour to his arms; viz. Argent, on a chevron between three greyhounds' heads erased Sable, collared Or, three plates. "Which coat," says Hasted, "the Tokes of Godinton have ever since borne, in the first quarter of their arms; placing the original arms of Toke, Parted per chevron, Sable and Argent, three griffins' heads erased and counterchanged, in the second place." Many of his descendants are buried in Great Chart Church; among them lies "Nicholas Toke of Godinton, usually called Captain Toke, sheriff in 1663, who, dying in 1680, was buried in the chancel, with his five wives. His portrait at full length is in the hall here, and that of Diana his fifth wife, daughter of the Earl of Winchilsea. There is an anecdote of him in the family, that at the age of ninety-three, being left a widower, he walked from hence to London, to pay his addresses to a sixth wife; but being taken ill, he presently died. His portrait well expresses the strength of his frame and constitution. Leaving no male issue by any of his wives, he devised this seat of Godinton, with the rest of his estate, to his nephew and heir-at-law, Nicholas Toke of Wye."—Ibid. Godinton Hall, still held by his representative, is a fine old Tudor house, containing some stained glass, good oak carving, and ancient andirons. "In the windows of the staircase are collected all the arms, quarterings, and matches of the family, in painted glass; they are numerous, very perfect, and well preserved. The drawing-room upstairs is curiously wainscoted with oak, and carved, particularly along the upper part of it; all round the room is a representation of the exercise and manoeuvres of the antient militia, with the men habited and accoutred with their arms, in every attitude of marching, exercise, &c, which makes a very droll exhibition of them. * * * * There was a vineyard at Godinton in Captain Nicholas Toke's time, from which was made wine of an extraordinary fine sort and flavour."—Ibid.

Tibtote :

from Thiboutot, in the Pays de Caux. John de Thiboutot is mentioned by Des Bois in 1107; and others appear in the Exchequer Rolls of 1180-95. They were Sieurs d'Alvemont, ennobled in 1667, and bore D'argent an sautoir denche de gueules—precisely the same arms as the English house. Three De Thiboutots are found in the Assembly of Norman nobles in 1789—Nobiliaire de Normandie. In England the name, which in after ages degenerated into Tiptoft, first occurs in the Liber Niger. Ralph de Toboltot or Toboutot held a fief in Suffolk from De Clare in 1165. He is not noticed by Dugdale, who begins his account of the family with Walter de Tibetot, who forfeited the lands he held of Earl Ferrers in Leicestershire in 1204 for "adhering to the King's Enemies." Next follows Henry de Tibetot—how related does not appear—in emphatic contrast to the last; for, being in arms for the Crown at the accession of Henry III., he, with Thomas Botterel, received a grant of the Lincolnshire and Yorkshire estates of Adam Painell, one of the revolted barons. His son Robert, again, was through life a "trusty servant" to Edward I.; attended him to the Holy Land; fought his battles in Scotland and Gascony; was Constable of his castles of Porchester and Nottingham: his Commissioner to treat for peace with Llewellyn in 1274, and his Lieutenant in Wales in 1289. On this occasion he gave battle to Rees-ap-Meredith, killed four thousand of his followers, and carried him captive to York, where the unhappy prince perished on the scaffold. "Some say," suggests Dugdale, "that Rees rebelled, by reason of Injuries done to him by this Robert:" whose rule, we may infer, was none of the mildest. He died in 1297, a man of extended possessions; for he had obtained a weekly market and yearly fair at his manor of Burwell in Cambridgeshire, free-warren at Bentley in Yorkshire and Braundeford in Suffolk, with a grant of Langar and Berneston in Nottinghamshire. His successor Pain (named after his grandfather Pain de Chaworth) was summoned to parliament by Edward II. in 1308, though he had been in dire disgrace during the preceding reign, and suffered sequestration for having returned from his second campaign in Scotland without leave. The King further appointed him Constable of Northampton and Justiciar of the Forests beyond Trent. He was three times again engaged in the Northern wars, and fell at the battle of Stirling in 1313. He left a young widow, Agnes de Ros, who had brought him the Yorkshire manor of Weighton-in-the-Wolds, and speedily re-married; and a son, then only fourteen months old, John, second Lord Tibetot.

No sooner had this baby-heir come to man's estate, than he in his turn took the field; and from that time forth, like most gentlemen of the period, spent the chief part of his time under arms. He could count up four campaigns in Scotland and two in Flanders, in addition to the "grand Expedition to France" undertaken in 1342, which he joined in the retinue of John de Vere, Earl of Oxford. Four years afterwards he was selected for the onerous post of Governor of Berwick upon Tweed. He died in 1367, having been twice married. By his first wife Margaret, the splendidly dowered co-heiress of Giles Lord Badlesmere, in whose right he held land in nine different counties, he had two sons; John, who died s. p. in his lifetime, and Robert, his heir. By the second, Elizabeth Aspall, the widow of Sir Thomas Wanton, he left one other son, Pain.

Robert, the last Lord Tibetot (for Pain never received a summons to parliament), was twenty-six years of age when he lost his father, and only survived him five years, leaving three little daughters in ward of Richard, Lord Scrope of Bolton, then Lord Treasurer of England. The two eldest of these great heiresses[74] their sagacious guardian disposed of in marriage to his own sons; Margaret was given to Roger, second Lord Scrope of Bolton; and Milicent to Sir Stephen Le Scrope; while Elizabeth became the wife of Philip Le Despencer. All three left descendants, and brought their husbands one or more great estates. Margaret had Langar, with "the Castell of Langham in Nottinghamshire, where was a principall House of the Tipetots;" Milicent, Castle Combe in Wilts and Oxenden in Gloucestershire; and Elizabeth, Nettlested in Suffolk.

Some of the land, however, including Burwell (or Tiptot Manor) in Cambridgeshire, passed to their uncle Pain de Tibetot; and from him to his son Sir John, a baron of the realm in 1426. "The Lord Tipetot that was in Edwarde the 4. Dayes had such Landes as were left only to the Heire Mais of the auncienter Lorde Tipetote."—Leland. Yet this second family attained a pre-eminence that had never been accorded to the first. Sir John, an able statesman and successful soldier, filled some of the highest offices in the realm during three successive reigns, and was enriched by princely grants.[75] He had been retained to serve Henry IV. in the field for the term of his life with a stipend of one hundred marks, and on Owen Glendower's attainder in 1406, he obtained all the lands in South Wales that had belonged to one of his followers, Rees-ap-Griffith. In the same year he was Chief Butler of England: the next, Treasurer of the King's Household, with two important commands in Acquitaine: and the accession of Henry V. only brought him a fresh instalment of honours and dignities. One preferment trod closely on the heels of the other. In 1415 he was Seneschal of Acquitaine: in 1416 Ambassador to the King of the Romans: in 1417 President of the King's Exchequer in Normandy and Treasurer of the Duchy. Henry VI. appointed him Chief Steward of the Royal castles and manors throughout all Wales and the Marches, then vested in the Crown during the minority of the Duke of York, and summoned him to parliament as Lord Tibetot and Powys. He was twice again in the French wars with a great following; and in the interval named Castellan of Merc in the Marches of Picardy. He died in 1440, leaving by his wife Joyce, sister and co-heir of Sir Edward Charlton, Lord Powys (a descendant of the ancient Princes of Powys), an only son, to whom accrued a magnificent inheritance.

This son, John, then a lad of fourteen, was created Earl of Worcester on attaining his majority, and proved one of the most remarkable men of his time. He was educated at Baliol College, Oxford; but "wandered in search of learning to Italy, studied in her universities, and became a teacher at Padua, where the elegance of his Latinity drew tears from the most learned of the Popes, Pius the Second, better known as AEneas Sylvius. Caxton can find no words warm enough to express his admiration of one 'which in his time flowered in virtue and cunning, to whom I know none like among the lords of the temporality in science and moral virtue.'"—Green's History of the English People. He was not only facile princeps among the unlettered nobles of his own day, with whom learning was of little account, but would have ranked high amid the scholars of any other age. He translated into English the Orations of Publius Cornelius and Caius Flaminius, and was the author of several learned tracts, enumerated by Bale. Above all, he was the munificent patron and protector of men of letters, and the staunch supporter of Caxton. If, however, his position was unsurpassed in science and literature, there was little to admire in his political career. In 1449 he received, as I have already stated, an Earldom from Henry VI. in memory of his father's services; and eight years later—while still under thirty—had been appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland. Yet, no sooner was Ed. IV. seated on the throne, than he veered round to the rising Sun of York; and accepted the offices of Justiciar of North Wales and Constable of the Tower under the new dynasty. He was welcomed with enthusiasm to the Yorkist camp. No rewards were thought too great for this important and recently converted ally; and each coming year was marked by some fresh proof of the Royal favour. In 1461 he was Treasurer of the Exchequer; in 1462 Lord Chancellor of Ireland for life: in 1463 Steward of the Household: then again Deputy of Ireland, where he took up his abode in 1446; Constable of England and a Knight of the Garter. He is said to have been so cruel, that he "earned the epithet of the Butcher even amid the horrors of the civil wars." Once, when the King had caused him to sit in judgment at Southampton on some Lancastrian gentlemen that had been taken in a skirmish, he had them all, to the number of twenty, without exception, drawn, hanged, and beheaded. Amid all the various duties of his official life, he found leisure to journey to Jerusalem; and on his way home visited Venice and Padua, from whence he went to Rome, "out of a great affection he had to see the famous Vatican Library." There he delivered the eloquent Latin oration that moved the Pope to tears. But his return to England was unfortunately timed. He arrived at the very moment when the Earl of Warwick had achieved the short-lived restoration of Henry VI., and found himself face to face with the exasperated Lancastrians whom he had deserted in their hour of need. He well knew that a short shrift awaited him at their hands, and strove to escape his doom by hiding himself in the forest of Weybridge in Huntingdonshire. But his pursuers found him out: he was captured "on the top of a high Tree," carried to London, and lost his head as a traitor on Tower Hill. "He returned," remarks Fuller, "from Christ's sepulchre to his own grave in England, coming home in a most unhappy juncture of time, when Henry VI. was restored to the throne, and whose restitution was only remarkable for the death of this noble lord. The axe then did at one blow cut off more learning
in England than was left in the heads of all the surviving nobility." He was buried in the church of the Dominican friars in London; but there is a monument in Ely Cathedral either to him or his father. The figure wears a coronet, and is in full plate armour, covered with a close-fitting tabard emblazoned with the engrailed saltire of the Tibetots; the loins girt with a horizontal hawbrick, and the arms protected by rere-braces, vambraces, and coudes.

He had two wives. The first, Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Robert Greyndour, and widow of Lord De La Warr, died in child-birth, her infant son dying the same day; by the second, Elizabeth Hopton, widow of Roger Corbet of Moreton-Corbet, he left a son named Edward, then two years old, who was restored in blood on the return of Edward IV., but died unmarried in his minority.

With him the Earldom expired, and the barony fell into abeyance between the three aunts who became co-heiresses; Philippa, married to Thomas Lord Ros; Joan, married to Sir Edmund Ingelthorpe: and Joyce, married to John Sutton, son and heir of Lord Dudley.

Turbeuile :

or Troubleville. William de Troublevilla occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180-95. "Payne de Turbeville witnessed the foundation charter of Neath Abbey, temp. Henry I. Hence the Turbevilles of Glamorgan and Brecon. William de Turbeville was of Dorset 1130; and in 1165 there were branches in York, Norfolk, Dorset, and Wilts."—The Norman People. Near the small town of Bere in Dorsetshire, "for a long time the ancient and famous family of De Turbida Villa, commonly call'd Turbervill, had their seat."—Camden. Of "this worshipful family, who have long lived of great account in this County," says Fuller, "was James Turbevil, who was consecrated Bishop of Exeter in 1556, and 'deserved right well of that See. When he entered thereon, it was most true what his successor therein since said "that the Bishop of Exeter was a Baron, but a bare one;' so miserably had that Cathedral been pilled and polled. But Bishop Turbevil recovered some lost lands, which Bishop Voysey had vezed" (driven away, in the dialect of the West): "and particularly obtained of Queen Mary the restitution of the fair manor of Crediton. But who can stay what will away? It was afterwards alienated again in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

"This Bishop Turbevil carried something of trouble in his name, though nothing but mildness and meekness in his nature. Hence it was, that he staved off persecution from those in his jurisdiction, so that not so many as properly may be called some suffered in his diocese." Edward Turbervil was Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset 2 Hen. VII.; and in the following reign Robert Turbevill shared in "the golden shower of Abbey lands," and received some of the temporalities of Tarrant Abbey at its dissolution. His descendants remained at Bere Regis till the last male heir died in 1714. Their old house is still in existence.

"The Turbervilles were sub-feudatories of the Earls Ferrers, t. King John, in Oxon; and were soon after deprived of their possessions."—Lipscomb's Bucks. Hemingford-Turberville in Huntingdonshire, and Acton-Turville in Gloucestershire (held, according to Sir Richard Atkyns, by Richard Turbervill 12 and 15 Ed. I.) keep the name.

In Wales the descendants of Sir Pain de Turberville, one of the twelve knights of Robert Fitz Hamon, continued till the last century. Sir Edward Mansel relates, that when Fitz Hamon had succeeded in wresting Glamorgan from Rhys, Prince of South Wales, and "after eleven of the knights had been endowed with land for their services, Pain Turbervill asked Sir Robert what was his share? to which Sir Robert answered 'Here are men and here are arms; go get it where you can.' So Pain Turbervill with the men went to Coity, and sent to Morgan the Welsh lord to ask whether he would yield up the castle: whereupon Morgan brought out his daughter Sara (Sar, or Assar) by the hand, and passing through the army with his sword in his right hand, came to Pain Turberville, and told him if he would marry his daughter, and so come like an honest man into his castle, that he would yield it to him quietly; and 'if not,' said he, 'let not the blood of any of our men be lost, but let this sword and arm of mine, and those of yours, decide which shall call the castle his own.' Upon this, Pain Turbervill drew his sword, and took it by the blade in his left hand, and gave it to Morgan, and with his right hand embraced his daughter; and after settling every matter to the liking of both sides, he went with her to church and married her, and so came to the lordship by true right of possession, and, being so counselled by Morgan, kept two thousand of the best of his Welsh soldiers in his castle." Coity (Anglice, wood-house) near Bridgend, was held by eleven generations of his descendants, ending with Sir Richard Turbevill, who leaving no legitimate son to succeed him, settled his property on the son of his sister Catherine, Sir Laurence Berkerolles, Lord of St. Athan's. But this nephew likewise had no heir, and died a horrible death in 1412. His wife Maud, the daughter of Sir Thomas Despencer of Caerphilly, was found guilty of having "poisoned him so that he died," and expiated her crime by a frightful penalty. She "was buried alive, agreeably to the sentence pronounced upon her by the country and the lord, Sir Richard Begam, Lord of Glamorgan." Coity passed to the Gamages (See Gamage).

One of this Welsh house, Thomas de Turberville (discreetly ignored in the pedigree) disgraced his name in the wars of Edward I. "He had been taken prisoner by the French, and released on the promise to betray one of the Cinque Ports, but was detected and hanged."—Blaauw's Barons' War.

The Turbervilles bore Checquy Or and Gules a chief Ermine. They were, we are told, "a numerous family at one time in Glamorganshire, with several branches, as at Tygethston, Penlline, Llanilltyd or Lantwit, but were in all cases sprung from the Turbervilles of Coity Castle."—Nichol's Counties and County Families of Wales. Leland mentions Penlline Castle, near Cowbridge, that "longith to Turberville;" and adds "There were a while ago 2. Brethren of the Turbervilles, whereof the Elder left a Doughter and Heyr: the younnger left a Sunne. The Doughter was married to Loughor. After great strife the 2. Turberville's Children partid the Landes."

One of this name, George Turbervile, was "a sonnetteer of considerable note in his time." He was the younger son of Nicholas Turbervile, belonging to a good Dorsetshire family. He was born about 1530; and we have no account of his death; but he was still living "in great esteem" in 1594.

Turuile :

from Turville (one of nine Seigneuries that bear the name in Normandy) near Pont-Audemer, "derived from Torf de Torfville (La Roque, Maison d'Harcourt, ii. 1927), from whom descended Geoffrey de Turville 1124 (Ord. Vitalis, 880; Mon. i. 519, ii. 309), who had grants from the Earl of Leicester and Mellent in England."—The Norman People. Raoul de Tourneville is on the Dives Roll; and Roger de Turville held Weston-Turville, Bucks, of Bishop Odo (Domesday). Another manor in the county is called from him Turville. In Leicestershire they are "one of the ancientest families in the shire"; seated at Normanton-Turville from the time of Henry II., and still flourishing in a junior branch at Husbands Bosworth in the same county. Ralph de Turville, in 1297, held four and a-half knights' fees in Normanton, Brokenhall Park, Thurleston (where several monuments to the family yet remain), Croft, Walton, Over-leigh, Sywddeby, Seithby, and Saxilby, and granted the church of Croft (or Craft) to St. Mary's Abbey, Leicester. His grandson Richard, about the year 1400, married the heiress of Sir William Flamville, and thus obtained Aston-Flamville, which was granted by Richard's descendant in the fourth generation, Sir William Turvile, to his second son George, the ancestor of the existing family. This Sir William was one of Henry VIII.'s Ecclesiastical Commissioners for Leicestershire. John, his eldest son, carried on the line of Normanton-Turvile, afterwards transplanted to Thurleston, which ended in the last century with Edward Turvile, Rector of Thurleston, whose only child, Elizabeth, died unmarried in 1776, and lies buried in the vault at Thurleston.

Aston-Flamville, the seat of the younger branch, was alienated in 1746 by Carrington Turvile, who had lost his only son some years before, and desired to be buried by his side in the old church of the English nuns at Brussels when he himself died in 1749. His nephew William inherited their present home, Husbands Bosworth, with other manors in Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, and Oxfordshire, as heir-at-law to Mary Alathea Fortescue, in 1763.

Some of the name were seated in the former county as early as the reign of Henry II., when Geoffrey Turville is styled of Adston, and William Turville held Helmdon of the Fee of Leicester. Of this latter line the last male heir was Sir Nicholas Turville of Helmsdon, living 1296-1315, whose heiress, Sarah, married Sir Thomas Lovett of Liscombe, Bucks.

Tomy :

for Tony or Toesni: a duplicate.

Tauerner :

a tavernkeeper.

"Ryght as of a taverner
The grene busche that hangeth out
Is a sygne, it is, no dowte,
Outward folkys for to tell
That within is wyne to sell."

A family of this name was long seated at Elmham in Norfolk, where Ralph Le Taverner is mentioned in 1272, and only died out in 1682, leaving younger branches to flourish in Essex, Oxfordshire, Bedfordshire[76] &c. John Taverner, we are told, distinguished himself at Agincourt. But it is simply impossible to believe that so thoroughly plebeian a name was not surreptitiously introduced into the Roll.

Trencheuile :

This, and the following name, Trenchelion, appear at first sight to be twin brothers, and both of them nicknames; though, unless it commemorates some successful assault or surprise, I am wholly unable to interpret the first. But in the Norman Exchequer Rolls it is given as Truncheviller (Robertus de Truncheviller 1198-1203): and, as one of the numerous forms of the Norman Villers or Weiler, it must be considered territorial. In England it occasionally became Frencheville.

It had crossed the Channel at a very remote date. Goscelin Trencefoil was of Essex in the time of Henry I. (Rot. Magn. Pip,). John Trenchfuill, in 1165, held Chigenhale-Trenchfoille, in that county, as two knights' fees of Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex (Liber Niger), and in 1182 dedit monachus de Bermondsey part of his domain of De la Stane in the parish of Godchester. (Mon. Angl.) William de Franchevilla witnessed a confirmation deed of Henry de Essex to Monk's Horton Priory in 1163, and as "Willielmo Trenchfuil" a grant of William de Mandeville to Waltham Abbey. "In the thirteenth of King Henry III. we find mention of a gift of some land at Chigenhale-Trenchfoille to Richard Fitz Hugh which William Trenchfoyle held."—Morant's Essex. The "Roll of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Essex and Hereford, containing the proffers of service made at the muster at Carlisle on the Eve of St. John Baptist, 28 Ed. I," includes Philip Trenchefil, then holding of John de Mules in Somersetshire. "Henry de Mailler or Maleche held four knight's fees at Tittle Totham under Henry de Essex, Baron of Rayleigh, with Isabel Franchevill, an heiress to whom he was guardian."—Ibid.

The family was amply represented elsewhere. "Robert de Tranchefoil, 55 Hen. III., held in Brockhampton, Dorset, of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Win ton. 32 Ed. I. proof was made of the age of William, brother and heir of Peter Trenchfoyl, deceased, who held these lands of the King in capite, in right of the custody of the lands and tenements of John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, of late taken into the King's hands for certain causes." (The Scots, it should be noted, had just chosen John Comyn of Badenoch as Regent of that kingdom.) Some of the witnesses affirmed that they recollected the date of his birth, twenty-two years before, "by a forcible entry into the house of Peter Trenchfoyl, father of the said William."—Hutchins' Dorset.

Three of the name, Roger, Nicholas, and Thomas Trencheffoyl occur in Wiltshire about 1272; and Walter Trencheffoil, at the same date in Worcestershire.—Rotuli Hundredorum. John Trenchfoyle, clerk, again in Worcestershire, appears as witness to one of John de Tony's charters, 17 Ed. III. In Buckinghamshire, Alice and Joan Frenchfoyle, in 1461, confirmed the manor of Tattonhoe to John Barton and others. Alice, then the widow of John Ickford, was one of the daughters and co-heirs of Maud Tranchefoil.—Lipscomb's Bucks. To this family we may probably assign Humfrid Franchevalier, who in 1165 held one fee of William FitzAlan in Shropshire, and another of Pagan de Mundubel in Gloucestershire.—Liber Niger.

Trenchelion :

Two very similar names are quoted by Sir Francis Palgrave as instances of significant Norman sobriquets. "Trenchevent was evidently a messenger distinguished by his swiftness of foot. And the name of Alan de Trenchemer,[77] Richard Coeur de Lion's Sea Admiral, indicates his profession and his skill." Trenchelion should, by analogy, describe a champion who had overcome and slaughtered a lion; even as Trencheloup designates a wolf-slayer. This seemed so improbable an etymology that I was inclined to believe it stood for Trenquelleon, a French barony that belonged to the family of De Broquas, extinct in the male line in 1703.—Laine, Noblesse de France. But I found that there was beyond all doubt a family of this name, several times mentioned in Anselme's Histoire de la Noblesse. Two De Trenchelions, Gilles and Charles, were Seigneurs de Palluau in the sixteenth century; the former married Blanche, daughter of Eustace de Montberon, Vicomte d'Aunay. Again, Charles Tranchelyon, Seigneur de Boisward, was the son-in-law of Jean de Culant, Seigneur de Brecy, who died in 1605. The earliest in date is an heiress, Anne de Tranchelion, who carried the Seigneurie de la Motte d'Usseau in marriage to Pierre de Brissac; their daughter again inherited, and was the wife of Guillaume de Bec, who died in 1449.

Unlike its predecessor, this name is scarcely noticed in the English records. Robert Traceleu held the fourth part of a knight's fee in Suffolk of the Honour of Clare in 1165.—Liber Niger. Nearly two hundred years afterwards, Roger Trenchebien of Framlingham attended the array and muster of the Hundred of Loose, in the same county.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs.

Tankeruile :

from Tancarville, in the arrondissement of Havre. "This family probably derived from Tancred, c. 912, whose fief on the settlement of Normandy was surnamed Tancardivilla. Rabel, his son, left his name to Rabel's Isle and Rabelsfoss, mentioned in early records. Gerald, Baron of Tancarville, towards the end of the tenth century (D'Anisy et Ste. Marie, sur le Domesday), was father of Rabel II., temp. Duke Robert, who had two sons, 1. Ralph, 2. Almeric D'Abetot, ancestor of the Viscounts of Worcester" (see Dabitof). "Ralph was guardian to Duke William, hereditary Chamberlain of Normandy, and founder of Bocherville Abbey."—The Norman People. Wace says he was present at the battle of Hastings. "M. le Prevost," adds his commentator, "rather inconclusively observes that Ralph, having been William's guardian, was too old, and his children too young, to be so engaged. Three sons" (named in the Peerages Osbert, Renebald, and William) "have, however, been commonly reputed to have been at Hastings, from one of whom the Clintons have claimed descent, but probably without sufficient evidence." This was Geoffrey de Clinton, who, says Dugdale, assumed his surname from Clinton in Oxfordshire, "his first abode in England. This Geoffrey (if we may credit our Countryman Rous) was grandson of William de Tankerville, Chamberlain of Normandy, and Maud his wife, daughter of Richard de Arches; but of the certainty thereof I much doubt, considering that an authentique Historian his Contemporary (Ordericus Vitalis xi. 805 b) renders him to have been of very mean parentage, and meerly raised from the dust by the favour of King Henry I., from whose hands he received large possessions and no small honour, being made both Lord Chamberlain and Treasurer to the said King, and afterwards Justice of England; which great advancements do argue, that he was a man of extraordinary parts. He seems he took much delight in this place" (Kenilworth, where he fixed his residence), "in respect of the spacious woods and that large and pleasant Lake lying amongst them; for it was he who built the great and strong Castle here, which was the glory of these parts; and, for many respects, may be ranked in a third place, at the least, with the most stately Castles of England."

Without impugning the truth of Orderic's assertion, we may well apply the words old Westcote uses on a similar occasion to this great house of Clinton, whose ancestor, albeit of humble extraction, made himself a name in the 12th century: "It is no doubt a very ancyent family of itself, and needs no other Father than such as begate them, and no other Mother than such as bare them."

The descent from Ralph the Chamberlain may be dismissed as illusory. Mr. Stapleton's 'Observations on the Norman Exchequer Rolls,' contain a pedigree of his family, which—however different from that given above—yet rests on the unimpeachable authority of the chartulary of their Norman Abbey, St. Georges de Boscherville. A church, dedicated to St. George, and endowed by "William, Duke of the Normans," which already existed on its site, "was subsequently rebuilt by Ralph, whom Duke William styles in his charter, meus magister auleque et camere mee princeps, and the necessary buildings for offices added, which were required by the religious there established. He caused the same church to be newly dedicated, on which occasion he ratified by his signature to the church and canons for their support in the presence of his wife and sons, Ralph and Rabel, six acres of meadow in Quevillon, over and besides the allodium of St. Georges, and some land in Boscherville which his father Giraldus and his brother had given to St. Georges. A brother of Ralph, named Giraldus, was also an officer of the household," and is styled by Duke William Geraldo dapifero meo. This collegiate church was converted into a monastery in 1114 by his grandson William, Chamberlain of Henry I. It may be presumed that the second Ralph left no posterity, as William, who then held the office that was hereditary in the family, was the son of the younger brother, Rabel. "Rabel de Tancarville held lands in Lincolnshire, and the Priory of Ste. Barbe-en-Auge had then of his gift ten librates of land in the soke of Grantham; his son had name William de Tancarville, and to him, it is presumed Coleby, in the same county, was given in frank marriage with his daughter Theophania, by Stephen of Brittany, Earl of the shire of Richmond. Of the issue of this marriage will have been Ralph, his successor, who died childless, William the Chamberlain de Tancarville, Lucia, wife of William de Vernon, and Oliva, who had Coleby in frank marriage. The name of her husband has not been ascertained, but she was doubtless the mother of William Malet de Graville." Two other sons, Rabel and Robert, are mentioned in 1157 with their sister Lucia in a charter of Montebourg Abbey, of which her husband William de Vernon was a benefactor. "Ralph, Chamberlain of Tankerville, was one of the witnesses to the charter for the exchange of Andillyin 1197, but was deceased without issue before the close of the year 1204, in which Philip, King of the French, first had the rule of Normandy."

I am unable to trace the pedigree further; but it is undoubted that there were descendants, most of whom bore the name of Chamberlain. The author of 'The Norman People' even conjectures that one of the greatest houses in Scotland may be included among them. "Graham, in all the early records of England means Grantham in Lincoln; and William de Graham, who settled in Scotland, t. David I. c. 1128, and obtained Abercorne and Dalkeith (Douglas), came from Grantham. He must have been of an important family there, and the only family of the kind was that of De Tancarville, which held the Barony of Grantham in farm from the Crown after the Conquest for above a century. The English branches of the De Tancarvilles were generally named Chamberlain, and the Chamberlains of Lincoln, probably one of their branches, bore three escallops, which three escallops appear in the De Grahams or Granthams, originally from Lincoln also. It may therefore be inferred that William de Grantham was a younger son of the Baron of Tancarville, who had held the office of Seneschal of Grantham under his father."

Possibly one of the Chamberlains of Lincoln here mentioned was the Robert who instigated the riots at Boston in the time of Edward I.: "whereby," says Camden, "the town was miserably ruined. For it happened that certain Warriors, whilst a tournament was proclaiming at Fair time, coming hither under the disguise of Monks and Canons, set the Town on fire in many places, broke in upon the Merchants with sudden violence, and carry'd away great quantities of goods, but burnt more: insomuch that veins of gold and silver ran mix'd together in one common current. Their Ringleader Robert Chamberlain, after he had confess'd the fact, and express'd his detestation of the crime, was hang'd; but could not by any means be brought to discover his accomplices."

Unfortunately Lincoln has no county history from which to glean some account of this family; but in another of the Eastern counties we find "Sir William Chamberlain of Gedding, K.G., a warrior of great renown, an able governor and expert soldier. While governor of Craill-upon-Oise in France, which in 1436 was besieged by the French immediately after they had taken Paris, he behaved himself so bravely that, with five hundred Englishmen only, he issued out of the town, routed his enemies, slew two hundred of them, and took a great number of prisoners."—Suckling's Suffolk.

The Chamberlains of Stowe in Gloucestershire, now extinct in the male line, claimed as their ancestor a younger brother of this house, whose grandson, himself Chamberlain to Henry II., had taken prisoner Richard Blanchemains, Earl of Leicester, in 1174, for which service the King granted him permission to quarter the Earl's arms with his own. One of his descendants, Sir John Chamberlain, "was a great Soldier, and eminent in the court of Edward III. It appears by a Record in the Tower, that the King did grant to him by the title of Count Chamberlain Earl of Tankerville, Viscount of Millaine and High Constable of Normandy, a warrant to receive 1000 marks, which he had lent to the King's Son in the Wars with France. He married the daughter and heir of the Lord Harling, Governor of Paris, who was seized of the manor and castle of East Harling in Norfolk, and of many other considerable estates in that and other counties. She was reputed the greatest Heiress in England, and refused many Suitors of the chiefest Nobility, and with leave of the King married this Sir John Chamberlain, in the church of East Harling. She afterwards married the Lord Scroop, and had for her third husband Benefield of Norfolk, but she chose to be bury'd near her Husband Sir John Chamberlaine in the church of East Harling. All which is inscribed in the Window of the great Chamber at East Harling Castle."—Atkyn's Gloucestershire. This lady's name was Joan Morteine, the last of an ancient family, and an heiress both on her father's and mother's side. The titles given to her husband are, I need scarcely add, the creation of the pedigree-maker. Their grandson, Sir Richard, was seated at Shirburn in Oxfordshire, "heretofore," says Camden, "a small Castle of the Quatremans:" and his posterity continued there till the male line ended in the time of James I. with John Chamberlain, who left two daughters and co-heirs, one married first to Sir Thomas Gage, and then to Sir William Goring; the other to Lord Abergavenny.

Some descendants, however, of a younger brother of Sir, Richard's, John Chamberlain of Hopton in Derbyshire, still remained to represent the family. Fifth in descent from this John was Sir Thomas Chamberlain of Prestbury in Gloucestershire, who was Ambassador to Spain in three different reigns;—under Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth. He was also three times married. His first wife, a Dutchwoman said to be of kin to the House of Nassau, was childless; but by the second he was ancestor of the Chamberlains of Maugersbury, and by the third (Anne Monck, a great-aunt of the Duke of Albemarle's), of the Chamberlains of Oddington. The Maugersbury branch ended in 1831, when the estates devolved on the twin sister of the last heir, Mrs. Ackerley, whose children adopted their uncle's name.

Tirell :

a name adopted in the eleventh century by the son of a priest. "Fulk, Seigneur of Guernaville, and Dean of Evreux, affords a conspicuous example of a married dignitary, for he espoused the noble Lady Orielda, and had ten children, of whom the youngest, Walter, assumed the name of Tyrrel, and transmitted it to William Rufus' favourite and boon-companion."—Sir Francis Palgrave. This was the "Walterus Tirelde" of Domesday, Castellan of Pontoise and Lord of Poix, who was living in the Vexin in 1091, and is popularly credited with having caused the death of the Red King. "It will be well to repeat the story, as told by the two Chroniclers who give the fullest account, with all its omens and apparitions. The King had gone to bed on the evening of the 1 st of August, and was suddenly awoke by a fearful vision. He dreamt that he was bled, and the stream of blood, pouring up to heaven, clouded the very day. His attendants, hearing his cries to the Virgin, rushed in with lights, and stayed with him all that night. Morning dawned; and Robert FitzHamon, his special friend, came to him with another dream, dreamt also that very night by a foreign monk then staying at the court, who had seen the King enter a church, and there seize the Rood, tearing apart its legs and arms. For a time the image bore the insult, then suddenly struck the King. He fell, and flames and smoke issued from his mouth, putting out the light of the stars. The Red King's courage had, however, by this time returned. With a laugh, he cried, 'He is a monk, and dreams for money like a monk: give him this:' handing FitzHamon a hundred shillings. Still the two dreams had their effect, and William hesitated to test their truth. At dinner that day he drank more than usual. His spirits once more returned. He defied the dreams. In spite of their warnings, he determined to hunt. As he was preparing, his armourer approached with six brand-new arrows. Choosing out two, he cried, as he gave them to Walter Tiril, Lord of Poix and Pontoise, who had lately come from Normandy, 'The best arrows to the best marksman.' The small hunting party, consisting of his brother Henry, William de Breteuil, Walter Tiril, and FitzHamon, and a few more, then set out. As they are leaving the court-yard, a monk from St. Peter's Abbey at Gloucester arrives. He gives the King a letter from Serlo, the Abbot. It told how a monk of that abbey had dreamt that he had seen the Saviour and all the host of heaven standing round the great white throne. Then, too, came the Virgin robed in light, and flung herself at the feet of her Son, and prayed Him, by his precious Blood and Agony on the Cross, to take pity on the English: prayed, too, as He was judge of all men, and avenger of all wickedness, to punish the King. The Saviour answered her, 'You must be patient and wait: due retribution will in time befall the wicked.' The King read it and laughed. 'Does Serlo,' he asked, 'think that I believe the visions of every snoring monk? Does he take me for an Englishman, who puts faith in the dreams of every old woman?' With this the party once more sets out into the Forest, the woods still green with their deep summer foliage.

"So they hunted all that noon and afternoon. The sun was now setting. Tiril and the King were alone.[78] A stag bounded by: the King shot and slightly wounded the quarry. On, though, it still bounded in the full light of the setting sun. The King stood watching it, shading his eyes with his hand. At that moment another deer broke cover. Tiril this time shot, and the shaft lodged itself in the King's breast.[79] He fell without a word or groan, vainly trying to pull out the arrow, which broke short in his hand.

"So perished William the Red."—Wises New Forest.

Tiril leapt on his horse, spurred away in hot haste, and never drew bridle till he had reached the Avon, which then formed the S.W. boundary of the forest. Here he was compelled to halt, for his hardly-pressed horse had cast a shoe; and, before taking the water at the ford that has ever since borne his name, he turned into a smithy to have it re-shod. At this same place, now known as Avon-Tyrrel, there is still a smithy, on the old site by the river side, that to this day pays a yearly fine of 3 10s. to the Crown for furnishing this horse-shoe to aid his escape. It is about twelve miles distant from "the lonely glen of Canterton, where the King is said to have fallen. The oak from which, as the legend runs, the arrow glanced, is long since dead, but a stone marks its site, now capped over with a hideous cast-iron case."—Ibid. Leland gives a different name to the locality. "The Place wher it is saide that Tyrelle kyllyd King William Rufus ys caullid Thorougham, and there standith yet a Chapelle." He evidently means Fritham, called Truham in Domesday. But it is round "Rufus' Stone" that, as the common people firmly believe, the bloody spectre of the King wanders and moans at night. His body was found by a poor charcoal-burner called Purkis, who conveyed it in his cart to Winchester, the blood from the gaping wound "reddening the road and clotting the dust" as he went. "His descendants have ever since lived in the same cottage, and maintained their ancient rank. Until lately, the Purkis for the time being always kept as a sacred relic the wheel of the cart in which his ancestor had carried the dead King!"—Woodward's Hampshire. Some of them are still to be found "in the woods and in the village of Minestead."—Wise's New Forest.

Tirill was never called to account for the King's death. He was a friend of the banished Archbishop Anselm, and it has been suggested that he purposed to avenge the wrongs of the Church while ridding the world of a tyrant; but the general opinion has always acquitted him of any murderous intent. It is even uncertain whether it was from his bow that the fateful arrow came.[80] His headlong flight was shared by the rest of the hunting party, who all rode for their lives in different directions, and cannot therefore lead us to infer his guilt. Above all, he himself maintained his innocence with his last breath. When he was lying on his death-bed, he declared "that he was not so much as on the field when the King was slain."—Ordericus Vitalis. "Much weight is doubtless due to this solemn denial."—Freeman.

He appears in Domesday as the tenant of Richard FitzGilbert, Lord of Clare, of whom he held Langdon in Essex; and his descendants still continue in the county, "one of the ancientest Families," says Morant, "that hath subsisted till our days. Thomas Tyrell was one of the Knights of the Shire in Parliaments 28, 31, 34, 38, 39, 43, 46, 47 of King Edward III.; and how often his successors were, the List of these Knights will show. And the List of Sheriffs will also show how frequently they served that office for this County: the first was John Tyrell of Herongate 2 Hen. V." As considerable landowners, they were early of note in Essex, and boasted that for six hundred years each successive head of their house had enjoyed the honour of knighthood. One of them, Sir Hugh, gallantly defended Carisbrook Castle against the French in 1377. Another, Sir John, served Henry V. in his wars, and was Treasurer of his Household. A third descendant, whose name is carefully expunged from this honourable pedigree, by a grim fatality, justly incurred the obloquy that had undeservedly rested on his ancestor. He was the Sir James Tyrrel, "infamous in our English Histories," that was employed by Richard III. to murder the young princes that barred his right to the throne. When Sir Richard Brackenbury, the Constable of the Tower, refused this hateful office, the King lamented to "a secret page of his" that even those he had himself brought up failed him in his need, and would do nothing for him. "'Ah!' cried he, 'whom shall a man trust?' 'Sir,' quoth the page, 'there lieth one in the palet chamber without, that I dare well say, to do your grace pleasure, the thing were right hard that he would refuse:' meaning by this James Tyrrel."—More. Tyrrel raised no objections, and selected "his own horse-keeper, a big, broad, square, and strong knave," and another fellow, "flesh bred in murther aforetime," as the executioners. On the appearance of Perkin Warbeck, these two men were committed to the Tower, and examined as to the manner in which the Duke of York and his brother had been put to death. According to Lord Bacon's narrative, they deposed: "That the King directed his Warrant to Sir James Tirrel, to receive the keyes of the Tower from the Lieutenant (for the space of one night) for the King's speciall service. That Sir James Tirrel accordingly repaired to the Tower by night, attended by his two servants whom he had chosen for the purpose. That himself stood at the stair-foot, and sent these two Villaines to execute the murther. That they smothered them in their bed; and that done, called up their Master to see their naked dead bodies, which they had laid forth. That they were buried under the Staires, and some stones cast upon them." The King knighted Tyrrel for his pains, and appointed him Sheriff of Cornwall. "I behold," writes Fuller, "this Sir James as an Essex man, though now the prime Officer of this County: for King Richard accounted Cornwall the Back-door of rebellion, and therefore made this Knight the Porter thereof. Indeed it is remote from London, and the long sides of the County afford many Landing-places, objected to Britain in France, whence the Usurper feared (and at last felt) an Invasion; and therefore he appointed him Sheriff to secure the County, as obliged unto him by Gratitude for Favours received, and guilt for Faults committed. This Tirrell was afterwards executed for Treason in the Tower-yard, in the beginning of Henry VII."

The family was conspicuously loyal during the Great Rebellion, and Sir John Tyrrel, who was then its representative, was "once decimated, twice imprisoned, thrice sequestered and forced to compound for,600, and many times plundered," under the Commonwealth. "I have," he states in an address to Charles II., "lost more than I have left (being no small matter) for my Loyalty and Love to His Majesty... I have lived in Purgatory near twenty years, to the Honour of my exhausted Family." His son, who died before him, was created a baronet at the Restoration, and this title continued for exactly one hundred years, expiring with Sir Charles Tyrrel, the last heir of the elder line, in 1766.

Two other baronetcies, granted to the family, had previously become extinct. In the first years of the sixteenth century, Humphrey Tyrrel had acquired Thornton, about four miles from Buckingham, through the heiress of the Ingeltons. "He seated himself at Thornton, and was ancestor of the Tyrrels of this place, the Tyrrels of Castlethorpe, and the Tyrrels of Oakley in this county. Sir Edward Tyrrel[81] of Thornton was created a baronet in 1627: the title became extinct by the death of Sir Thomas Tyrrel in 1755."—Lyons's Bucks. His daughter Christabella, Viscountess Saye and Sele, "the last of the ancient family of Tyrrels of Buckinghamshire, survived till 1789, reaching the great age of ninety four. She retained her youthful vivacity, and joined in the amusements of the young people about her till almost the last period of her life."—Ibid.

The first Baronet had two half-brothers that took opposite sides in the Civil War. One of them, Sir Timothy of Oakley, was Master of the Buckhounds to Charles I., and both his sons served in the Royal army; the elder, another Sir Timothy, Governor of Cardiff, and General of the Ordnance under Lord Gerard, was heavily mulcted by the sequestrators; the second, William, was killed at Chester in 1644. His line ended with his great-grandson, Lieut.-Gen. James Tyrrel.

The other brother, Sir Thomas, of Hanslape, the only Roundhead of the family, threw in his lot with Cromwell, was a colonel in the Parliamentary army, a Judge of Common Pleas, and one of the Commissioners of the Great Seal to the Protector. His son Peter was created a baronet in 1665, and married a granddaughter of Sir Walter Raleigh's, but the next in succession left no male heir.

The existing family derives from a younger brother of the loyal Cavalier who "lived in Purgatory for twenty years," under the Commonwealth. They received a baronetcy in 1809. It is curious that Fuller, in his 'Worthies,' entirely overlooks this principal house of Springfield; for, in speaking of the family as "rich and numerous in Essex, of exemplary note and principal regard," he adds: "This name (if still alive) is gasping in this county, but continues healthful in Buckinghamshire."

It is, or was, also found in Ireland. "Hugh Tirell" was one of Strongbow's knights; and "Castle Knoc," says Camden, "was heretofore the barony of the Tirels, whose Estate by females was transferr'd to other Families about the year 1370."

Triuet :

For many successive descents the manor of Bridgewater, in Somersetshire, was held by the Trivets; and their arms (a trivet) appear on the coping of the ancient bridge which was completed by Sir Thomas Trivet in the time of Edward I. He was one of the Justices of the King, and Sir William Trivet was "a person of some account in the court of Edward II." Chilton-Trivet a mile westwards from Bridgewater, belonged to them, but their principal seat was at Durborough, where they remained till 25 Henry VI. It then passed through an heiress to the Verneys: Bridgewater went to the Pyms, and Chilton-Trivet to the Comptons (see Collinson's Somerset), Leland mentions Sir Thomas Trivet, in his account of Bridgewater, as "One Triveth, a Gentilman, as I there lernid, of Devonshir or Cornewall:" and elsewhere says, "Treveth himself ys buried yn Cornwalle." Another Sir Thomas Trivet was one of Richard II.'s unworthy favourites, against whom the confederate lords rose in insurrection in 1387. "They were a formidable body: and at Westminster, on his throne, the King awaited their approach." There they appeared in arms before their sovereign, and throwing themselves on their knees, professed their determination to root out the traitors of their country, and clear the throne and its avenues from favourites that too justly incurred their indignation. Such was the Lady Mohun, Sir Thomas Trivet, and Sir John Tresilian. The Lady, whose manners were uncommonly licentious, was immediately banished, and Sir Thomas taken into custody."—Polwhele's Cornwall, He died by a fall from his horse in October 1388:[82] and two years afterwards, his widow, Lady Trivet "received Robes" as one of the "Ladies of the Society of the Garter;" a great and unusual distinction. She was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Philip Tymbury, and widow of Thomas Swynford when she became the wife of Sir Thomas, who through "a Banneret, and an eminent soldier, does not appear to have been himself a K.G."—Sir Harris Nicholas. Lysons tells us the Trivets were seated at Stone, in Devonshire, where they continued for three descents after the time of Edward III. Their heiresses married Pym and Tremail.

Tolet :

Osbert de Toleta occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls about 1180: Henry Tullet and Gilian his wife in Kent, and Robert Tulleyt in Wiltshire, c, 1272 (Rot. Hundred.). John Tolet is mentioned about 1380 in the county of Durham.—Bishop Hatfield's Survey. Bernard Tulet held of Sir John de Baliol at Bywell in Northumberland 1268. (Inq. p. m. 53 Hen. III.) A family of the name exists in Staffordshire, derived from George Toilet, a Commissioner of the Navy in the times of William III. and Queen Anne, who purchased Betley of the Egertons in 1720. Charles Toilet of Betley was High Sheriff of the county 23 Geo. III.: and in 1814 assumed the name of Wickstead on inheriting the property of his great uncle, Thomas Wickstead of Nantwich.

Trauers :

from Trevieres, between Bayeux and Caen. "The name continued in Normandy, where Ranulph de Clinchamp, after 1138, assumed the name of Travers."—The Norman People. In the time of the Conqueror, Robert de Travers or d'Estrivers, Baron of Burgh-upon-Sands, married the daughter of Ranulph de Meschines, Lord of Cumberland, and the sister of Ranulph Bricasard, who succeeded his cousin Richard d'Abrincis as Earl of Chester in 1119. He received from his father-in-law the office of Hereditary Forester of Inglewood in fee, which passed through his only child, Ibria, to Ralph de Engayne: and from the Engaynes to the Morvilles, who transmitted it to the Multons and Dacres. "The badge of this office, the jagged branch, is over and over introduced in the chapel of Naworth Castle, which is so rich with arms and cognizances; and where this jagged branch is, in some places, even thrown across the Dacre's arms fess-wise. This forestership of Inglewood was so honourable, and gave so great command, that there is no wonder the family should wish by every means to set forth their claim to it; especially as the Crown, about this time, seems to have interfered with them in regard to this right."—Hutchinson's Cumberland. Robert d'Estrivers bore Argent, three bears Sable, and it is believed first used the jagged branch as his badge. There remain in Dacre churchyard the figures of four bears, about five feet high; "sitting on their haunches, and clasping a rude pillar or ragged staff, on which two of the animals rest their heads. The other two carry on their backs the figure of a lynx, one in the attitude of attempting to rid himself of the animal on his shoulder, with his head twisted, and paw cast behind him."—Ibid.

At the time of the Conquest, Inglewood was "a goodlie great forest" sixteen miles in length and ten in breadth, to which Henry II. subsequently added the barony of Dalton and some other lands. It was a forest only in the Scottish sense of the word; a wild open chace, "full of woods, red and fallow deer, wild swine, and all manner of wild beasts." The wild beasts included many wolves. There is a sad tradition respecting a lady of the Lucy family, who, walking one evening near her father's castle of Egremont, was attacked and torn to pieces by a famished wolf. The place where her mangled body was found is still marked by a cairn of stones, and known as Woeful Bank. Another harrowing story is told in the neighbouring parish of Hales. The wife of the Lord of Beckermount had gone out hunting with her husband and his train; but after a while was missed from the chase, and sought for far and near. The huntsmen scoured the country long and anxiously in vain; till at length they perceived a pack of wolves, on a far hill-side, busy over some fallen quarry. So eagerly were the snarling brutes rending and disputing their prey, that they had difficulty in scaring them away, and when the ravenous jaws were forced to unlock, it was found that they had been feasting on the torn limbs of the Lady of Beckermount.

The name of Travers only appears in Domesday as borne by a sub-tenant in Hants; but it is several times repeated in the Liber Niger. Ralph de Travers, 1165, held of the See of Worcester; Bertram and Pagan de Travers, of Evesham Abbey; and Robert de Travers, of Henry Lupel in Somersetshire. Hugh de Travers was of Lincoln, and Warin de Travers of York, in 1189-90 (Rot. Pip.). Walter de Travers paid a fine in Buckinghamshire in 1197 (Hunter's Fines): and Roger de Travers occurs there and in Bedfordshire in 1202 (Rot. Cancellarii). In Yorkshire they were clearly of considerable importance. When Robert de Lacy was expelled the realm, the Honour of Pontefract was bestowed by Henry I. on "Henry Traverse, who being shortly after mortally wounded by one Pain, a Servant of his own, caused himself to be shorn a Monk, and so died within three days."—Dugdale. Two of the name, John and Laurence, were pardoned as adherents of the Earl of Lancaster in 1318. John was twice Commissioner of Array of the Honour of Pontefract, and superintended the equipment of the levies in 1316 and 1323. Laurence, in the latter year, was one of the Sub-Custodes of the peace in the Wapentake of Aimunderness; and a burgess returned for Preston in 1327.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Dalton-Travers, about half a mile south of Newsham, in the North Riding, "traxit appellationem suam a familia de Travers, ejus olim per plure annos dominis, licet eorum jam memoria diu obsoleverit."—Gale's Richmondshire. Robert, son of Robert, son of Warin de Travers (no doubt the Warin of the Pipe Roll of 1189), gave some land in Dalton to Marrick Priory (Mon. Ebor. 270). Another of the family, Thomas Travers, was one of the Conservators of the peace for Lancashire in 1320.

This name was borne by a famous Puritan preacher in the time of Elizabeth, and is far from uncommon at the present day. Sir William Clarke-Travers, who received a baronetcy in 1804, and is still represented, assumed it in consequence of his marriage with the daughter and heiress of John Moore Travers, of Clifton, co. Cork. He was himself an Irishman, seated at Rossmore, in the same county.

Tardeuille :

Guillotus Tardivel more than once appears in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of the end of the twelfth century. But I can find none of the name in England. Perhaps Tardeville and Tineville (next but one to it on the Roll) are the "Tinel et Traville" of Leland's copy; and that here, as in most other instances, he has furnished us with the correct spelling. See Traville.

Turburuile :

or Turbeville: a duplicate.

Tineuile :

see Tinel, or Tivile, for which it probably stands. There are, however, four De Tinervals mentioned in Normandy 1180-98 (Magn. Rot. Scaccariae Normanniae): and a Richard de Tinewel was Chaplain of Barnack in 1289.—Bridge's Northants.

Torell :

The Torrels were seated at Torrel's-Preston, in Somersetshire, from the time of Henry II. "William Torel was lord of the whole town of Isle-Brewers in this county, and was then fined in the sum of one mark for neglecting to make hue and cry after the death of Alured de Aneville."—Collinson's Somerset. There are "monuments and other memorials" of the Torrells in the church of Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire.—Tysons. Thomas Torel was High Sheriff of the county 49 Edward III. William Torel, in 1260, had been a benefactor to Burton Lager Chapel, Leicestershire.—Nichols. William Torel was Sheriff of Herefordshire 29, 30 Hen. HI. He was probably the descendant of another William Torel, who in the reign of Hen. I., held Pencumbia of the barony of Robert D'Ewyas.—Duncomb's Herefordshire. A William Torel witnesses several of the charters to Brecknock Priory (Mon. Angl.).

The first connected notice that I could find of this ubiquitous family was in Morant's History of Essex. In Henry II.'s reign, William Torrell held Torrell's Hall in that county "by the Grand Serjeancy of being Napperer to the King, or having the care of the King's Nappery, or Table-Linen, on the day of his Coronation." They also left their name to Shellow-Torrell's, and Torrell's Thurrock, where they continued Lords of the manor for at least two hundred years. Amauri de Torrell was one of the great men that accompanied Coeur de Lion to the Holy Land. The last heir, Humphrey, who succeeded to the estate while still in his nurse's arms, served as Sheriff of Essex 18 Hen. VIII., and died in 1544, leaving an only child, Anne, who afterwards married a younger son of Sir Thomas Jocelyn of Hyde Hall. These Torrells bore Gules three bulls' heads couped Or; whence Morant derives their name from taureau.

Several other branches are mentioned in the Rotuli Hundredorum. About 1272, Alan and John Thorel were of Kent, Richard Torel of Oxfordshire, and William Thorel of the city of London.

Tortechappell :

Tort Chapel, as it is given in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1198-1203. Like Chaperon, Blanche Cape, &c, it alludes to the cap or hood then worn, and in this case worn awry. The fief of Torcapel is several times mentioned in Norman chartularies; and Richard Torcapel, a priest, also occurs in 1434. (Memoires des Antiquaires de la Normandie.) But here, again I must confess myself utterly at fault. I have never met with the name in England.

Trusbote :

a duplicate.

Treuerell :

for Treveler. Richard Trevelor occurs in Normandy 1180-95 (Magn. Rotul. Scaccarii Normanniae). This is, alas! the only information I can furnish; the name seems to be unknown in this country.

Tenwis :

This bears some resemblance to the "Tingez" of Leland's list, and is possibly the same name, which, as I have elsewhere suggested, may stand for Tingrie. See Tingez.

Totelles :

Totel in Duchesne's copy. This may be a Norman name, but it is suspiciously like Tothill in England: and is certainly not entered in the Nobiliaire. In the Testa de Nevill (the earliest mention of it that I have found), Robert de Totehal holds one fee of the old feoffment of the Honour of Hanslap, and Walter de Totehale part of another of the new. "Ric Totella" witnesses a deed of Reginald de Courtenay, Baron of Okehampton in Devonshire: and some Tothills subsequently appear in the county history. Peamore, near Exeter, one of the Bonville estates that fell to the crown on the attainder of the Duke of Suffolk, was bought by Jeffrey Tothill, and afterwards shared by two co-heiresses. Constance Totel was of. Kent, and Roger Tothull of Oxon, c. 1272.—Rotul. Hundredorum. Roger de Totil (can this have been the same?) was one of the burgesses for Lincoln in the parliament of 1311. The seal of "S' Rogeri Totel junioris" is preserved in the muniment room at Stow-Bardolph, Norfolk; and bears either a bend or two bendlets—a coat entirely dissimilar to that of the Devonshire family. In Yorkshire nearly the whole town of Fixby (Morley Wapentake) was acquired either by grant or purchase by Thomas de Tothill. "He enfeoffed William his son during his lifetime of all his lands, which William left at his death to his daughter Margaret, who in 1343 was 'in the custody of Earl Warren by reason nonage.'" of her She married William de Thornhill.—Yorkshire Archaeologia, vol. 7.

Vere :

No prouder name than De Vere has graced the annals of our English baronage; none has been borne by a longer succession of Earls; none has been more magnificently extolled, or more eloquently lamented. Its very sound is aristocratic, and carries with it the memory of its 567 years of nobility. Yet all its romance and illusion is lost in its original form; for in French it is simply ver (worm), derived from Ver, between Bayeux and Caen, which, as part of the Ducal demesne, was included in the dowry of the Duchess Judith in 1026. It must, however, have been granted to this family within the next thirty years, for Aubri de Ver occurs in 1058 (Gall. Christ, xi. 108). He was the father of Aubri or Alberic de Vere, one of the great landowners of Domesday, who had his castle and caput baroniae at Hedingham in Essex, and founded Colne Priory in that county, as a cell of Abingdon. He was there "shorn a monk" in his latter years, and ended his days in the cloister, having had five sons by his wife Beatrice,[83] of whom the first-born, Geoffrey, died before him. His successor and namesake—generally styled Albericus Junior—rose to eminence as the favoured minister of Henry Beauclerk, and was Viscount of no less than eleven different counties. The King, as a signal proof of his esteem, granted him one of the high offices of State in fee; and he was made Lord Great Chamberlain of England, "with all dignities thereto belonging, to be held by him and his heirs as honourably as Robert Malet (then under banishment and forfeiture) or any other, before or after him, held the same; and with such liveries and lodgings at Court, as belonged to that Office." He was afterwards employed by King Stephen, and was killed in a street riot in London in 1140.

His son and heir, Alberic III., bore the title of Earl of Guisnes, having some years before married Beatrice de Bourbourg, the granddaughter and heiress of Manasses, Count of Guisnes—a match said to have been hastened on account of the precarious health of the bride. On her grandfather's death in 1137, he hurried over to take possession of his fief, and was duly installed by his suzerain the Count of Flanders. But he quickly wearied of his sickly wife and foreign domain, and, deserting both, chose to take up his abode at the English court. Beatrice, outraged by his neglect, sought and obtained a divorce, and re-married Baldwin de Ardres, but died not long after; and as she left no posterity by either of her husbands, the county of Guisnes passed to Arnold de Gand, as next heir.

Alberic was, however, about to receive another title—the honoured and historic Earldom that, through storm and sunshine, fair breezes and foul weather, sailed triumphantly down the stream of Time for nearly six hundred years. Having become one of the most active partisans of the Empress Maud, he had a grant from her in 1141 of all the lands of William d'Avranches, together with the inheritance he claimed on the part of his wife as the heiress of William of Arques (her English grandmother was Emma de Arques), and the promise of the town and castle of Colchester, as soon as they should be in her power; also the reversion of the Earldom of Cambridgeshire and the third penny thereof, as an Earl ought to have, provided the King of Scots had it not: but in that case Alberic was to have the choice of four Earldoms—Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Dorsetshire—according to the decision of her brother, the Earl of Gloucester, Earl Geoffrey (of Essex), and Earl Gilbert (of Pembroke). His brothers, Geoffrey and Robert, were also made barons, and his brother William was promised the Chancellorship of England.

"King Henry II., on his accession to the throne, made the famous Thomas a Becket Chancellor, but performed that part of his mother's promise which related to an Earldom for Alberic, and gave him that of Oxford."—Planche.

It was this Alberic who first bore on his shield the mystic star that was ever after the badge of the De Veres, and which, according to tradition, he brought home from the Holy Land. "This Albery the third, his Father yet living, was at the Conquest of the Cittes of Nicque (Nice), of Antioche, and of Hierusalem, in the Company of Sir Robert Courtois Duke of Normandy. In the yeare of our Lord 1098, Corborant, Admiral to the Soudan of Persia, was fought with at Antioch, and discomfited by the Christianes. The Night coming on in the Chace of this Bataile, and waxing dark, the Christianes being four Miles from Antioche, God, willing the saufte of the Christianes, shewed a white Starre or Molette of fyve Pointes, which to every Manne's Sighte did lighte and arrest upon the Standard of Albrey, then shining excessively.[84] This Albrey, for his greatnesse of Stature, and sterne Looke, was named Albry the Grymme."—Leland. He founded three religious houses, Hatfield-Broad-Oak Priory in Essex, a nunnery at Icklington, and another at Heningham, "Lucia his Wife being the first prioress there," and died in 1194.

From this first Earl, who bore the title forty years, descended nineteen others, all more or less bound up with the history of their time, and eulogistically described by Macaulay "as the longest and most illustrious line of nobles that England has seen."[85] Though this assertion must be discarded as extravagant and overstrained, enough of sober truth remains to account for the glamour that surrounds the memory of "Oxford's famed De Vere." The third Earl, whose predecessor had been one of King John's evil counsellors, chose a nobler part, and was one of the illustrious conservators of Magna Charta, excommunicated by Innocent III.: the fifth Earl was knighted in the field by the hand of Simon de Montfort; and the seventh Earl—a soldier from his seventeenth birthday—led forty spears under the Black Prince at Poitiers, where "Oxford charged the van." The ninth Earl was Richard II.'s arrogant favourite, on whom every distinction that it was in his power to confer was lavished by the infatuated King, and who was hated and envied in proportion to the honours he received. Among various other grants, he obtained in 1386 "the Land and Dominion of Ireland" to hold by homage and allegiance "as the King himself ought to have the same," with the Marquessate of Dublin; a title till then unknown in England, and bitterly offensive to the other peers, who thus beheld him raised above their heads. Not content with this, the King, a few months afterwards, created him Duke of Ireland—the first Dukedom ever granted to a subject not of Royal blood; and in order that he might "by force obtain the dominion" over the barbarous kingdom assigned to him, further gave him a sum of 30,000 marks, that had been the ransom of Charles de Blois. "Whereunto," says Dugdale, "the Lords and Commons readily assented, being rather content to want the money then, than be troubled any longer with his Company." But they were disappointed in their hope that he would go to Ireland; for he went no farther than Wales, in the King's company; and thence presently returned to carry out a scheme they had concerted together for getting rid of the Duke of Gloucester and his principal enemies. But the Lords had been beforehand with him, for they had gathered in great force at Highgate, demanding, sword in hand, the dismissal of "those Traytors the King had then about him," and first and foremost, of the Duke of Ireland. The weak King wavered and temporized, and the favourite, finding himself unsupported, had to fly the country in the disguise of a serving man, with a bow and quiver of arrows on his back. Before long, he reappeared in England with a following of four or five thousand men, and made his way into Oxfordshire, but was encountered and surrounded at Radcote Bridge by the forces of the Earl of Derby and Duke of Gloucester. The bridge over the Isis had been broken, and finding no other retreat open, "he threw away his Sword, Gantlets, and Armour, and leaping into the River, escaped them," and again fled beyond sea. He was outlawed: and his titles and estates (except the entailed lands) being forfeited, he died in great penury and distress in 1392 at Louvain, of a hurt he had received in boar-hunting. The King ordered his body to be brought home, and had his coffin opened, that he might see the face of his friend once more. He then followed it in great state to its resting-place in the chapel of Our Lady at Colne Priory, where thirteen representatives of the De Veres are buried. Though twice married, the Duke left no children. His first wife, Philippa, daughter and co-heiress of Ingelram de Coucy, Earl of Bedford, and granddaughter of Edward III. through her mother, Isabel Plantagenet, was one of the greatest ladies in the realm; yet, in the height of his insolent prosperity, "pufft up with Wealth and Honour," he wantonly repudiated her to marry a lowborn foreigner, the joiner's daughter Lancerona, who had come over in the train of Anne of Bohemia. Lancerona faithfully followed his fallen fortunes, and lies by his side at Earl's Colne, where her effigy may still be seen, wearing the piked-horn head-dress, first introduced into England by her mistress, that Horace Walpole declares is "exactly like the description of Mount Parnassus."

The twelfth Earl, a devoted Lancastrian, was beheaded on Tower Hill with his eldest son Aubrey at the accession of Edward IV. His second son, John, restored as thirteenth Earl, was, "through many vicissitudes of fortune, the chief of the party of the Red Rose, and led the van on the decisive day of Bosworth."—Macaulay. This is Shakespeare's Oxford, who when urged by Warwick to "Leave Henry and call Edward King," replies—

"Call him my king, by whose injurious doom
My elder brother, the Lord Aubrey Vere,
Was done to death? and more so, my father,
Even in the downfall of his mellow years,
When Nature brought him to the door of death?
No, Warwick, no: while life upholds this arm,
This arm upholds the house of Lancaster."
—Henry, VI, Part III., Act 3, Sc. 3.

Henry VII. visited him at Hedingham, and was entertained with the most profuse splendour. As he was taking his departure, the King noticed the long line of attendants ranged on either side to form his guard of honour, and called out to the Earl, "My lord, I have heard much of your hospitality, but I see it is greater than the speech. These handsome gentlemen and yeomen which I see on both sides of me, are surely your menial servants?" The Earl smiled, and said, "It may please your Grace, they are not for mine ease; they are most of them my retainers, that are come to do me service at such a time as this; and chiefly to see your Grace." The King started a little, and rejoined, "By my faith, my lord, I thank you for my good cheer, but I may not endure to have my laws broken in my sight; my attorney must speak with you." The attorney spoke, and to some purpose; for the graceless guest positively caused his hospitable entertainer to be mulcted of 10,000, for having, in his desire to do honour to his Sovereign, ventured to exceed the number of retainers prescribed to him.

The seventeenth Earl was an unthrift, who dissipated the great inheritance that had descended to him. He pulled down the buildings erected by his predecessors, wasted the parks, and sold most of the lands,[86] including Kensington (the Chenisiton of Domesday) that had been one of the Conqueror's grants. He was a wit, a poet, and a courtier, very favourably regarded by Queen Elizabeth, conspicuous in her tournaments, and one of the commanders of her fleet at the time of the Armada. She gave him the motto since borne by the De Veres, Vero nil verius, in honour of his loyalty. "He was," says Stowe, "the first who brought perfumed gloves and such like fineries out of Italy into this kingdom." His son Henry recouped his fortunes by marrying Lord Exeter's second daughter, Lady Diana Cecil, one of the greatest beauties and heiresses of her day, and repurchased some of the estates, but she brought him no children, and when, in 1625, he was killed at the siege of Breda, the direct line of descent terminated. His widow sold Hedingham, that had remained in the family for 550 years, and of which the grand Norman keep—all that is now left of the castle—still lords it proudly over North Essex. The titles and the office of Great Chamberlain were hotly contested in the House of Lords by two claimants, Robert de Vere, in right of his descent from the second son of the fifteenth Earl, and Robert Bertie, Lord Willoughby de Eresby, in right of his mother, Mary de Vere, sister and heiress of the seventeenth Earl. Chief Justice Crewe summed up for the heir male in a speech often quoted as a rare specimen of old English eloquence. "I have laboured," he said, "to make a covenant with myself that affection may not press upon judgment; for I suppose there is no man that hath any apprehension of gentry or nobleness but his affection stands to the continuance of so noble a name and house, and would take hold of a twig or twine thread to uphold it. And yet Time hath his revolutions; there must be a period and an end to all temporal things, finis rerum, an end of names and dignities and whatsoever is terrene; and why not of De Vere?—for where is Bohun? where is Mowbray? where is Mortimer? nay, what is more, and most of all, where is Plantagenet? They are entombed in the urns and sepulchres of mortality. And yet let the name and dignity of De Vere stand so long as it pleaseth God." The Earldom only, however, was adjudged to De Vere; the three baronies in fee, Bulbec, Sandford, and Badlesmere, were declared in abeyance; and the staff of Lord Great Chamberlain of England was committed to Lord Willoughby,[87] who was created Earl of Lindsey in the following year.

Robert de Vere, who thus succeeded as nineteenth Earl, was comparatively a poor man; and his son Aubrey, the last of this time-honoured line, "the noblest subject in England, and indeed, as Englishmen loved to say, the noblest subject in Europe," with whom ended the lofty name of De Vere, died in a miserable cottage in 1702. He had been Lord Lieutenant of Essex and Colonel of the Blues, but was deprived both of his regiment and his office by James II. When, in 1687, the King determined to pack a parliament, and retain in office only those who would support him, De Vere declared that he would stand by the King to the last drop of his blood, "but," added he, "this is a matter of conscience, and I cannot comply." He left three daughters, of whom the eldest only was married, Lady Diana, the wife of Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St. Albans, the son of Charles II. by Nell Gwynn.

Two other baronies had belonged to the De Veres, but each of brief continuance. The first was granted to Hugh, a soldier of merit in the wars of Edward I., who married the heiress of Montchensy, but died s. p. in 1313. The second was the reward of another gallant soldier, Sir Horatio Vere, a grandson of the fifteenth Earl, who was created Lord Vere of Tilbury in 1625, but also left no heir. He and his brother Sir Francis are buried side by side in Westminster Abbey, and "were amongst the boldest and best generals that upheld the renown of the English name under Elizabeth in the wars of the Netherlands." Fuller graphically describes them both:

"Sir Francis was of a fiery Spirit and rigid nature, undaunted in all dangers, not over-valuing the price of men's lives, to purchase victory therewith. He served on the Scene of all Christendom where war was acted. One master-piece of his valour was at the battle of Newport, where his Ragged Regiment (so were the English then call'd for their ragged Clothes) helped to make all whole, or else all had been lost. Another was, when for three years he defended Ostend against a strong and numerous Army, surrendering it at last a bare Skeleton to the King of Spain, who paid more years Purchase for it than probably the world will endure.

"Sir Horace had more meekness, and as much valour as his Brother; so pious, that he first made his peace with God before he went out to war with man. One of an excellent Temper, it being true of him that is said of the Caspian Sea, 'that it doth never ebb nor flow'; observing a constant tenor, neither elated nor depressed with Success. Had one seen him returning from a Victory, he would, by his silence, have suspected that he had lost the day; and had he beheld him in a Retreat, he would have collected him a Conqueror, by the cheerfulness of his Spirit. He was the first Baron of King Charles's creation." He died in 1635. His widow, "the truly honourable and religious Lady Vere," still survived in 1657, "kept alive thus long," writes Dillingham, "by special providence, that the present age might more than read and remember what was true godliness in 88" (the year of the Armada).

Vernoun :

from the castle and chatellenie of Vernon, now a commune in the arrondissement of Evreux, which gives its name to the surrounding canton, "one of the most picturesque and luxuriant of the vine districts." The castle must have been strong; for Orderic tells us that in 1152 it was besieged by Louis King of France with a large army, and he, after a long leaguer, was fain to enter into a secret negotiation with Richard de Vernon to raise the Royal banner on his tower.

The Lords of Vernon were of the house of Reviers. "Roger was Baron of Vernon c. 1030, about which time his daughter Blithildis was married. She granted to Trinity, Caen, in 1082, the lands at Vernon given to her by her father Roger. The grant was made with consent of William, her nephew, then Lord of Vernon (Gall. Christ, xi. 70, Instr.). This William recovered Vernon (which had been granted to Count Guy of Burgundy); and from him descended the Barons of Vernon, who held sixty-one knights' fees in barony."—The Norman People.

Two of his sons, Richard and Walter, appear in Domesday, both holding in Cheshire: Walter being at the same time a tenant-in-chief in Buckinghamshire: and a third of the name, Huard de Vernon, occurs as a mesne-lord in Suffolk. Of the latter I have no more to tell: and Walter is supposed to have left no heirs, as his Cheshire estates appear to have reverted to the Earl.

The elder brother,. Richard, was one of the Barons of Hugh Lupus' Palatinate, and "had a castle at Shipbrook on the Wever, to command the passes of the Wever, and the approach to Chester from the North, by the ancient line of the Watling Street. The site of his fortress is still indicated by the name of Castle Hill; and some remains are said to have actually existed on this spot thirty years ago."—Ormerod's Cheshire.

The first few descents of the Barons of Shipbrook are obscure and variously given; but either in the fourth or fifth generation the first Richard was succeeded by a second Richard de Vernon, from whose third son, William, Judge of Chester 1230-32, "all the acknowledged legitimate lines of this family and name now existing derive their descent."—Ibid. His eldest son, Warin, married Auda de Malbank, one of the co-heirs of the Baron of Wich Malbank, and was the grandfather of the last Baron of Shipbrook, who died childless about the middle of the thirteenth century. Three sisters remained as his co-heiresses; but their uncle Ralph entered into possession of the barony, and resolutely retained it till, after some years, they were brought to terms, and constrained to cede to him one moiety, with the capital manor of Shipbrook. Ralph was in holy orders—an ordained priest of the Church of Rome: yet he had a daughter born in wedlock as well as an illegitimate son, Sir Ralph, on whom he settled the portions of the barony that he had wrested from his nieces. On his death, Eustatia, his legitimate daughter and heiress, confirmed the grant to her base brother. This Sir Ralph, called in Cheshire evidences "the long liver," is said to have been one hundred and fifty years old when he died, and by a comparison of the dates cannot have been less than one hundred and twenty. He survived three generations of his descendants,[88] for his successor was his great-great-grandson, "young Sir Ralph," who d. s. p. The last representatives of this bastard line were the Vernons of Haslington, extinct in the seventeenth century. Minshull-Vernon retains the name in Cheshire.

Of the old blood, in true right of descent, there remained the posterity of Sir William de Vernon, Chief Justice of Chester, who held Marple in right of his wife Marjory, daughter of the Baron of Stockport, and was seated at Harlaston in Staffordshire. His son Sir Richard married two great heiresses; first, Alice de Avenel, dowered with Haddon and a broad domain in Derbyshire, and secondly, Maud, daughter and co-heir of the last Lord Camville, whose second husband was Sir Richard Stafford of Pipe-Rideware. But by neither of his wives had he children; and "in Henry III.'s time, and perhaps pretty early, he preferred his brother Robert's daughter and his own heir-presumptive, Hawyse, in marriage with Gilbert le Francais. In virtue of that marriage, Gilbert was Lord of Harlaston, and died 6 Ed. I. His son Richard resumed the Vernon name, and died 30 Ed. I."—Erdeswick's Staffordshire.

The succession in the male line, thus early interrupted, has never failed again, and continues unbroken after the lapse of six hundred years. The family seated at Haddon Hall grew and prospered, and held their place among the foremost in the county. A Sir Richard Vernon, afterwards Treasurer of Calais, was Speaker of the House of Commons that met at Leicester in 1402; his son Sir William, again Treasurer of Calais, was constituted Constable of England for life; and the next heir, Sir Henry, was Governor and Treasurer to Henry VII.'s eldest son. It was he that built the splendid pile of Haddon, where Prince Arthur, it is said, was a frequent guest, and a room in which the Royal arms are carved in stone long bore the name of the Prince's Chamber.

Sir Henry's grandson, Sir George, was the well-known "King of the Peak"; so named not only "for his magnificent port and hospitality," but from the arbitrary power that he exercised in his domain. Once, we are told, a poor pedlar who had been hawking his wares in the neighbourhood, and was last seen alive entering a cottage, the evening before, was found murdered in a lonely place. Sir George at once ordered the dead body to be brought to Haddon, and laid out in the hall, covered with a sheet; then, summoning the cottager to his presence, he asked him what had become of the pedlar that had been in his cottage the previous night? The man denied all knowledge of him. On this, Sir George, throwing back the sheet, called upon all present to lay their hands on the murdered man, and declare themselves innocent of the foul deed. The old superstition that the death-wound would bleed afresh at the murderer's touch, still held good; for the suspected culprit shuddered back from the ordeal when his turn came, and rushing out of the hall, made his way, as fast as his legs would carry him, through Bakewell towards Ashford. Sir George instantly despatched his men in hot pursuit, with orders to hang the fugitive wherever they might find him. The wretched man was overtaken in a field opposite the present toll-bar at Ashford, still called Gallows Acre, and here he was strung up to the nearest tree without further ado.

"Sir George is said to have been cited to London for this extraordinary piece of Lynch law; and when he appeared in Court, was twice summoned to surrender as the 'King of the Peak.' To this he made no reply; but the third time, when called on as Sir George Vernon, he stepped forward and acknowledged himself—'Here am I!' Having been summoned as King of the Peak, the indictment fell through, and Sir George was admonished and discharged."—Guide to Haddon Hall.

This autocratic King of the Peak had only two daughters, whose husbands shared his ample possessions. Margaret, the youngest, inherited Tonge and the Shropshire estates, and married Sir Thomas Stanley of Winwick. It was during one of the "merry meetings" that celebrated her wedding, when the great gallery was ablaze with lights and astir with dancers, that her beautiful sister Dorothy stole out through an adjoining postern, crossed the garden terrace, and ran down the steep stair leading to the foot-bridge over the river Wye below, where her lover Sir John Manners was waiting for her. He had horses in readiness; Dorothy was quickly lifted into her saddle; and speeding away unperceived in the darkness, they rode hard all night, and were married in his own county of Leicester on the following morning.

"It is a night with never a star,
And the Hall with revelry throbs and gleams,
There grates a hinge—the door is ajar—
And a shaft of light in the darkness streams:

"A faint sweet face, a glimmering gem—
And then two figures steal into light;
A flash—and darkness has swallowed them,
So sudden is Dorothy Vernon's flight!"

Sir John's suit had been bitterly opposed by all her family, her sister included, and Dorothy had been closely guarded and kept almost a prisoner, while he had roamed for weeks about the woods of Haddon, in the disguise of a forester, watching for the chance of exchanging a word or glance with her. Who that has visited the beautiful deserted mansion that was once her home, has not felt a thrill of romance on being shown Dorothy Vernon's door, and Dorothy Vernon's Walk—the lime tree avenue on the upper terrace of which she is said to have been fond; nor envied the lucky knight to whom the lovely Lady of Haddon came out on that summer's night, bearing in her hand such an inheritance?

"Haddon, by the river Wye in Derbyshire, was," writes Camden, "the seat for many years of the Vernons, who, as they were ancient, so they were no less renowned in those parts. * * * Sir George Vernon of Haddon was the last male of that branch; he died seized of thirty manors, and left two daughters, one married to Maners, of the Duke of Rutland's family, by which Haddon came to them; in honourable remembrance of which, there is wrote over the entrance to the house, God save the Vernons. And the Vernon's crest, being a boar's head, used to be served up with a song every Christmas." Haddon Hall is now held by Dorothy Vernon's lineal descendant, the Duke of Rutland.

"The other daughter," he continues, "was married to Stanley, second son of the Earl of Derby, by which he had Tonge in Shropshire, where he lieth interred, and where there are many fine monuments of the Vernons and Stanleys, and a chapel founded by Sir Henry Vernon, who married Talbot, daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury, curiously painted, gilt, and adorned with the matches of the Vernons." This Sir Henry (the builder of Haddon) "gave the great bell to Tonge, of forty-eight hundredweight, and a rent out of his manor of Norton, for the tolling of it, when any Vernon comes to town."

Though the King of the Peak is here spoken of as the last heir male of his house, he had in reality four younger brothers: i, Thomas, of Stokesay; 2, Humphrey, of Hodnet; 3, Sir John, of Sudbury; and 4, Arthur, Rector of Whitchurch. Sir John, who acquired Sudbury through a Derbyshire heiress, Helen, daughter of Sir John Montgomery of Cubley, was the progenitor of the Lords Vernon, still seated there. One of his descendants married the representative of. the last Vernon of Haslington; another the heiress of the Cheshire Barons of Kinderton, Mary Venables, whose son added her name to his own, and was created Lord Vernon, Baron of Kinderton, in 1762.

There are several junior branches; the Vernon-Harcourts of Nuneham in Oxfordshire; the Vernons of Hilton in Staffordshire, and the Vernon-Wentworths of Wentworth Castle in Yorkshire. Their old punning motto, Ver non semper viret, is bountifully illustrated; yet the highest title they have yet received perished with its first possessor. This was Francis Vernon of Norton in Suffolk, created Earl of Shipbrook in 1777, who died s. p. He derived from a cadet of the house of Haslington, who had settled in London as a merchant. His grandfather was one of William III.'s principal Secretaries of State; his father Ambassador to the Court of Denmark; and his father's brother the gallant Admiral—the "brave and happy Vernon"—who, with only six ships of the line, captured Porto Bello in 1739.

Vescy :

the English rendering of Vassy, a Norman fief in the Val de Vire, of which the caput baroniae was in the bailiwick of Conde. The family, with the cognomen "Noble Vassy," survived in the Duchy till the close of the last century, for Louis Marie, Comte de Vassy and Marquis de Brece, Alexandre, Comte de Vassy, and Louis, Vicomte de Vassy, are all named in the Assembly of the Nobles in 1789. They did not bear the cross of the English De Vescis, but D'argent a trois tourteaux de sable.

The "Sires de Waacie,"[89] spoken of by Wace at the battle of Hastings, were Robert, who in 1086 held a great barony in Northants, Warwick, Lincoln, and Leicester; and Ivo, who does not appear even as a mesne-lord in Domesday. Yet we hear nothing more either of Robert or his possessions, and the whole history of the family centres on Ivo, and Ivo's posterity. Apparently he received no favours from the Conqueror: but William Rufus granted him half the escheated barony of Gilbert Tyson, whose son-in-law or brother-in-law he probably was (see p. 163). Dugdale makes him the brother-in-law, as the husband of Alda, daughter of William Tyson. Be this as it may, he held the castle and honour of Alnwick in Northumberland, among the most famous of the Border strongholds, and transmitted them to his only child, Beatrix. She was the wife of one of the greatest nobles of the realm, Eustace Fitz John, the son of John Monoculus (the one-eyed): and heir to his uncle Serlo, Baron of Burgh and Knaresborough in Yorkshire, and founder of Knaresborough Castle. In addition to these accumulated possessions, Eustace received constant grants of land from Henry I., with whom "he was of intimate Familiarity, and withall a Person of great Wisdom and singular Judgement in Council." It is admitted that this sagacious prince chose his favourites well; and Eustace's star never waned as long as he was on the throne; but on his death, "when Stephen began to reign, the Scene was altered." The new King, remembering the affection he had borne to his old master, suspected him of favouring the cause of the Empress Maud, and as a measure of precaution, deprived him of the custody of Bamborough and other Northern castles. This indignity drove Eustace into open rebellion: he delivered up Alnwick to David of Scotland, then invading England; joined him on his march South, and accepted several manors as his reward from David's son, Henry Earl of Huntingdon. Yet within two years his peace had been made with Stephen, and he reappears as Lord of Burgh and Knaresborough, and acting as Justice Itinerant in Yorkshire with Walter Espec. He was slain on the expedition into Wales in 1157; "a great and aged Man, and of the cheifest English Peers, most eminent for his wealth and wisdom." He had founded three monasteries; Malton and Walton in Yorkshire, and Alnwick in Northumberland, besides splendid gifts to other religious houses. He was twice married, each time to a great heiress; and by each left a son from whom sprung an illustrious baronial house. His second wife, Agnes, was the daughter of the Constable of Chester, William Fitz Nigel, Baron of Halton, and by her he was ancestor of the De Lacies, Earls of Lincoln and Constables of Chester, the Claverings, Constables, &c.

Beatrix de Vescy is said by Dugdale to have had two sons, William and Geoffrey, but, according to another account, died before giving birth to William, who, like Macduff,

"Was from his mother's womb
Untimely ripp'd."

At all events we hear no more of Geoffrey. William de Vesci, who took her name on succeeding to her barony, was for twelve years Viscount of Northumberland, and in 1174 among the chief commanders at the victory of Alnwick, when the Scottish King was taken prisoner. He married Burga de Estouteville, dowered with the town of Langton, and was the father of Eustace de Vesci, one of the twenty-five celebrated Conservators of Magna Charta, and foremost from the first in the ranks of the revolted barons. He had, in very truth, as strong a personal ground of quarrel with the King as a man could possibly have. "King John, continuing his wonted licentiousness, thereby provoked many of his Nobles to wrath * * * Hearing that this Eustace de Vesci had a very beautiful Lady, but far distant from Court; earnestly studying how to accomplish his desires towards her, sitting at Table with her Husband, and seeing a Ring on his Finger, he laid hold of it, and told him, That he had such another Stone, which he resolved to set in Gold, in that very form: And, having thus got the Ring, presently sent it to her, in her Husband's name; by that Token conjuring her, if ever she expected to see him alive, to come speedily unto him.

"She therefore, upon sight of the Ring, gave credit to the Messenger, and came with all expedition. But so it hapned, That her Husband casually riding out, met her on the Road, and marvelling much to see her there, asked, What the matter was; And when he understood how they were both deluded, resolved to find out a Courtezan, and put her in apparel to personate his Lady. All which was accordingly done." The King was delighted with his easy conquest, and according to his usual villainous practice, took an early opportunity of expatiating upon her charms to her supposed husband; whereupon Eustace had the satisfaction of informing him that the Lady was none of his, but a Courtezan dressed in her clothes. The King was so enraged that he threatened to take his life; and Eustace had to fly in hot haste to the North, where he put his retainers under arms, and being joined by other indignant and derided husbands with their following, was soon strong enough to declare open war. He was slain the very year after the sealing of the Great Charter at Runnymede, by an accidental arrow shot from the ramparts of Barnard Castle, as he was surveying its defences by the side of Alexander King of Scotland, his wife's brother. She was Margaret, daughter of William the Lion, who, according to the Melrose Chronicle, had given her in marriage to Eustace in 1193.[90] Neither she nor her sister Isabel de Ros were born in wedlock; but Fordun states that her father called upon the nobles assembled at Clackmannan to swear fealty to her as his true heir, unless he should have a son by his Queen Ermengard. The claim her grandson put forward to the crown of Scotland was, however, summarily dismissed.

The two grandsons of this beautiful Margaret were the last of their race. The elder, John, first Lord Vesci, was deeply engaged in the baronial war under Simon de Montfort, summoned to his parliament after the battle of Lewes, and taken prisoner at the rout of Evesham. When he was reinstated in his honours and possessions by the Dictum de Kenilworth, he assumed the cross, and joined the Christian army in the Holy Land. While there, he and another crusader, Sir Richard Grey, went to visit the monks of Mount Carmel, and among them found a countryman of their own, Ralph Fresborn of Northumberland, who after doing good service in the Crusade, had entered the monastery in pursuance of a vow. They persuaded him to return home with them, and establish a house of his Order in his native county, for which De Vesci offered him any site he might select. For some time he wandered about in search of one, till, struck by a chance likeness to Mount Carmel in the adjoining hill,[91] he built his monastery—some say with his own hands—in De Vesci's park at Hulne, near Alnwick. It was the first Carmelite convent ever founded in this country.

Lord Vesci died in 1288, childless, though he had been twice married. His first wife, Mary, sister of the Earl of Marche and Angouleme, was a daughter of the haughty house that boasted

"Lusignan
Vaut autant
Sur le reste du monde que l'or sur l'argent:"

the second, Isabel de Beaumont, a kinswoman of Queen Eleanor's. His brother William, who succeeded, was Justice of all the Royal forests beyond Trent; a man of about forty, "of great esteem with Edward I.;" who, in the following year, named him Justiciary of Ireland, where he held some lands of his mother's inheritance. Here, in 1292, he was solemnly accused, "in open Court, in the City of Dublin, in the presence of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, of conspiring against the King's authority, and challenged to single combat by John Fitz Thomas. The matter was brought before the King's court, where De Vesci returned the challenge; and the King decreed that the combat should take place before him at Westminster, "on the morrow after the Feast of the Holy Trinity. At which time, this our William de Vesci came thither accordingly, mounted upon his great Horse covered; as also compleatly armed with Lance, Dagger, Coat of Mail, and other Military Accoutrements, and proffered himself to the fight: But Fitz Thomas, though called, appeared not."

This last De Vesci died five years afterwards, without an heir. He had lost his one son, John, early in life, before the marriage arranged for him could take place:—a marriage that was to connect him with the Queen through her kinswoman Clementia, whom the prospective father-in-law had covenanted to endow at the church-door with lands of the value of 200 a year. But Lord Vesci left behind him a bastarison, born in Ireland, and styled William of Kildare, and had designated him lis his successor. The boy being then a mere child, he enfeoffed the Prince-Bishop of Durham, Anthony Beke, of his castle and barony of Alnwick, and all his other lands—Hoton Buscel in Yorkshire alone excepted—"with trust and special confidence that he should retain them for the behoof of William de Vesci his Bastard son, at that time young, until he came of full age, and then pass them to him." But Anthony Beke, "irritated by some slanderous words that he heard the Bastard spoke of him," avenged himself by selling Alnwick to Henry de Percy in 1309; and the defrauded bastard obtained nothing but Hoton-Buscel. He was summoned to parliament in 1312, but fell two years afterwards at Bannockburn, leaving no posterity.

Failing heirs of his body, the Yorkshire estate reverted, under his father's will, to those to whom it belonged in right of blood; and came to Gilbert de Aton, descended from Margerie, daughter of Warine de Vesci, the younger brother of Eustace. He had summons as Lord Vesci 18 Ed. II.; but his line, again, failed in an heiress, and the title passed through the Bromfletes to the Cliffords, Earls of Cumberland.

The Irish Viscounts de Vesci descend from a branch of the house seated at Newlands, co. Durham, of which the connection with the parent stock is variously given, and very uncertain. One of the family, having killed his adversary in a duel, is said to have fled across the Border, and taken to wife a daughter of Kerr of Cessford. From Scotland he removed to the North of Ireland, about the time of Elizabeth, and, settling there, was succeeded by three generations of churchmen. His son held an Irish living; his grandson was Archbishop of Tuam; and his great-grandson first Bishop of Killaloe, and then of Ossory. Before taking orders, the latter had received a baronetcy in 1698. Sir John, second baronet, who was seated in the Queen's County, further obtained an Irish peerage as Baron of Knapton in 1750; and his son Thomas was created Viscount de Vesci of Abbey-Leix, Queen's Co., in 1776.

Another line of Vescys existed at High Coniscliffe, co. Durham, where John Veyse, in 1436, held lands under a free rent of Lord Greystoke. The last of his descendants, John Vescy, died 1723, leaving two daughters, neither of whom were married. They bore the coat of the De Vescis differenced in tincture. The name, as Vasey, is still pretty common in the neighbourhood of their old home.

Verdoune :

an illustrious name still represented in Normandy. La Roque and La Chesnaye-du-Bois both maintain that it had its origin in the county of Mortaine, where one of its branches was of long continuance; yet it is incontestable that in the twelfth century there was a fief of Verdun in the arrondissement of Avranches; and, according to M. de Gerville, the cradle of the family was Barenton, in that neighbourhood.

Bertram de Verdon, the founder of the great English house, in 1086 held Farnham Royal, in Buckinghamshire, by the grand serjeantry of providing a glove for the King's right hand on the day of his coronation, and supporting his right arm during the said service, so long as he bore the royal sceptre. In 1095, he attests a charter of William Rufus to St. Mary's Abbey, York, and served as Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1100. His son Norman followed him about 1130, and married Lescelina, the daughter of the famous Justiciar, Geoffrey de Clinton, who had great possessions in Leicestershire, and brought him Brandon in Warwickshire, where he built a castle. Alton, in North Staffordshire, was, however, his principal seat and the head of his barony. The next in succession, Bertram II., played a considerable part in the history of his time. "His political career I date," says Eyton, "from the year 1166, when he appears in King Henry's court at Caen. On 3rd February, 1170, the King being over sea, the Constable of Normandy, Richard de Humez, and Bertram de Verdon were at Stamford (Lincolnshire). Bertram, be it known, held estates in Lincolnshire, both under the Crown and under the aforesaid Constable. What is more remarkable is that at this very juncture De Humez was Sheriff of Rutland, while at the ensuing Easter (April 5, 1170) the King, in Council at Windsor, instituted that enquiry into the conduct of the English Sheriffs which resulted in the ejectment of William Basset from the Shrievalty of Warwickshire and Leicestershire, and the substitution of Bertram de Verdon.

"Meanwhile in the rebellion of 1173, Bertram de Verdon was one of those Barons whom Benedictus signalizes as having stood by the elder King. For twelve succeeding years he variously occurs as a Sheriff, as an assessor in the Curiae Regis, as a witness of royal charters in England and Normandy; and on one occasion as King Henry's ambassador to Spain. His relinquishment of the Shrievalty of Warwickshire and Leicestershire, in 1185, was not for any cause of disgrace. At this very juncture he was attending Prince John in his notable mission to Ireland; and while Hugh de Lacy figures as Constable (of Ireland) during John's vice-royalty, so has Bertram de Verdon the title of Seneschal when attesting one of the Prince's charters.

"On June 14, 1188, William de Humez, then Constable of Normandy, and Bertram de Verdon, were assessors of the King in a Curiae sitting at Geddington. Bertram de Verdon, accompanying King Richard in the crusade of 1190, died at Jaffa in 1192, and was buried at Acre." This city had been, after its capture, committed to his charge by Coeur de Lion.

His two sons were the last heirs-male of his house. The elder, Thomas, married to Eustachia Basset, had no children; and the second, Nicholas, left only one daughter, Roese, who in 1223, at the urgent recommendation of J Henry III., married Theobald Le Botiller of Ireland. "Being so great an Heir, tho' she matched with a Husband of a very Honourable Family, she did not bear his sirname, but retained her own, and so did her Posterity."—Dugdale. She was early left a widow, for in 1231 she paid the customary heavy fine not to be compelled to marry again, and later in life founded the Cistercian Abbey of Grace-Dieu on one of her Leicestershire manors.

John, the eldest of her four sons, in whom the name of Verdon was resuscitated with added splendour, married another great heiress, Margery de Lacy, the last-born of the two sisters that shared the princely possessions of their grandfather, Walter, Lord Palatine of Meath. She brought him the castle and honour of Weobley in Herefordshire, as well as a moiety of Ewyas-Lacy; and with them, the harassing duties and responsibilities of a Lord-Marcher. Accordingly, in 1249, he was ordered by the King to take up his residence on the borders, and check the inroads of the Welsh. He was slain in Ireland in 1278, and was succeeded by Theobald, the first Baron Verdon, who was summoned to parliament in 1295. He had been Constable of Ireland in 1274, and in 1290 was arraigned for high treason, and sentenced to be imprisoned, and to forfeit all his royalties at Ewyas-Lacy; but the King, taking into consideration the good service done by his ancestors, "freed him of his imprisonment for five hundred marks fine." After this, he was again in favour at Court, received several writs of summons to the Northern wars, and sat in the Parliament at Lincoln that asserted Edward's supremacy as "Lord of the whole Realm of Scotland."

Theobald II., his only surviving son—John, the eldest, had died in Ireland during his lifetime—was the second and last Lord Verdon, and Justiciar of Ireland in 1312. He was twice married; first, to Maud, daughter of Edmund Lord Mortimer of Wigmore, by whom he had two sons that died young, and three daughters; and secondly, to one of the co-heirs of the great Honour of Clare, Elizabeth, third daughter of Gilbert Earl of Gloucester by Joan of Acres, daughter of Edward I., and widow of John de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. This last marriage took place in 1315, and he died the year following at Alton Castle, in the thirty-fourth year of his age, leaving his wife, in Scriptural language, "great with child." The child proved a fourth daughter, and thus, for the second time, the name perished in the elder line, and the great fief of Verdon was split up among co-heiresses. Joan, who, as the eldest of these richly-dowered sisters, had the ancestral seat, Alton Castle, and the Staffordshire honour, married Lord Furnival, and died in childbed in 1334. Elizabeth, the second, had the castle and fief of Ewyas-Lacy in Herefordshire, with Stoke-upon-Terne in Shropshire, and married Bartholomew de Burghersh. Margery, the third, had another great Herefordshire estate, the honour and castle of Weobley, with Heath in Oxfordshire, and was three times married: first to William le Blund; secondly to Marcus Husee; and thirdly to John Crophull. The posthumous Isabel—to all appearance the most slenderly portioned of the four—had certain manors in Shropshire and Staffordshire, and was the wife of Lord Ferrers of Groby.

Besides this principal line, and several minor ones alluded to by Burke—the Verdons of Draycot, Warwickshire, and Ibstock, Leicestershire; the Verdons of Darlaston and Biddulph, in Staffordshire; and the Verdons of Denston, in the same county—one, if not two more baronial houses sprung from the original stock. The first of these—wholly unnoticed by Dugdale—was seated at Brisingham in Norfolk, where William de Verdon, about the year 1100, was enfeoffed of six knight's fees by Roger, the father of Hugh Bigod. His descendant John, in 1285, claimed view of frank-pledge, assize of bread, and ale, infangthef gallows, and free-warren in all his lands and manors in Norfolk, which had been granted to his father by Henry III.: and another Sir John was a baron of the realm in 1332. "He seems to have been a person of great hospitality, from the inventory of the establishment he left at Brisingham, to treat his tenants &c. whenever he should go there to reside."—Banks. This Sir John, with his brother Sir Thomas, figured as tilters at the great tournament held in 1308 at Stepney, and again five years later at Dunstable. Instead of the Verdon fret, they bore Sable ove un Lyon Rampant Argent, the younger brother adding a chess-rook for a difference. Each of Sir John's two sons had a son who left no issue: and the inheritance fell between two granddaughters, one of whom was Lady of Shelfanger in right of her mother, Isabel Vis di Leu.

The other house always hitherto assigned to the stock of Verdon is one of the most famous of our baronage—that of Audley. "That the first," says Dugdale, "who assumed this surname was a branch of that ancient and noble family of Verdon, whose chief seat was at Alton Castle, in the northern part of Staffordshire, I am very inclined to believe; partly by reason that Henry had the inheritance of Aldithley given him by Nicholas de Verdon, who died in the sixteenth of Henry III., or near that time; and partly for that he bore for his arms the same ordinary that Verdon did, viz. frette; but distinguished with a large canton in the dexter part of the shield, and thereon a cross pate." This origin is now denied,[92] notwithstanding the similarity of the coats of arms, thus left unexplained; and it is at least clear, that Aldithley was not the grant of Nicholas de Verdon. "Aldidelege (Audley) Baltredelez (half Balterby) and Talc (Talke in Audley) all held in 1086 by the Thane, Gamel, seem to have come, early in the reign of Henry I., into the hands of the first Adam de Audley, who divided them between his sons, Lydulph and Adam. In 1130, 'Liulf de Audley' lay under a heavy penalty for the murder of Gamel."—Eyton. Adam II. was apparently the father of Henry de Audley, "the great territorial acquisitionist of the district," who built the castle of Heighley, and is represented by Dugdale as the first who assumed the name.

I do not therefore feel justified in including the Audleys in this notice, and must reluctantly forbear to give an account of one of my favourite heroes, the Sir James Audley who fought "as long as his breath served him, in the chief of the battle" at Poictiers. He had vowed that whenever the King or one of his sons should be present on the field, he "would be one of the first setters-on, or else die in the pain," and so well did he keep his word, that he was praised and rewarded by the Black Prince, as the "best doer in arms" that day. The names of his four squires, to whom he instantly transferred the Prince's bounty, declaring "That honour I have, is by their valiantness," though not given by Froissart, have been preserved in Cheshire tradition. They were Sir Robert Fouleshurst, Sir Thomas Dutton (Sheriff of the county), Sir John Delves, and Sir John Hawkestone. All of them bore the Audley fret on some part of their coat of arms.

Valence :

"from Valence, Normandy. William and Richard de Valence, and the fief of Valence, occur in 1180-95 (Magn. Rotul. Scaccariae Normanniae). Alan de Valence was a Baron in Bucks 1165 (Rot. Pip.). This was a Norman family, different from that of Valence Earl of Pembroke; and appears in Battle Abbey Roll. Its insertion there has been supposed to determine the interpolated character of that document, but the name does not there bear any relation to the Valences Earls of Pembroke, who came to England in the thirteenth century."—The Norman People.

Verdeire :

probably for Verdier, a forester. "The names of Verdier and Verderie signify the same functionaries as Vaultrier and Forestier, but perhaps of inferior rank. The names of Lavarde and La Verderie mark the space assigned to each watcher's beat. The Verdier was a judge of petty offences against the forest laws."—M. de Gerville (Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de la Normandie). In England a Verderer is an officer appointed to take care of the vert: a word applied "to every thing that grows and bears a green leaf within the forest that may cover and hide a deer."—Cowell.

It should, however, be borne in mind that the titles of Seigneurs de la Verdiere and de Fos were borne by one of the oldest of the great Provencal houses. "All the branches of the Seigneurs of the name of Vintimille established in Provence came," says Anselme, "from the Seigneurs de la Verdiere of the same country." They bore Gules an ear of millet Or; on a chief of the second three ears of millet of the first. Raffortiat de Castellane became their representative; and his descendant Boniface was Seigneur de la Verdiere in the beginning of the sixteenth century.

Robson gives the arms of the English Verdiers as Azure a horse salient in bend Or. But I have only met with the name twice, once in Oxfordshire, where Walter de Verder occurs in the Hundred Rolls of 1272; and again, at about the same date in Yorkshire. "In 1261, Sir Galfrid Gumbald attests a grant from William Verder, of Out Newton, to Sir Simon le Constable."—Poulson's Holderness.

Vauasour :

Ducange spells it Valvasour (door-keeper), and Sir Henry Spelman and others believe this to be the correct interpretation; but the generally received reading is Vasvasour, the vassal of a vassal, or the holder under a mesne-lord. Thus Wace, in describing the second charge of the Conqueror at Hastings, tells us it was led by the Duke himself, at the head of "a great company, vavassors of Normandy, who to save their lord would have put their own bodies between him and the enemie's blows."

In the case of the baronial Vavasours we must, however, adopt the former signification, as they claimed to derive their name from Sir Mauger le Valvasour, door-keeper to William the Conqueror. He is not to be found in Domesday; but his grandson Sir William, who witnessed Matilda de Percy's charter of Salley Abbey, appears in the Liber Niger as a considerable land-owner in Yorkshire, and was seated at Hazelwood, near Tadcaster, still the home of his representatives. "Haselwood hath beene the chief Seat, and antient Inheritance of the Family, which Towne has a pleasant Prospect, wherein may be discovered the two Cathedrals of York and Lincoln, tho' sixty Miles asunder; and where is a remarkable Quarry of Stone; Of the Stones taken out here was the stately Church at York, built by the Bounty of Vavassours. Their being Benefactors to that Church is also evident from their Arms therein, and the Portraictures of them and the Percies in the Gate, the latter with a Peice of Timber; and of the Vavassors with a Stone in their Hands, showing the Materials each Family contributed to that stately structure."—Leland. Sir William's son Robert was for eight successive years Sheriff of Notts and Derby: and in 1208 paid a fine of 1200 marks and two palfreys to marry his daughter Maud to Fulke Fitz Warine, "an eminent baron in those days." His son John, by his wife Alice, daughter of Sir Robert Cockfield,[93] was the father of Sir William le Vavasour, who had summons to parliament as a baron 28 Ed. I. He was a good soldier; "in arms neither deaf nor dumb;" who followed the King to the wars of Scotland and Gascony, and is spoken of in the first division at Carlaverock:—

"E de cele meis part
Fu Guillames li Vavasours,
Ky de amies ne est muet ne sours;
Baner avoit ben conoissable,
De or fyn o la dance de sable."

"He was evidently," adds Wright, "a man of esteem, as he was appointed one of the judges of the Trailbaston": and in 1290 obtained license to castellate his manor house at Hazelwood. His eldest son Walter was also summoned to parliament in 1313, but died s. p., and his barony ended with him. Henry, the younger brother, carried on the male line, and one of his descendants, Thomas Vavasour, was made a baronet by Charles I. in 1628. The great-grandson of this latter, Sir Peter, who died in 1740, was "the twenty-first Generation in a direct Line from Sir Mauger le Vavasour; Of which Family is this Observation, That they never married an Heir or buried their Wives." It continued for three more generations, ending with Sir Thomas Vavasour in 1826: but during these last descents the ancient tradition concerning the wedded life of the Vavasours was twice broken through. Sir Walter, the fifth baronet, had two wives; and his son, another Sir Walter, married an heiress. The last baronet died a bachelor, and devised his estates to his cousin Edward Marmaduke Stourton, son of Charles Philip, sixteenth Lord Stourton, who took the name of Vavasour, and was created a baronet two years afterwards.

Wotton enumerates many offsets from the parent stock of Hazelwood, seated at Weston, Acaster, Coppinthorp (Copmanthorp), Spaldington, Newton, and Danby, in Yorkshire, and Killingworth in Lincolnshire; three of whom received baronetcies. These were Sir Charles Vavasour of Killingworth, created 1611; Sir William Vavasour of Copmanthorpe, Major-General to the King of Sweden, created 1643; and Sir Henry Vavasour of Spaldington, created 1801; but the two former died s. p., and the latter alone is represented.

The Vavasour with whom the house of Weston ended in 1833, by a most unusual provision, forbade his elected heir to take his name, declaring that the place had been held by his ancestors from the time of Henry II., and that he would be the last Vavasour of Weston. One of them, in the beginning of James I.'s reign, was the unhappy cause of the famous Yorkshire Tragedy. Walter Calveley, of Calveley, madly jealous of the then Vavasour of Weston, stabbed his two eldest children and attempted to stab his wife; but the dagger glanced aside from her steel stomacher; and the youngest child, caught up by its terrified nurse, was carried to a place of safety. The murderer mounted his horse and rode away, but was overtaken and lodged in York Castle; where, having by some means ascertained his wife's innocence and the legitimacy of his children, he refused to plead, hoping to save his estate for them. He was accordingly condemned by the old cruel law to be pressed till he yielded or died; and while undergoing the agonies of this torture, implored an old servant, who had come to see him, to sit on his breast and put him out of pain. The man complied; and for this act of mercy was tried for murder, sentenced to death, and executed! The ghost of Walter Calveley is popularly believed to haunt the woods of Calveley at dead of night, galloping with his men on headless horses, and trying their speed, with the cry, "A pund of more weight—lig on, lig on!"

Vendore :

"Bochardus de Vendroure" is mentioned by Duchesne among the Milites Wlcassin. (Feoda Normanniae). In England I first met with the name in the Monasticon Anglicanum. Richard de Vendure witnesses Hugh de Coluncis' grant to Motesfont Priory, Hampshire; Oliver de Vendoure and "Willielmus frater ejus" that of Simon de Crevecoeur to Bullington Priory, Lincolnshire. Gunilda de Wendoure paid a fine in Buckinghamshire in 1202.—Hunter. Richard de Wendour was Archdeacon of Axfordby in 1230 (Nichol's Leicestershire): and two of the name, Hugo de Wendor, of Lincolnshire, and Alan de Vendur of Yorkshire, occur about 1272 in the Rotuli Hundredorum. Sir John de Wendour was Chamberlain of Chester 9 and 15 Ed. III.—Ormerod's Cheshire. In the Issue Roll, under date 50 Ed. III., we find the following entry: "20th November.—To John Vendour of Newark, coming by command of the Council from Lincoln, to bring Sir William de Cantelupe, knight, to the Tower of London, upon suspicion had against him for the death of Nicholas de Cantelupe, his brother, slain: and there safely and securely to keep him in the King's prison until otherwise respecting the same William it should be ordered by the King and his Council. In money paid, &c, in discharge of one hundred shillings, which the Lord the King commanded to be paid him for the wages and expenses of himself and his men going with him and his retinue, for the safe custody of the aforesaid William."

In some cases Vendoure appears to have been synonymous with the English local name of Wendover. Oliver de Vendoure of Lincolnshire, for instance, is, as often as not, styled in the Monasticon, Oliver de Wendover.

Verlay :

from Verlai in Normandy. "In 1086 Turold de Verlai held thirteen lordships in Salop from Earl Roger, of which Chetwynd appears to have been the chief (Eyton, Salop). Robert his son was a baron in the time of Henry I., and before 1121 witnessed a charter in favour of Salop Abbey (Ibid.). He was living 1141, and was father of Robert de Verlai, who, with his father, gave Verlai Church, Normandy, to Essex Abbey, which grant was confirmed by Henry II,"—The Norman People. One of these two Roberts was probably the founder of Swine Priory in Yorkshire. "This Priory (according to Tanner) was founded before the reign of Stephen by Robert de Verli, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In the reign of Henry I. there was a Hugo de Verli who gave to John Lascels half a carucate at Swine; and in 1184 one of the same name gave 40s. to the King that he might be quit of his oath in a plea of land against

William de Ottringham. Robert de Verli, 5 Hen. III., grants to Henry de Pocklington and Margaret his wife the homage of John de Wilton. Another—Henry de Verli—is mentioned in a subsequent page of the Chartulary. From these several circumstances it may be inferred that the De Verlis were residents in Holderness."—Poulson's Holderness. Richard and Alan de Verlin witness Alan de Monceaux's grant to Nuncote (Mon. Angl.). Hugh de Verli held four knights' fees of the Honour of Richmond.—Gale's Richmondshire.

In Essex, the family held Salcot-Verli (now Salcote Virle) under Robert Gernon at the date of Domesday, and from being sub-tenants, at length came to be sole proprietors. Robert de Verli, in 1275, held four knights' fees of the Barony of Stanstead. His grandson Sir Philip, who was knight of the shire in 1319, received a writ of military summons in 1322, and another to attend the great Council at Westminster in 1324. Robert, the next heir, married a daughter of Sir Ralph Gernon, by Lady Alianor de Vere, and was the father of Philip, with whose two sons, John, and Roger, Morant closes the genealogy. John, as he tells us, died childless; and of Roger's posterity he does not speak.

Verli's Manor keeps their name in Norfolk. Ralph de Verli, 8 Ric. I., is the first mentioned there. "Hugh de Verli, in 1243, held two knights' fees, part of the dower of the Lady Isabel, widow of Hugh, Earl of Sussex."—Bloomfield's Norfolk. The first "Sir Philip," he further tells us, "writes himself in some of his deeds, De Tolleshunt, a town in Essex, where he seems to have had his residence. One of his daughters and co-heirs, Isabel, married Ralph de Bagthorp; another.... Prick."

Valenger :

or Valancre. "Warin de Valle-Ancre was of Normandy, 1195 (Magn. Rotul. Scaccariae Normanniae). The name appears in England about 1272 as Varencher, then as Wallanger, then as Fullanger, or Furlonger."—The Norman People. The arms of the Wallengers or Wellengers, of Whitchurch in Bedfordshire, and Chelmsford in Essex, are preserved by Robson. They bore Gules a fesse vair between three falcons Or. But in neither county can I find any account of the family.

Venables :

from Venables, "about thirty miles beyond Rouen, on the road to Paris, between St. Pierre and Vernon, standing in the centre of the neck of a peninsula formed by a bend of the Seine. The high road runs straight through this tract to the centre of the arc of the Seine, which it intersects at a point where the river bends past Pont Andeli, near the famous Chateau Gaillard."—Ormerod's Cheshire. Venables was the barony and ancient seat of the Le Veneurs, so named from their hereditary office of Veneur or Venator (Huntsman) to the Dukes of Normandy. They occur as far back as the tenth century in the charters of the Gallia Christiana; and Walter Le Veneur is a conspicuous figure in the Battle ot the Fords, fought in 960 between Lothaire King of France, and Richard Sans Peur of Normandy. "Desperate was the battle waged in the Dieppe water;—knights struck down, and struggling in the stream—sinking into the pits of the river-bed—mixing their blood with the waves. Thrice did Richard raise the Norman war-cry, Dex aie! his own folks joining him, whilst (as the excited Trouveur tells) all the slogans attributed to the various provincial nationalities were resounding. Mont Joie! cried the Frenchman; Arras! the Fleming; Valie! the Angevin; and Thibaut himself shouting out Passe avant et Chartres! Face to face, the two Sovereigns observed each other; and whenever Lothaire saw Richard lift up the sword, did not his heart, as the Normans tell us, die within him? Lothaire was actually thrown off his horse, though not by Richard; but, unhurt, he speedily regained his seat and resumed the contest. Richard fought desperately, and Thibaut could distinguish the young Duke's clear voice rising amidst the turmoil, vituperating him as a miscreant and a traitor.

"But who so prominent in the group as Gaultier-le-Veneur? All the interest of the battle seemed at one juncture to be concentrated upon the Huntsman, as though he had been the sole object of the conflict. Dragged off his horse—seized by the enemy—rescued and remounted by the ready Duke on the best he had—perhaps his own charger: and now, again, for the battle!"—Sir Francis Palgrave.

Gilbert de Venables or Gislebertus Venator, as he is entered in Domesday, was one of the Palatinate barons of Hugh Lupus, in Cheshire, and has been called his nephew, although his name does not appear in the pedigree of the son of the Earl's only sister, Ralph de Meschines, and Dugdale makes no mention of it.[94] But his kinsman at least he must have been; for he and several others of the family had come over to England in the Earl's train, and were richly provided for in his county of Chester. Gilbert, who bore the name of his fief, always accorded by the usage of Normandy to the head of the house, received the principal share of the lands,[95] and made Kinderton his caput baroniae. "The site of his castle," says Ormerod, "is another proof of the lines of the antient roads continuing in his time the accustomed avenues to Chester, and the points which the Norman conquerors were anxious to secure, the hall at Kinderton being only a few hundred yards distant from the station at Condate."

According to the same authority, the name of Gilbert's descendants was Legion. He was "the progenitor of numerous lines of the Venables family, of the Leghs of Booth, with their collateral branches, and the Meres of Mere; to which must be added with probability only not amounting to positive proof, the Leighs of West Hall, and with weaker, but still very strong probability, the Dones, Leghs of East Hall, and Breretons." The representative of one of these houses, Charles Legh of Adlington, Sheriff of Cheshire in 1747, claimed to be heir-male of the Barons of Kinderton, but lived to see the extinction of his own house, surviving both his son and his grandsons.

It is only with the principal house that I can even attempt to deal; and here the task is made easy; for few families can show so complete a record of a long line of ancestry. There were in all twenty-two Barons of Kinderton—the last surviving of Hugh Lupus' Palatine Baronies—who filled a great position in the county, and constantly served as Sheriffs. Till the fifteenth century we do not hear of their intermeddling even in the local wars so frequently waged on the Welsh frontier; but from that period a series of vicissitudes "attest the qualities of the family." Sir Richard, the eleventh Baron, fought and died in the cause of Richard II. He had joined the Percies at the battle of Shrewsbury, was there taken prisoner, and beheaded as a traitor at York. His brother Sir William, who, on the other hand, had early taken part with Henry IV., and been appointed Constable of Chester on his accession to the throne, then received a grant of the forfeited Barony of Kinderton. But he refused to benefit his children at the expense of his brother's orphans. He used his influence with the new King to obtain the restoration of their birth-right, and voluntarily surrendered all claim to the barony for himself and his heirs. Kinderton was accordingly settled on his nephew Hugh; but in process of time his posterity succeeded to the inheritance he had so generously relinquished. Hugh's grandson, the fourteenth Baron, a zealous Lancastrian, fell at Bloreheath fighting for the Red Rose under the banner of Lord Audley, with the Chamberlain of Chester, and many other gallant Cheshire gentlemen. He was then only twenty-two, and left no children; the great-uncle who followed him likewise d. s. p.: and thus the line of the Constable, who had been the saviour of the family, became, "in great justice," the rightful heirs of its patrimony. Another Baron of Kinderton was slain at Flodden. Fourth in descent from him was the young heir mentioned by Sir Peter Leycester in 1624. He speaks with affectionate pride of "that ancient barony, which only of all the rest of the Barons of Chester since the Norman Conquest has continued in a successive line of the heirs-male, and even lately, when it was at the point of failing, and even likely in all men's account to have been transplanted, it pleased God in his providence to raise a successor of the same stem, who at this present time is a towardly young gentleman, Peter Venables, Baron of Kinderton, who, though scarce out of his minority is likely to replenish the same (if God will) with a fruitful increase of his race, having an heir-male by a daughter of Sir Richard Wilbraham of Woodhay, Knt., and baronet. To speak of the large extent of this fee and barony, and how many knights, esquires, and gentlemen hold lands and do service to the court there holden, were now beside my purpose, though it would tend much to the dignity of that great lordship."

All the hopes founded on the birth of this promising "heir-male," Thomas Venables, were doomed to disappointment. His mother had no other child: and though his father married a second wife who brought him four additional sons, they were all childless. Thomas himself died in his father's life-time, and his son Peter was the last Baron of Kinderton.

There had been no reason for apprehending this sudden collapse of a line that had held its own through the changes and troubles of six hundred years. Peter was one of a family of eight; besides four sisters, he had three brothers to represent his name. Yet, by a strange fatality, none of these brothers survived him, and none ever married. His sisters, too, remained single, with the exception of one who was the wife of Thomas Pigot of Chetwynd in Shropshire. His own marriage with Catherine Shirley had given him only two daughters, Katherine Countess Ferrers, and Anne Countess of Abingdon; and his death in 1679—ten years only after his grandfather's—closed a succession that had been uninterrupted since the days of the Conqueror. No name had been more esteemed and venerated in the county of Chester than the name that expired with him.

Neither of his daughters had children. Countess Ferrers died shortly after him, while still under age; and her sister, who was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Anne, followed in 1715; the death of "that best of Queens," says her courtly epitaph, "having preceded and perhaps hastened" her own.

Kinderton then passed to her aunt Mrs. Pigot's only child Anne, then the wife of Henry Vernon of Sudbury, who inherited under her great-uncle's will. Her son, George Vernon, was created in 1762 Lord Vernon, Baron of Kinderton, and was the direct ancestor of the present Lord.

The house of Venables bore Azure two bars Argent (distinguished only by a difference in the tinctures from the coat of Main waring), and first adopted by the fifth Baron about 1253. Gilbert, grandson of the Gislebertus Venator of Domesday, sealed with a falcon sinister regardant; and his son William (living in 1183) with a lion rampant sinister.

Venoure :

Seven tenants in capite—some of them obviously of Saxon origin—appear under this name in Domesday: Croch Venator in Hampshire: Godric Venator in Wiltshire: Godvinus Venator in Dorsetshire: Ricardus Venator in Warwickshire: Siward Venator in Oxfordshire: Walerannus Venator in Hampshire and Wiltshire: and Wlwi Venator in Surrey. Siward and Waleran are also found among the under-tenants (in Hampshire). These latter add five additional names to this already long list: Gislebertus (also entered as De Venables) Ralph, and Warmund Venator in Cheshire: Robertus Venator in Warwickshire; and Rogerus Venator in Worcestershire and Shropshire. They are all unmistakeably Norman.

Of Gilbert Le Veneur and his representatives, the Barons of Kinderton, I have already given some account (see p. 230). For the rest, it would be a formidable task—approaching indeed to temerity—to grapple with such a succession of genealogies: I will therefore content myself with tracing the fortunes of the Cheshire Le Veneurs, of whom sprung the wealthy and powerful house of Grosvenor.

Ralph Venator, supposed to be Gilbert's younger brother, was one of Hugh Lupus' "Barones et Homines," and a benefactor to his Abbey of Chester. He held Stapleford, "on the banks of the Lowy, adjacent to the ford which gives name to it," of the Earl in capite. His descendants bore the name of this manor, and retained it till the time of Richard II., when it was sold by William de Stapleford to the Orrebys.

This Ralph was in all probability the progenitor of the Grosvenors. It is true that in the famous Scrope and Grosvenor suit of the fourteenth century they are derived from Gilbert Le Veneur, dubbed for the nonce Le Grosvenor; and a man endowed with such a prodigality of descendants may well afford to be credited with a few more. Yet the evidence adduced is inconclusive and questionable; resting on the oral testimony of the Abbot of St. Albans, and some other witnesses, which amounted—at least, as regards the first three descents—to nothing more than a bare statement. "Allowing for a strength of memory which is unusual at the present day, a knowledge of the Grosvenor descents two or three hundred years back, acquired, it must be assumed, by a casual reading of charters and examinations of alledged chronicles, is remarkable."—Helsby's Ormerod. I should prefer to adopt the subjoined pedigree. "Ralph Venator's son Robert received from Earl Hugh, t. William Rufus, Over-Lostock, Cheshire (Ormerod, hi. 82). His son Robert had, c. 1153, a grant of Budworth, with the office of forester or grand-huntsman of Delamere Forest (Ibid. ii. 115) from Earl Hugh Kevelioc. Robert Grosvenor 1178 witnessed a charter of John, Constable of Chester, to Stanlaw Abbey (Mon. Angl. i. 897). Ralph, his son, t. John (Ormerod, iii. 87), was ancestor of the Grosvenors of Cheshire."—The Norman People.

I must, however, be permitted to observe that, according to the county historian, the name did not become Grosvenor till long after 1178. He tells us that, in the latter form, "it never occurs earlier than the reign of Henry III:" and the origin of the praefix is very doubtful. The office of Grand Huntsman of Delamere Forest would be rendered in the Norman tongue Grand Veneur[96] as it is to this day in France; and could never be translated Gros Veneur, or Grosso-venatori "One of the family," it is suggested, "may, in those days of nicknames, have acquired that of the 'Fat Hunter,'" (it should rather be the Fat Huntsman), "from his personal bulk." In later times it was corrupted to Gravenor.

About 1234, Richard le Grosvenor acquired Holme, a moated house "in an extremely flat and secluded situation," where the family continued seated for more than two hundred years: and in the following century Sir Robert le Grosvenor gained a great addition to his estate by marrying the heiress of Pulford of Pulford.

It was this Sir Robert who in 1386 had the celebrated suit with Richard Lord Scrope, who challenged his right to his coat of arms, Azure a bend Or; avouching that it had been "continually borne by his own ancestors since the Conquest." It lasted no less than three years, and was tried before a Commission specially appointed for the purpose, over which the Lord High Constable and Earl Marshal of England presided. On the part of Sir Robert, "nearly all the knights and gentlemen both of Cheshire and Lancashire were examined, with several of the Abbots and other clergy, all of whom deposed to the usage of the contested coat by the Grosvenors, and to having seen it painted on windows, standards, and monuments, in twenty-four churches, chapels, and monasteries in Cheshire; and family charters and deeds with seals appendant, exhibiting the same bearing, were brought into Court."—Ormerod, They were confronted by a splendid array of witnesses on the side of Lord Scrope, comprising such names as "John Duke of Lancaster, King of Castile and Leon," the Duke of Warwick, the Earls of Arundel, Northumberland and Derby, Sir Owen Glendower, and the poet Chaucer, then an esquire at arms.[97] "From the evidence they gave," says the Herald and Genealogist, "it may be inferred that the Grosvenors of Holme occupied no very brilliant position in the fourteenth century; for the very existence of Sir Robert was ignored by some of the witnesses, and if one may judge from the evidence of Sir Matthew Redman, their importance in the county was acquired through Sir Robert's marriage with Pulford's heiress." But, several generations before this,—from 1283 to 1287—a Grosvenor had been appointed Sheriff of Cheshire. I think we may fairly assume that there was a good deal of "hard swearing" on both sides. At a time when the feudal system was in full vigour, and the ties of feudal allegiance unbroken, "when lord defended tenant, and tenant defended lord in every affair of life," it is more than doubtful whether either churchman or layman was overscrupulous in regard to truth. It came out in evidence that there was another claimant to the disputed coat. "An esquire of Cornwall of the name of Carminow" also bore Azure a bend Or, which he had the audacity to assert had belonged to his ancestors from the time of King Arthur of the Round Table; and had in consequence been brought into collision with Lord Scrope, and fought a duel with Sir John Daniel, who maintained the right of his ward and son-in-law Le Grosvenor, at that time a minor.

In these utilitarian days, when anyone may assume whatever coat of arms he pleases (the Heralds' College being powerless to interfere in the matter), the question would have been of no importance; and men may wonder at the infatuation of their forefathers, who shed their blood and spent their substance in such a quarrel. But the ancient "cotte d'armes" was very differently regarded. It was the pride and badge of the race; the symbol of the much-prized droit de banniere et de cry de guerre that was the distinctive privilege of a gentleman; and as highly honoured and jealously guarded as the name itself.[98] Its colours were worn by the retainers that gathered round their lord's banner in time of war, and followed it through many a hard-fought field; as in this very case, in which it was recited how Sir Robert le Grosvenor "armed with these arms," accompanied Edward the Black Prince for seventeen years, and had borne them in "Berry, Algayne, del Tour de Brose, et a Issendon, et a la siege de Rochsirion, en Peyto, en Gyan, et a Viers en Normande, et en battaile de Poictiers."

Nevertheless, he was "out-weighed with powerful words," and the sentence of the court was against him. The famous golden bend was adjudged to the Scropes, and it was decreed that Sir Robert should only bear it within a bordure "as a difference," denoting a junior or inferior house. Sir Robert, in great indignation, appealed to the King himself, before whom, by his commissioners, the whole pleadings were reviewed, and a compromise at length effected. Sir Robert, "scorning to bear the other coat with a difference," accepted instead one of the wheat-sheaves of Chester; Azure a garb Or, being part of the ancient arms of Earl Ranulph de Meschines, since borne by the city; and granted as "a proof of his consanguinity to the Earls of Chester, so fully proved in the said trial."[99]

After this, little more is heard of the Grosvenors for the next three hundred years. The elder line ended with Sir Robert's grandson in 1464, through one of whose six co-heiresses Holme passed to the Shakerleys; but a younger brother, Raulyn or Ralph, who about twenty years before had married the heiress of Eaton, took his place as heir-male. Ralph's descendants were plain country gentlemen, content to live quietly and unobtrusively at home, who did their duty when called upon as sheriffs or knights of the shire, received a baronetcy from James I., and were impoverished by their loyalty to his successor. But in 1676 Sir Thomas, the third baronet, made the marriage that was to work a momentous change in the future, and build up one of the greatest fortunes in the kingdom. His wife Mary, the heiress of Alexander Davies of Ebury in Middlesex, brought him the freehold of a few grass fields, then only used for pasturing cows, which in process of time became of immense value as building land, and the site of Grosvenor Square and the surrounding streets. One of these, Davies Street, commemorates her name. It was not, however, till nearly fifty years afterwards, in the time of her son Sir Richard, that the buildings were commenced and the golden tide of wealth set in, bringing with it a rapid accumulation of honours. In 1761 this Sir Richard's nephew and namesake was raised to the peerage as Baron Grosvenor, and further created Viscount Belgrave and Earl Grosvenor in 1784. His son became Marquess of Westminster in 1831, and the third Marquess received a Dukedom in 1874.

The good fortune of the Grosvenors had not culminated even in the match with the Ebury heiress; for, about 1761, the first Lord made another extraordinary acquisition. Soon after George III.'s marriage, the ground on which Grosvenor Place now stands, with the adjacent estate, then the property of the Duke of Atholl, was offered for sale for 20,000: and as it adjoined the grounds of Buckingham House, the King wished that it should be bought by the Crown. But Mr. Grenville, who was then Minister, refused to sanction the expenditure. It was finally sold by auction, and Lord Grosvenor became the purchaser, paying for it a price considered rather above its value. Another noble Lord had sent to bid for it, and was disappointed when his agent returned unsuccessful. "How was it," asked Lord * * * (whose descendants recall the transaction with unavailing regret), "that you did not buy it?" "My lord," replied the agent, "I could not conscientiously have offered what Lord Grosvenor did. He gave at the very least 200 more than it was worth!"

To all outward appearance he had made but a poor bargain. The site of the future Belgravia was, up to the year 1826, a clayey swamp called the Five Fields, intersected by mud banks, and occupied only by a few sheds. The soil "retained so much water, that no one would build there, and the 'Fields' were the terror of foot-passengers proceeding from London to Chelsea after nightfall."—Curiosities of London. Many people believed them to have been one of the burial places in use during the Great Plague of London. Nobody, in their wildest dreams, would have thought of inhabiting them.[100]

But a grand transformation scene was at hand. There had been, even in the last century, a solitary house that stood on the outskirts of the Five Fields (on the site afterwards occupied by Lord Carlisle's): and some years after Lord Grosvenor became the owner of the property, a row of houses had been built there, and called Grosvenor Place. Apparently this speculation had not prospered; for half a century elapsed before any further building was attempted. At length, in 1826, Thomas Cubitt, an eminent London builder, conceived the idea of erecting a new quarter in this unpopular and unwholesome waste; and at once, it is said, offered the Earl—much to his own surprise—a ground rent of 40,000. It was a bold conception; but proved when carried out to have been a true inspiration of genius; for the success of the venture surprised the most sanguine anticipations. The new suburb became the fashionable part of London, and the price of the houses rose year by year, till the estimated future value of the estate defied all calculation. From the first it enjoyed the advantage of being skilfully planned as well as handsomely constructed: and latterly it has been greatly improved by the good taste and liberality of the present Duke.

Three other titles are now held by this family. The second Earl Grosvenor had married Lady Eleanor Egerton, daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Earl of Wilton, and by a special limitation in the Egerton patent, his second son Thomas succeeded to the Earldom on the death of his maternal grandfather, and assumed the name and arms of Egerton in 1821. Another younger brother, Lord Robert, Earl Grosvenor's third son, was created in 1857 Baron Ebury of Ebury in Middlesex. Lastly, the only surviving brother of the Duke, Lord Richard Grosvenor, who had held office under Mr. Gladstone, received the title of Lord Stalbridge in 1885.

Vilan :

The French family of this name bore the proud motto "Vilain sans reproche." In England it is found in Domesday. Hugo de Villana, in 1086, held land at Taunton in Somerset of the Bishop of Winchester. Richard Villanus was of Gloucestershire 1189-90 (Rot. Pip.): and in the following century the name occurs in several other counties. William, John, and Hugh le Vileyn, in Shropshire, Richard le Vileyn, in Oxfordshire, and Robert Vilein, in Yorkshire, all appear in the Rotuli Hundredorum of 1272. Was the latter the Robert, son of Ralph Villayn de Binglay, who gave lands at Helwick to Rievaulx Abbey, and was likewise a benefactor of Drax Priory, where he lies buried? Simon his son confirmed his grants. Burton's Mon. Ebor.

In Lincolnshire, Sir William Vileyn, jointly with Swene le Rich, founded a Preceptory for Templars at Mere in the time of Henry II. He gave them three carucates of land at Mere, "six miles So. of Lincoln, on what was formerly the commencement of a region of open country called Lincoln Heath. In the time of Henry III., Mere was held by William Albini of Beauvoir."—Allen's Lincolnshire. Of this family were probably William and John Villan, mentioned in Suffolk in 1199.—Rotuli Curiae Regis. A Richard Vilain witnesses a grant to Belvoir Priory in 1223.—Nichol's Leicestershire. Geoffrey de Vileyn de Sumton occurs in the Testa de Nevill. Villane, Vellane, or Velayne of Cheshire bore Argent a chief Sable; sometimes a cross was substituted for a chief.—Robson. Another coat attributed to them was Argent, three in-escutcheons Gules, two and one.

Verland :

for Veylaund, as it stands in Leland's list. The Weylands of Norfolk and Suffolk bore Argent on a cross Gules five escalops Or; arms absolutely identical with those of Villiers, though I can trace no connection between the two families. They held Oxburgh (now the seat of the Bedingfelds) of "Odingsells, the superior Lord, in the time of Edward I., and ended in the fourth generation. Elizabeth Weyland, their heiress married John Harewell of Warwickshire. Thomas Weyland, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, was convicted of bribery and corruption in 1290, when the great Earl of Lincoln was appointed a Commissioner for investigating the administration of justice by Edward I. He was banished the kingdom, and his whole estate and goods confiscated. "Being convicted, and fearing to yield himself to the King's mercy, he went to a monastery of Grey Friars in Suffolk, and took on him the habit of that Order; but being discovered by some of his servants, he was watched and guarded, and after two months' siege went out, forsaking his friar's cowl, and was taken and sent to the Tower."—Suckling's Suffolk.

This name is probably an interpolation. I cannot find that it is anything else but a purely English one, taken from Wayland Hundred in Norfolk, and only interesting as being derived from the scene of "The Norfolk Tragedy," where the forlorn babes perished in the wood,

"And Robin Redbreast piously
Did cover them with leaves."

"Between Watton and Merton," says Blomfield, "on the left hand, lies Wayland Wood, commonly called Wailing Wood, from a Tradition of two Infants murdered by their Uncle in this place, of which the old Ballad or Song 'Of the two Children in the Wood' is said to be made; the Original of which Tradition I don't find; the Name is a plain corruption of Wayland, and is the very Demean of and gives name to the Hundred, as is plain from the Sheriff's Turn which was always kept at a certain place in this Wood."

Valers :

or Vilers. Atkyns, in his History of Gloucestershire, always adopts the former spelling. He tells us that Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, granted Down-Amney, in that county, to Nicholas de Valers in 1271. Michael de Valers was summoned from Gloucester in 1300, for military service in Scotland (Palgrave's Parl. Writs), and Ralph Walers is mentioned in 1375. See Mesni-le-Villiers.

Veirny :

from Vernai, near Bayeux, Normandy. Walter de Vernai occurs in Cambridge 1158, and Richard de Vernai in Stafford in the time of Richard I. The Lords Willoughby de Broke descend from William de Vernai, living 1119-1148. They were first seated at Bromshulfe in Staffordshire, and in the beginning of the fourteenth century at Madeley in Herefordshire, but as early as the reign of Henry VI. we find them settled in their present home in Warwickshire. In 1442 Richard de Vernay built a stately manor house at Compton-Murdack, which as Compton-Vernay, still continues to be the family seat. His grandson, another Richard, was "in such esteem with Henry VIII., that, being informed of some infirmity in his head, he granted him a special license, dated Greenwich, January 15th, 1517, to wear his bonnet at all times and in all places, as well in the King's presence as elsewhere, according to his own pleasure, without the interruption of any man whatsoever." But it is not mentioned whether this privilege was, as in the case of Lord Kingsale in Ireland,[101] extended to his posterity.

A third Sir Richard, born in 1563, married Margaret Greville, granddaughter and heiress of Elizabeth Willoughby, the wife of Sir Fulk Greville, and the elder daughter of Edward, last heir-male of the Lords Willoughby de Broke: and their grandson Richard laid claim to the barony in 1695. He was a younger son, seated at Belton in Lincolnshire, but the posterity of his elder brother had died out, and he accordingly became Lord Willoughby, and "took his place in the House of Peers as the ancient Barons of Broke had it." He is now represented by the seventeenth Lord.

The Earls Verney descended from Sir Ralph Verney, whose son John married a Hertfordshire heiress, the daughter of Sir Robert Whittington of Penley, Sheriff of London in 1419. They were afterwards seated at Middle Claydon, Bucks (bought by Sir Ralph in 1458), and "either he, or his son Sir John, built a capital mansion there in the reign of Henry VIII., which has ever since been the chief seat of the family, but having undergone many alterations, retains no vestige of its ancient form. The more modern part was fitted up in a very magnificent manner, and furnished, with great expense, by the late Earl Verney."—Lysons. Sir Edmund Verney, standard bearer to King Charles I., who fell at the battle of Edgehill in 1642, was the father of Sir Ralph, the first baronet, and the grandfather of Sir John, created in 1703 Baron Verney of Belturbet and Viscount of Fermanagh in Ireland. An Earldom followed in the succeeding generation; but the second Earl died childless in 1791: and his niece Mary Verney, who was created Baroness Fermanagh the year after his death, never married. She bequeathed her estates to her half-sister on the mother's side, Mrs. Wright, from whom they passed to Sir Henry Calvert, who took the name of Verney.

Vauuruile :

or Vauville: Leland gives the name twice as Waville. This family was a branch of the Barons of Briquebec (Wiffen, Histoire Russell, i. 6), and took its name from Vauville, near Valognes, where they had a castle. "Richard de Vauville appears in the ancient list of knights, who crossed over with the Conqueror.[102] The Vauville family had also possessions in Septvents, or Septvaus. The name of this place affords a curious example of the fact, that in the black-letter days, the old scribes could not always be certain of their own writing. One branch of the family read it as Sept vans, and gave seven vans, or winnowing vans, as their bearing: while another branch read the word as Sept vaus or de septem vallibus, and bore seven hieroglyphics which stood for valleys according to the conventionalism of the Heralds' College."—Sir Francis Palgrave. M. de Gerville, in his Anciens Chateaux de la Manche, states that they were Lords of Septvaus (near Caumont), and as we have already heard, they constantly bore the name—a name roughly handled by copyists, for "the corruptions of it exceed in number those of any other patronymic that we remember. In Latin, it is generally rendered Septemvannis, and sometimes Septemvallibus; but in Norman-French or English we find it written Setuans, Septvans, Septvaus, Seavaus, Sevanz, Sephans, Sevance, Sevaunces, Senantz, Cennants, and even Setwentz and Setwetz!"—J. R. Planche. He gives a detailed account of one branch of this house in "A Corner of Kent," which I have here abbreviated.

They were first seated at Aldington in Kent, where Robert de Septvans, the husband of Emma, co-heir of William FitzHelte, was living before 1180. His son and namesake was twelve years old in 1185, and possessed some property in Essex, where we find an Isilia de Septvans—possibly the wife of Robert II.—a benefactress of St. John's Abbey, Colchester, in the twelfth century. Three more Roberts succeeded him; the last, a knight of whom there are many notices in the parliamentary records, died in 1306, and lies buried at Chartham. "His often engraved sepulchral brass affords a fine specimen of the ailettes in fashion at that period, and displays on them, as well as on the surcoat, the winnowing fans, which were most probably at first seven in number for Sept-vans, but reduced, in compliance with a later practice, to three."—Ibid. Then followed five Sir Williams; two of them Sheriffs of Kent. One of these, in 1366, petitioned for an inquisition probatio aetatis, having been "led away and counselled by Sir Nicholas de Loveyne of Penshurst and others to alienate his lands and tenements to them, he not being at that time of full age, as had been falsely represented." It was in fact proved that the deluded lad was not even then more than nineteen. The elder line terminated in 1448 with his son, whose heiress married Sir William Fogg of Repton.

There were several other branches, variously derived from the parent stock. One ended with John Septvans of Ash, Esquire of the Body to Henry VI., in 1453; another, first called At Cheker from one of their manors, adopted the name of Harfleet, either again from a manor, or, as the story runs, for brave deeds done under Henry V. at the siege of Harfleur, called Harfleet by the English. The representatives of this name were numerous; but they have all died out or merged into obscurity; the estates at Ash passed away in the seventeenth century through Aphra Harfleet to the St. Legers of Doneraile; and their monuments in the church alone are left.

Aldington-Septvans and Milton-Septvans retain the name in Kent; the latter having been, according to Hasted, their principal seat in the county.

Veniels :

perhaps Venile. "And here must not be forgotten," writes Sir Richard Baker in his Chronicle (3 Ed. III.) "Robert Venile, knight, a Norfolk man, who, when the Scots and English were ready to give battle, a certain stout champion of great stature, commonly called Tournboll, coming out of the Scots army, and challenging any Englishman to meet him in a single combate; this Robert Venile accepted the challenge, and marching towards the champion, and meeting by the way a certain black mastife dog, which waited on the champion, he suddenly, with his sword, cut him off at the loyns, and afterwards did more to the champion himself, cutting his head from off his shoulders."

Fuller, quoting this passage, adds: "This put me with blushing enough (that one so eminent himself should be altogether to me obscure) upon the inquiry after this valiant Knight: but all my industry could not retrieve him in any Author, so that he seems to me akin to those Spirits who appear but once, and finally vanish away." I have looked for him in vain in Blomfield's list of Lords of manors in Norfolk.

An Alan de Wanile, of Huntingdonshire, and Gilbert de la Venele, of Oxfordshire, are found in the Rotuli Hundredorum of the reign of Edward I. If, as I imagine, the name is identical with Venell, Venella, and Venello, it is very numerously represented in the former county, where we find Hugh en la Venele, Ralph en le Venele, Walter ad Venelf, Alexander in Venella, Gilbert, Eusebius, Galfrid, and Thomasin entered in the above record; besides John, Peter, and Nicholas de Venele in Kent.

Verrere :

a Norman family that still existed in the last century: for "De Verrieres d'Haudienville, Bailliage de Bayeux;" and "De Verriere de Remilly, Balliage d'Orbec," were among the nobles assembled in Caen Cathedral for the election of the States-General in 1789. "Osberno Verrer" witnesses a grant of the younger William de Albini, Earl of Arundel, of some land at Quiddenham in Norfolk to Reading Abbey; and about 1272 Robert and Roger le Verer, of Essex, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum. Walkeline le Werreer gave the advowson of the church of Winfrith (afterwards Winfrith-Newburgh) to Glastonbury Abbey, between 1102 and 1120; which grant was confirmed by his nephew, William de Glastonia, and afterwards by Robert de Newburgh, who describes the two preceding benefactors as his "ancestors." This Walkeline had received from Henry I. the manor of Winfrith and West Lulworth, and apparently left no posterity; William de Glastonia, his heir, being probably his sister's child.'—Hutchins' Dorset. "Hamonis Verrarii" was one of the benefactors of St. Alban's Abbey that are alluded to in King John's confirmation charter.—Mon. Angl. A family of the name long existed at Sandwich in Kent, where, within the altar rails of St. Mary's Church, and at the west end of the nave, "are memorials of many of the family of Verrier, of this town."—Hasted's Kent. William Verrier was Mayor of Sandwich in 1664; and John Verrier one of the Cinque Port Barons elected to support the Royal Canopy at James II.'s coronation in 1685. The dress of the canopy-bearers, as settled by the Brotherhood in 1603, was "a scarlet gowne downe to the ancle, cyttizen's fashion, faced with crymson satten: Gascoine hose: crymson silk stockinges, crymson velvett shoes, and black velvett caps."

They received a payment of sixty-three shillings and four pence, paid by the Port and retained as their perquisite the Royal canopy with its silver staves and bells.

Vschere :

or Le Huissier.[103] This name, as Hostiarius, is three times found in Domesday. "Johannes Hostiarius" was a tenant in capite in Somerset; "Robertus Hostiarius" held a barony in Leicestershire; and "Willelmus Hostiarius," another in Devon and Notts. I can find no subsequent mention of the first of these barons; and of the second, Nichols only tells us, that "he was the son of William the Usher, and his lordships devolved to Roger de Busli." The third, William Ostiarius, "was seated at Bramcote and Trowell; his interest at the latter place came to Mortimer."—Thoroton's Notts. The first mention of the name as Usher is in the reign of King John, and belongs to an entirely different family. "James Ussher, the celebrated Archbishop of Armagh, was a son of A. Ussher, one of the six clerks in Chancery, descended from a branch of the Norman family of De Neville, which assumed the name of Le Uschere or Le Huissier, from the office of Ostiarius granted to them by King John. Of this family was the gallant Admiral Sir Thomas Ussher."—The Norman People.

Veffay :

for Vessay; one of the spellings of Vassy, Vescy, or Vesci. Margaret Brounflet, on her brass in Wilmington Church, Bedfordshire (date 1407), is styled the heiress of Lord Vessy. (See Vescy.)

Vanay :

evidently intended for Vancy; the second a should by rights be a c. This name, twice written in Domesday, is supposed to have been derived from Vanci, or Wanchy, near Neufchatel, in Normandy. Hugh and Osbern "de Wanceio" each held fiefs in Suffolk in 1086: and Hugh was likewise the mesne-tenant of Earl Warrenne at West Barsham in Norfolk. Either by accident or design, his name is joined to his suzerain's in Leland's Roll, which gives

"Warenne et Wauncy
Chauvent et Chauncy."

In 1085 he appears as a witness to one of the Earl's charters to Castle Acre Priory, of which both he and his descendants were munificent benefactors. They continued in Norfolk about three hundred years. A Dominus de Wanci, whose Christian name is not given, is said by Roger Hoveden to have fallen at the siege of Acre in 1191. One Sir William de Waunci received a writ of military summons in 1292: and two others were successively knights of the shire in 1332 and 1341. The last was the father of Sir Edmund, who served in the retinue of the Black Prince in Gascony, and had the good-fortune to take prisoner Philip of France, afterwards Duke of Burgundy, at Poitiers. He died in 1372, leaving an only son of his own name, then seven years old, who did not long survive him. The succession then passed to Sir Edmund's two sisters, Joan, wife of Sir Nicholas Damory, and Katherine, wife of Edmund de Gournay; but, as Joan was childless, West Barsham devolved on the Gournays. They quarter Gules a falcon displayed Argent as the coat of the Wancys; and it is certainly so given on the seal affixed by the last Sir William to one of his deeds, while a Roll of Arms of the time of Edward III. transforms the falcon into an eagle, and changes the tinctures:—

"Monsire de Wancy port d'argent a une egle espanie d'asur, beke et peds gueules."

Yet it seems incontestable that they usually bore the three gaunts, or gloves, that appear in the chancel window of West Barsham Church, and which Blomfield mistakes for "dexter hands couped at the wrist;" though hands are always erect in armory, and these are pendant. In another and earlier Roll of Arms (temp. Ed. II.), their number is increased to six:

"Sire William de Wauncy de goules a vj. gauns de argent."

The Northamptonshire branch bore tasselled falconer's gloves, as shown on the shield of their successor and representative, Sir Arthur Brooke of Oakley.[104]

Of this latter family the first on record is Robert de Wancy of Astwell, who appears among the feudatories of Robert de Pinkeny in the certificates of baronies 14 Hen. II. "He occurs with Walter de Ely as conducting the daughter of the Count of Bretagne and the daughter of the Emperor of Cyprus, from Rouen to Chinon, temp. Richard I. In 1198 he witnessed two charters of King Richard, dated at Chateau Gaillard, to the abbey of Stratford Langthorne in Essex, and he subsequently witnessed the charter of King John for the exchange of the Andelys."—Herald and Genealogist, vol. 4. p. 332. In 1314 "another Robert died seized of the manor of Astwell, held of the King as of the barony of Pinkeny by service of one fee, and 20s. yearly to the castle-guard of Windsor, leaving Robert de Wauncy his son and heir."—Baker's Northamptonshire. The son of the latter (again Robert), who was living in 1371, is the last of the name found at Astwell; and the estate passed, "either by direct or mesne inheritance" to the Brookes.

The Wancys, from early times, had spread into other counties. Nicholas de Wancy was Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1249. In Wiltshire, Ralph de Wancy witnesses King John's charter to Ambresbury, and a second Ralph, in 1246, that of Henry III. to Ivychurch Priory. Clyve-Wauncy (now Clevancy) in the parish of Kilmerton and hundred of Kingsbridge, North Wilts, owes its name to Sir William and Sir Geoffrey de Wancy, who were lords of the manor in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I. under the fee of the Earl Marshal. Sir Geoffrey appears in St. George's Roil of Arms as "Gefrai de Vaunci," with the old coat of Gules three gaunts Argent, and, besides his Wiltshire estate, held land in Oxfordshire and other places.

"There is still a family of Wansey, which has been settled at Warminster in Wiltshire from the reign of Henry VIII. Henry Wansey, F.S.A., was a well-known antiquary of the last generation, author of a work on Stonehenge, and a coadjutor of Sir Richard Colt Hoare, who placed his name on that portion of the History of Modern Wiltshire which contains the hundred of Warminster, folio, 1831."—Herald and Genealogist, vol. 4. p. 333.

Vian :

a name that is found in Normandy in the twelfth century. "The Umfravilles were Lords of Tour and Vian, in Normandy, of whom this was probably a branch."—The Norman People. Walter de Vienna witnesses an old Malvern charter; and "Hugone de Vienna" (elsewhere styled Hugone de Vivian) a release from Nicholas de Aungerville to Roger le Brabazon in 1279.—Nichol's Leicestershire. This may, however, not be intended for the same name. Turburt de Vien, and Basilia his wife, are mentioned in Northamptonshire in 1194. (Rotuli Curiae Regis.) William de Wiun, in Lincoln, a few years later. (Rotulis Cancellerii.) "The antient seat" of Provenders in the parish of Norton, was, before the reign of Edward III., in the possession of Lucas de Vienna or Vienne. "His descendant Edward de Vienna paid aid for it, together with lands in this parish, called Viend-garden. From this name this seat passed into that of Quadring."—Hasted's Kent. Another Kentish manor—Putwood, in the parish of Aspringe—had been held by a William de Vienne (Vyane in the Testa de Nevill) during the reign of Edward I. Hasted suggests that this family "assumed their name from Vienne, in Dauphine, in the kingdom of France." Peter de Vienna was Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex 7 Ed. II.—Fuller. The fee of Hugh de Vium in Oxon and Berks is mentioned in the Testa.

Vernoys :

"De Venois" is on the Dives Roll: the name was taken from Venoix, near Caen, held by the hereditary Marshals of the Stable of the Dukes of Normandy. Four brothers of this house are entered in Domesday: Robert de Hastings (see Hastings), Roger, Gerold, and Gosfrid. The latter was the father of Gilbert, who, with his son John, was impleaded by Robert de Venoix and William de Hastings for the Office of Mareschal to the King, which, although it could not have been theirs by right of birth, they then held, and successfully maintained. John espoused the cause of the Empress Maud, and was rewarded on her son's accession with lands of great value in Wiltshire. Henry II. further confirmed the office of Lord Mareschal to the next heir, his son John, who accordingly bore the great gilt Spurs at the coronation of Coeur de Lion, and was succeeded by his brother William—at that time one of the great potentates of the land—in 1199. We first hear of this William at the death-bed of young Prince Henry, when the rebellious son, in deep penitence, had made confession and received absolution; and committed to him, as "his most familiar Friend," his cross to carry to Jerusalem. He must also have been in favour with Richard I., for, shortly after his accession, the new King bestowed upon him the hand and the two Earldoms of the great heiress of the Clares, who had been in ward to Henry II. for fourteen years. Isabel de Clare's father was the renowned Earl Strongbow who invaded and conquered Ireland, and roused the jealous fears of the King lest he should rule his new realm as an independent sovereign. He never threw off his allegiance, but bore the titles of Earl of Pembroke in England and Earl of Striguil in Ireland, with the office of Justiciary. He married a Celtic princess with a royal dowry, by whom he had one son and one daughter. But the son, when about seventeen, was taken by his father to one of his many great battles; and the wretched boy, panic-struck by the howls and gestures of the hordes of wild Irishry, fled in terror from the field. He never showed himself again till the fighting was at an end, when he came to wish his father joy of his, victory. The Earl received him with a lowering brow: sternly rebuked him for his cowardice, and, declaring that such a dastard was not fit to live, turned to one of his followers, and bade him take his sword and cleave asunder the body of his disgraced and craven son. Thus, when he himself "died untimely" in 1174, a little orphan girl alone was left to bear his honours and enjoy his lands.

The new Earl of Pembroke (often styled Earl Mareschal in virtue of his office[105]) carried the golden sceptre and cross at Coeur de Lion's coronation as the representative of the De Clares; and was appointed one of the assistants to the two Justiciaries deputed to govern England during the King's absence on his crusade. At the same time he received the moiety of Walter Gifford's Earldom, which was divided between him and Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford, the lands in Normandy being allotted to his share. King John further granted him Goderich Castle, and the whole province of Leinster, to be held by the service of one hundred knight's fees; and he became (according to Matthew Paris) "a severe Tamer of the Irish," carrying fire and sword among them as his father-in-law had done. When the barons rose in revolt, he was sent by the King to treat with them at Brackley; and when their terms were rejected and war declared, he had the title of Mareschallus Excercitus Dei et Ecclesiae in the King's army.

"Moreover," continues Dugdale, "being a Person of great Power and Prudence, upon the death of King John, he convened many of the Earls and Barons, and setting young Henry in the midst of them, said, Behold your King! Whereupon they appointed a day for his Coronation." He was constituted guardian to the young King whom he had helped to place on the throne, and approved himself as good and true a servant to him as he had been to his father. When the barons took up arms, he raised a powerful army, besieged Mountsorel Castle, one of their principal strongholds; encountered and routed them with great slaughter at Lincoln; and beleaguered London by sea and land; thus, "Peace was forthwith wrought with the adverse Party." He died at a good old age in 1219, leaving five sons, who all in turns inherited the Earldom, and five daughters.

William, second Earl, the eldest son, had been in arms against King John, and was one of the twenty-five illustrious "conservators" of Magna Charta. He made his peace with Henry III., whose sister Eleanor (afterwards married to Simon de Montfort) became his second wife; and obtained some of the lands forfeited by his former companions in arms, Saher de Quincy and David Earl of Huntingdon. He was renowned in the Welsh wars, and named Captain General of Brittany in 1229. He died two years afterwards, having had no children by either of his wives.

Richard, the second son, styled by Matthew Paris "the flower of chivalry in that time," then held the Earldom during three tempestuous years. It had at first been withheld from him by the King, who ordered him out of the kingdom as a traitor; but having gone over to meet his brothers in Ireland, he returned thence with a great force to seize his inheritance, and took possession of his castle of Pembroke. Upon this the King relented, acknowledged his right, and accepted his fealty; yet not long after the new Earl was again in arms, and leagued with the Welsh prince Llewellyn, defending his castles, storming and taking others, and fighting and winning pitched battles against the Royal levies. At length a plan was devised at Court for getting rid of him. His great Irish domain was promised to Maurice Fitz Gerald, then Justiciary of Ireland, if he could "take this Earl living or dead," and the promise was confirmed by a patent of assurance. Accordingly, the Justiciary, in order to bring Mareschal over to Ireland, made a forcible entry on his lands; and he at once hurried to the rescue, landing with a retinue of not more than fifteen men. Then one of his own liegemen, Richard de Marisco, who was a secret emissary of Fitz Gerald's, came to propose that he should "raise all the power he could, and subjugate that whole Realm to his obedience." At this audacious proposition the Earl naturally paused; but the wily traitor urged it upon him all the more vehemently. "What do you fear?" he said. "Will you degenerate from your valiant Ancestors, who never turn'd their Backs to an Enemy? Who then will believe that you are the Son of the victorious William Mareschall? See, Conquest waits at your door! Behold your ancient Rights by lineal Descent, which your most puissant Ancestor, who took the name of Strongbow, most valiantly acquired!" Mareschal's pride and ambition were stirred: he accepted the enterprize, raised what force he could within his territories, and besieged and took Limerick. At first none dared to make head against him; but when he encountered the Justiciary, and was brought face to face with the King's soldiers, he speedily perceived that treason had been at work in his camp. His men hung back or deserted; Marisco and others refused to cross swords with Fitz Gerald, and he found himself left at the mercy of his enemies. He told them that he saw he was betrayed, but would rather die with honour than quit the field; "and looking back upon his Brother Walter, commanded some of his Servants to take him to his Castle near at hand, that he might not perish with him, whereby his whole Generation should be extinct. And having put his Men in Order, exhorted them to go on with Courage, for the sake of Justice, and the English Laws; himself boldly charging into the midst of his Enemies. But some of those in whom he most trusted, perfidiously forsaking him, he was left almost alone: Nevertheless, though opprest with Numbers on every side, he slew many: but at length his Horse being killed under him, he was stabb'd into the Back, and carried Prisoner to his own Castle:" where he died. He had never been married.

His next brother, Gilbert, and Anselm, the youngest, who had both been implicated in his rebellion, were at that time the King's prisoners; and were summoned to Court on the news of his death. They came "bare-headed, barefooted, with Arms bare to the Elbows, to crave his mercy:" and the King kissed them, pardoned them, restored his inheritance to Gilbert, and delivered to him the Rod of Marshal of his Court, according to custom, at the following Whitsuntide. Before very long, however, he was once more in disfavour, and forbidden to appear at Court; having fallen under the King's displeasure for taking part with his brother-in-law, Richard Earl of Cornwall. He, again, was childless, though twice married; first to Margaret, sister of the King of Scotland, with whom he "had a noble Dowrie;" and secondly, to Maud de Lanvaley; and was killed in 1241 at a Tournament at Ware. He was "mounted upon a lusty Italian Horse, with whose Qualities he had not been acquainted; and first curbing him, and afterwards giving him the Spur, the Horse furiously mounting, broke both the Reins of his Bridle, and cast him out of the Saddle. Whereupon, hanging in one of the Stirrups, he was so dragg'd about, trodden upon, and bruised, as that he died the same Evening."

Walter, the fourth son, whose life had been saved by his chivalrous brother, had much ado to obtain livery of his lands. The King rehearsed all his grievances against the Mareschals; and bitterly upbraided him with the treason of Richard, and the disobedience of Gilbert, who, in defiance of his express prohibition, had attended the tournament in which he lost his life. "And thou," he continued, "in contempt of me, wast also there. With what Face, therefore, cans't thou lay claim to that Inheritance?" However, by the good offices of the Bishop of Durham and others, he ultimately obtained his Earldom, and died peaceably at Goderich Castle in 1246. He had married the heiress of Robert de Quincy, but no heir had been born to him; and his last surviving brother, Anselm, sixth Earl, "a Youth of singular comeliness and hopes," followed him to the grave within eighteen days. Thus, by an extraordinary fatality, all the five sons of the renowned William Mareschal had, within twenty-seven years of his own death, one after the other passed away without posterity; "their Mother, as 'tis said, prophetically foretelling their Deaths in this sort."

The five daughters, on the other hand, had no lack of descendants. Anne, the eldest of these great heiresses, was three times married; first, to Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk; second, to William de Warren, Earl of Surrey; and third, to Walter de Dunstanville. She had for her share, with other manors, that of Hempsted-Marshal, and the office of Marshal of England, which she transmitted to her son Roger Bigod, fourth Earl. Joan, the second, was the wife of William de Montchensy; and it was through her daughter and eventual heir, Joan, that the Earldom of Pembroke came to William de Valence, and in the following generation passed, by the marriage of a second heiress, to the kindred blood of Hastings. Isabel; the third, had Kilkenny for her portion, and married, first, Gilbert de Clare, fifth Earl of Gloucester; and second, the King's brother, Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Poitou and Cornwall, who was elected King of the Romans in 1257. Sybil, the fourth, married William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, to whom she brought Kildare; and Eve, the youngest, was the wife of William de Braose of Brecknock.

The male descent was continued by a younger line, founded by Sir John Mareschal, a nephew of the first Earl of Pembroke's, who, like him, had taken King John's part against his barons, and been very active in his service. He was munificently rewarded with various forfeited estates; and the grant in fee of the office of Marshal of Ireland; and married a rich wife, Aliva, the eldest coheiress of Hubert de Rie. His grandson William took the other side, and joined the baronial standard against Henry III.; but died soon after. His two sons, being under age, received the King's pardon, with permission to inherit their grandmother's property: and the younger, who became the heir, was summoned to parliament by Edward I. in 1309. John, the second baron, his only son, died about 1316, leaving as his sole heir a sister named Hawise, married to John Lord Morley. His lands lay chiefly in the counties of Norfolk and Lincoln.

There were no doubt other collateral branches; for the original Norman name appears in the Liber Niger. Leonard de Venuiz held a barony in Essex 1165; and Robert de Venuiz occurs about 1130 in Wilts. It has travelled down to our own time as Venus or Veness, and is now extremely common among the cottagers and farm labourers in the neighbourhood of Battle Abbey.

Vrnall :

for Vernol or Verneuil, a strong city on the skirt of Normandy. According to Anselme, the seigneurie of Verneuil was held by the D'Espagnes, and passed from them to the house of Noailles in 1578. The name is not unfrequent in England, and found both in Scotland and Ireland. Robert de Vernuil paid a fine in Buckinghamshire, 9 Ric. I.—Hunter's Fines. King John confirmed to Nun-Appleton Priory, York, the gift of Henry FitzHenry de Vernoil (Mon. i. 909). John de Vernuil was Sheriff of Wilts 40, 43, & 45 Hen. III.; the last time jointly with Galfrid de Scudamore. Either he, or a namesake, is entered in the Testa as a tenant in Worcestershire. Sir Henry de Vernoil, temp. Ed. I. held of Robert Lutterell in Yorkshire, and married Agnes, one of the co-heiresses of Swain de Houghton. "Among the Anglo-Normans who settled in Scotland in the 12th century was a person named Vermel, who received from David I. the lands of Romanach. His son, Philip de Vermel, granted a portion of them to the monks of Newbattle, between 1179 and 1189, and there were similar grants to the canons of Holyrood. There were several generations of Vermels in these lands."—Chambers' Peebles. The name degenerated to Wermel. Sir Henry de Vernoil was one of the "fideles," and principal men of Ireland in 1301 (Palgrave's Parl. Writs). The Vernoils bore Argent fretty Sable a canton Gules.

Vnket :

a singular name, rarely to be met with; and each time under a fresh disguise. The first mention I have found of it is in Eyton's Shropshire, as Onyet or Ovyet. At the Assizes held coram Rege at Salop, 1226, "Stephen de Ocle, as tenant of half a virgate at Norton, was impleaded for the same by Geoffrey Ovyet, a minor, as heir of William Ovyet, a Crusader. The question was similar to that in a suit of mart d'ancestre, viz. 'whether William Ovyet was seized, on the day when he left for Jerusalem.'" The jury found that he was not. Again, at the Shropshire assizes of 1256, "Richard, son of Richard Onyet, was sued for disseizing William Vylande and his wife of a tenement at Astley." Robert Ungot, of Norfolk, occurs about 1272 in the Hundred Rolls. I am doubtful whether we can include Thomas and William de Unketel, who were of Somersetshire at the same date, in the family;—probably not. But the name certainly reappears once, if not twice, in Norfolk. On an old oaken screen that divides the chancel of Croxton Church from the nave, is inscribed:—* * * Willmi Ungot Capelli: et Petri Ungot et Anabule * * * Parentum Suor. William Ungot was the incumbent in 1471.—Blomfield's Norfolk. In the same county, a brass in Tottington Church commemorates Luke Vngar, Margaret Pory his wife, and their son, 1598.

Vrnafull: I can offer no better suggestion for this name than Vesnevale, Wenevall, or Verneville. Robert de Wenevall witnesses William Count of Boulogne's charter to Eye Priory (Mon. Angl.). Robert de Warmewule paid a fine in Dorset in 1207.—Hunter. William de Wennevale was of Wiltshire, 1189-90 (Rot. Pip.). "The fief of Vennesval (Esnevall) is among the returns of service in 1172, where is this entry, Robertus de Wesneval iii. mil. et ad suum servicium xi. mil. et iii. partem mil.; the castle, its caput, was situate in the vicinity of Pavilly. Helouis de Vennesval rendered accompt, as in 1195, of 200 li. of the ferm of the land of her husband, out of which she had 40 li. allowed for the sustenance and raiment of her three sons; the remainder being by her paid in at the Treasury. By writ to the Barons of the Exchequer, 9 Jan. 1202, King John made known to them that he had acquitted Robert de Esneval of 80 li. money of Anjou, which sum was owing by him of the arrears of his land, which his mother owed to the King, whilst the land of the said Robert was in her hands, and of which she was accustomed to answer to the King." Stapleton's Rotuli Scaccariae Normanniae. In the chartulary of Stanley Abbey, Wiltshire, is found a confirmation by Robert de Wesnevalle of some land at Heckham that had belonged to his uncle William de Wesnevalle. Robert de Wendevale (was it the same?) held part of a knight's fee at Folkestone of Hamo de Crevecoeur; and William at Sakesthorp in Norfolk,—Testa de Nevill. A William de Werneville, in 1232, presented to the church of Hymelworth (Hemsworth) in Yorkshire.—Archbishop Gray's Register.

Vasderoll :

I believe that here an s has inadvertently slipped into the place of an l, and that we should read Val de Roil, or Val de Ruel, from the castle of Vaudreuil in the arrondissement of Louviers. "The fortress of Vallis Rodolli has been constantly reputed the villa in which Fredegundis, the widow of Chilperic, was constrained to fix her abode."—T. Stapleton. It was one of the important frontier fortresses of Normandy, and gave its name to a former bailifry of the Duchy. "Joannes de Valle Deruile" is entered in Duchesne's Feoda Normanniae as holding one fee of Hugh de Montfort; and Stephen de Valle Rodolli occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1189-90. At the battle of Hastings, "the archers of Val de Roil put out the eyes of many an Englishman with their arrows."—Wace. Brian de Valle de Rieul (Valle Rodolli) witnesses two charters to Shrewsbury Abbey in the time of Stephen (v. Eyton's Salop): and Roger de Valle Rodolli was of Worcestershire 1155-58.—(Rot. Pip.)

Vaberon :

I take this to be Vaubadon or Valbadon, a name three times written in Domesday. Ansfrid de Valbadon was a baron in Northamptonshire, where he likewise held of Bishop Odo; "Rannulfus de Valbedon" (Renouf de Vaubadon in the Dives Roll), and "Osmundus de Valle Badonis" were both sub-tenants, the former in Kent, and the latter in Herts. Some of Ranulph's descendants were seated at Shipborne in the time of Henry III. Of Osmond I can only find one solitary notice in Hertfordshire, where he held the manor of Wells. "Pannage for fifty hogs lies to this land, which Osmond de Valle Badonis entered upon in the time of King William." Chauncy's Herts. The name is never again mentioned in that county, but in the time of Henry II. we meet with it in Surrey. "Hatcham then belonged to a family named Vabadune, of whom James de Vabadune left Richard his brother and heir, and Richard left a daughter and heir, who married Roger Bavent."—Manning and Bray's Surrey.

Valingford :

for Wallingford. "At the time of the Norman invasion," says Lysons, "Wigod, a powerful Saxon, had a castle at Wallingford, to which, after the battle of Hastings, he invited the victorious Monarch; the invitation was accepted, and at this place the Conqueror received the submission of Archbishop Stigand, and the principal barons, before he marched with his army to London. During his abode at this place, he celebrated the marriage of Robert D'Oyley, one of his favourite generals, with the only daughter of Wigod. About the year 1067, the King fearing that his new subjects might establish a garrison at Wallingford as they had already done at Oxford, commanded Robert D'Oyley to build a strong castle there; this castle was frequently used as a State prison, as will be seen in the course of its subsequent history; Aldred, Abbot of Abingdon, is the first person on record who was imprisoned there.

"Maud, only daughter and heir of Robert D'Oyley, brought the castle, town, and honour of Wallingford in marriage to Milo Crispin, and after his death to her second husband, Brien FitzCount, who, being devoted to the interest of the Empress Maud, immediately on her arrival in the kingdom fortified Wallingford Castle, and declared on her behalf. This castle afforded her a secure retreat, when she escaped from Oxford, eluding observation, as our historian relates, by passing along the river, then frozen over, in white garments; the ground being at the time covered with snow. Stephen several times besieged this castle, but in vain; having built a fort at Cromarsh, on the opposite side of the river, for the purpose of carrying on the siege to better effect, Brien FitzCount despatched a messenger to the Duke of Normandy, who coming over with an army to assist his friends at Wallingford, laid siege to the King's fort or castle of Cromarsh; Stephen hastened to its relief, and the two armies were encamped only three furlongs asunder, when proposals were made for an accommodation; a peace was in consequence concluded before the walls of Wallingford in 1153, by the terms of which the fortress of Cromarsh was to be destroyed at the King's cost, and Brien FitzCount pardoned and taken into favour.

"Before the close of Stephen's reign, Brien took upon him the Cross, abandoned his possessions, and went to the Holy Land; his wife had before taken the veil at a convent in Normandy. In consequence of this event, King Henry II., on his accession to the throne, seized into his own hands the honour and castle of Wallingford;" and it ever after continued Crown property.

The name of Wigod is synonymous with Bygod, and would suggest that the Lord of Wallingford was one of the Norman settlers found in this country previous to the Conquest.

Venicorde :

for Vandelicourt: a name that has already been given as "Penecord" (see p. 42), and is again repeated further on.

Valiue :

This also is a duplicate, for it stands for Valoines. Peter de Valoines, in his grant to St. Mary's, York, is styled "Petrus de Walins." (Mon. Angli.) It is here entered as Valenges (see p. 257).

Viuille :

from "Widville, Guidoville, or Viville, which was held from the De Toesnis in Normandy. Hugh de Guidville came to England 1066, and 1086 held in Northants and Leicester (Domesday). Robert, his son, temp. Henry I., granted the tithes of Guidoville to Conches Abbey, with consent of Ralph de Toesni (Gall. Christ, xi. 132, Instr.), and in 1130 held the estates of Roger de Mowbray in farm from the Crown. (Rot. Pip.) He had, 1. Ralph, father of Robert de Withville, whose brother William de Widville of Northants 1165 (Liber Niger) was ancestor of the Earls Rivers; 2. William, whose son, Richard de Withville, held five knight's fees in York from Mowbray, and half a fee in capite (Liber Niger). He was a benefactor to Byland Abbey (Burton, Mon. Ebor). Walter de Widville occurs t. Richard I. (Mon. ii. 984); and William, son of William de Wyville, in 1299 confirmed his ancestor's gifts to Byland Abbey. From this line descend the Baronets Wyville."—The Norman People. Hugh de Witwile, the founder of the family, held of the Honour of Grentemesnil,[106] and appears to have been seated at Sproxton, in Leicestershire. They long continued in the county. Robert de Wyville of Stanton-Wyvill, was knight of the shire 23 Edward I., and was summoned in 1299 to go with horse and arms to Berwick to oppose the Scots. Either seventh or eighth in descent from him was William Wyvill, who died s. p. 10 Henry VII.

William de Wydeville, who, according to the Liber Niger, held half a knight's fee of Robert Foliot, was seated at Grafton in Northamptonshire, where his descendants continued for a great many generations. One of them, Richard de Wydeville, Constable of Northampton Castle, and twice Sheriff of the county under Edward III., married the widowed Lady of Warkworth, Elizabeth, heiress of the Lyons 5 another was Constable of the Tower and Esquire of the Body to Henry V.; but it was reserved to a third Richard, esteemed the handsomest man in England, to build up his fortunes by a stolen match with Jaquetta Duchess of Bedford. Not only was she by birth a Princess of Luxemburgh, but, as the widow of the King's uncle, the third lady of the realm, and when she chose for her second husband a poor Northamptonshire squire, her marriage took place without the Royal license, and was kept secret for several years. It was discovered at the same time as the Queen's misalliance with Owen Tudor, when "cloth of frieze was matched with cloth of gold;" and the Duchess' dower was declared forfeit to the Crown. Sir Richard had to pay a fine of 1,000 to obtain his pardon and its recovery. He was advanced at Court through the good offices of Cardinal Beaufort; was created Lord Rivers in 1448, became a Knight of the Garter and Seneschal of Acquitaine, and received some small grants of land. Yet he was ill able to make provision for the five sons and seven daughters that had been born to him; and he sought and obtained for the eldest girl a place at Court as maid of honour to Margaret of Anjou.

Elizabeth Wydevill was remarkably beautiful; fair as the day, with a wealth of pale yellow hair, that is represented in a contemporary illumination in the Harleian Collection as streaming down her back and reaching to her knees.[107] She had no lack of suitors, and was married to Sir John Grey, son and heir of Lord Ferrers of Groby, a gallant young soldier who had the command of the cavalry in Queen Margaret's army. He led the desperate charge that decided the fortune of the second battle of St. Albans in 1461, but died of the wounds he received there. As a vehement Lancastrian that had revolted from the House of York, he was "the more hateful to those of that family"; and his little sons were deprived of his fair inheritance of Bradgate. The eldest of the two was then not more than four years old; and their widowed mother took refuge with them in her old home at Grafton. One day, hearing that the King was hunting in the neighbouring forest of Whittlebury, at that time a royal chace, she waylaid him under a spreading tree still known as the Queen's Oak, holding her fatherless boys by the hands, and throwing herself at his feet, besought him to restore their patrimony. Edward, who "had a heart for every new face," was struck with admiration at the sight of the lovely widow, kneeling in tearful supplication before him, and the scene of this first eventful interview became the trysting-place of many subsequent lovers' meetings. He had no intention of making her his wife, thinking to win this fresh prize (as he had several others) on easier terms than marriage; but although he was undeniably "the goodliest personage of his time," and Comines ill-naturedly hints at some former "Amorettes" of the beautiful Elizabeth, on this occasion he pleaded in vain. She would not listen to him: but, aided by the counsels of her scheming mother,[108] stood firm to the only answer she had to give. She was, she declared, of far too mean an estate to become his wife, and yet esteemed herself too highly to be his concubine. The King was desperately in love, and "when he perceived that there was no other remedy but that he must shifte his saile to that scantling of winde," made up his mind to marry her. The Duchess arranged the wedding with such despatch and mystery that even Lord Rivers was not informed of it; and Edward and Elizabeth were married "in most secret manner, early in the morning, upon the first of May, 1464, at the house called Grafton near Stony Stratford. At which marriage was none present but the spouse, the spousesse, the Duchess of Bedford her mother, the priest and two gentlewomen, and a young man to help the priest sing. After the spousailles the King rode again to Stoney Stratford, as if he had been hunting, and then returned at night. And within a day or two he sent to Lord Rivers, saying he would come and lodge with him for a season, when he was received with all due honour, and tarried there four days, when Elizabeth visited him by night so secretly that none but her mother knew of it."—Fabyan. She was then thirty-three, nine years older than her bridegroom, having been born several years before the public acknowledgment of her parents' marriage. Her clandestine wedding, hurried on with such anxious precipitation, was attended with some obloquy, and gave dire offence when it became known. The Duchess of York—the same "proud Cis" who in her beautiful youth had been named the Rose of Raby—wrote a letter of angry remonstrance to her son. But it was too late. On Michaelmas Day, in the old palace at Reading, he declared Elizabeth to be his wedded wife, and at the following Whitsuntide she was crowned Queen.

She lost no time in providing for her needy and numerous relatives. Her six comely sisters, till then portionless and unsought, were mated with the loftiest nobles of the realm; she married her brother Anthony to the greatest heiress of her day, the orphan daughter of Lord Scales, and made her father an Earl. He was further appointed Lord Treasurer, and caused bitter discontent by tampering with the coin and circulation. Her eldest brother John, a fine young man, was so greedy of gold as to contract "a diabolical marriage" (as William of Worcester wrathfully styles it) with a richly dowered widow in her eightieth year, Katherine Duchess Dowager of Norfolk. The very name of the Queen's rapacious kindred stank in the nostrils of the haughty baronage, and "became abhorrent to the nation."

The newly-made Earl did not long survive his elevation; for both he and his degraded son John perished in the Lancastrian revolt of 1469. They were captured in the Forest of Dean by Robin of Riddesdale (Sir Robert Hildyard of Winestead), and beheaded at Northampton without judge or jury. Anthony, jure uxoris Lord Scales, who then succeeded, was justly accounted one of the most accomplished gentlemen of the age. He was strikingly handsome; of noble and courtly bearing; peerless in the saddle; brave as steel; an excellent scholar no less than an excellent soldier; fond of literature; "great in feats of arms, and abundant in pilgrimages." The first printed book ever seen in England was published by Caxton under his and Lord Worcester's patronage: and a translation he had himself made of the works of Christine of Pisa afterwards issued from the same press. The ladies of England selected him as their champion in the tournament that was to celebrate his sister's coronation (but which in reality only took place two years later); binding above his left knee a jewelled garter bearing the enamelled Forget-me-not, or Fleur de Souvenance, to be sent with the challenge. He singled out a worthy adversary—Charles the Bold's brother, the Bastard of Burgundy; and gained great credit by worsting him in the lists. They fought for three successive days at Smithfield in the presence of the King. The first day "they ran together with sharp spears, and parted with equal honour:" the next the Bastard was unhorsed, and "Lord Scales rode about him with his sword drawn," in token that he held his life in his hand but on the last day they were on foot, armed with pole-axes, and strove "valorously, till the point of this lord's weapon entered the right of the Bastard's helm." The King then threw his warder down, and the honours of the combat were adjudged to Lord Scales.

He was greatly honoured and trusted by his brother-in-law, whose fortunes he faithfully shared during the civil war, following him in his brief exile to Holland, and fighting by his side on his triumphant return. He was then constituted Governor of the town and castle of Calais, the tower of Rysebank, the castle of Guisnes, and the adjacent marches, for a term of seven years, and named Captain General of the King's forces by sea and land. Some years before, he had received a grant in tail of the Isle of Wight; and when his young nephew was created Prince of Wales in 1473, he was appointed his governor, with the high office of Chief Butler of England. During the same year, he went on pilgrimage to Spain and Italy. But with the life of Edward IV., his glory departed from him; and in 1483 he was one of the first that fell a victim to the evil ambition of the Duke of Gloucester. He and the Queen's second son, Sir Richard Grey, were treacherously seized at Northampton, and taken to Pontefract, where, after a short imprisonment, he was beheaded in front of the Castle, without even the pretence of a trial, or a chance of opening his lips in his own justification. He had been twice married, but left no posterity. His next brother, Lionel, was Bishop of Salisbury; the fourth, Edward, had d. s. p.; and thus Richard, the youngest of the five brothers, became the third Earl of this ill-starred house, which ended with him in 1490.

Elizabeth Wydevile died two years afterwards. Though her husband was notoriously unfaithful to her, and "received many others into the bosome of his fancie," she retained her hold over him to the last. She had a fair share of her mother's craft and cunning, and knew how to gain her end; "helping herself," says Lord Bacon, "by some obsequious bearing and dissembling of his pleasures." But she was patient and submissive in adversity, and passed through trials that might melt the hardest of hearts to pity. There are few more pathetic pictures in history than that of the fugitive Queen in the Sanctuary at Westminster, sitting "a-low on the rushes, all desolate and dismayed," with the glittering eddies of her beautiful hair, that had escaped from her widow's coif, enfolding her in a golden veil. All around her was "heavinesse, rumble, haste, and businesse with conveyance of her householde-stuff into sanctuary." The eldest of her two boys, from whom she had just parted for ever, had been born when she was before enrolled as a Sanctuary woman; and the day was close at hand when she was to be robbed of the one that remained to her. She clung to him passionately as he was taken away, crying, "God send thee safe keeping! Let me kiss thee once ere thou goest, for God knoweth when we shall kiss together again!" Then followed the last and most terrible scene of all, when the news of their murder "struck to her heart like the sharp dart of death." She fell swooning to the ground, "and there lay in great agony like to a dead corpse. And after she was revived and came to her memory again, she wept and sobbed, and with pitiful screeches filled the whole mansion. Her breast she beat, her fair hair she tare and pulled in pieces, and calling by name her sweet babes, accounted herself mad when she delivered her younger son out of sanctuary for his uncle to put him to death. After long lamentation, she kneeled down and cried to God to take vengeance, 'who,' she said, 'she nothing doubted would remember it.'"—Sir Thomas More. Her son-in-law Henry VII. is said to have confiscated her property, and not long before her death she retired to a nunnery at Bermondsey, from whence,

"Placed upon a bier
In happier hour than on a throne;"

she was borne to her place of sepulture in St. George's Chapel.

The remotely connected Yorkshire branch of this house, whose name more nearly retained its ancient spelling as Wyvill (in which form it is again inserted on the Roll), still exists in the male line. Richard de Withville, who is entered in the Liber Niger, was a benefactor of the monks of Byland (Burton, Mon. Ebor.); and in 1299 William, son of William de Wyville, confirmed his ancestor's gifts to the Abbey (Mon. ii. 984). They were seated at Slingsby, and probably held of the Fitz Hughs, whose coat they bore with changed tinctures. The elder line appears, by Leland's account, to have ended before his time. "Wyvel of the Northe, that was the ancientest of that Name, had his principal House at Slingesby yn Yorkshire. And this Wyvelle was a Man of faire Landes. Slyngesby about a v. Miles from Malton yn Riedale in the way from Malton to Newborow, that is distant xii. Miles from Malton. The House of Slyngesby and the Landes of this Wyvelle be devolvid to the Lord Hastings by Heires General.

"That Wyvell that now is dwelling at Burton Parva by Masseham in Richemontshire, cummythe of a yonger Brother of the Wyvelle of Slyngesby. He hath Burton Parva by an Heyre Generalle of one of the Pygotes of the Northe * * * * The Howse cawlyd Clifton, like a Pile or Castlelet, distant about a mile and an half from Litle-Burton, was the Lorde Scropes of Masham. This Lorde Scropes Landes in Continuance devolvid to 3 Doughters of one of them. Whereof one of them was maryed to Strangaise of Harlesey, a nother to Danby, the 3. to Strelley Com. Notts. Of this thirde descendid 2. Doughters, whereof one was maryed to Bingham, and other to Wyvelle that now liveth and hath Clifton by her." This is, however, not quite accurate. The youngest of Lord Scrope's three daughters, between whose descendants the barony of Scrope of Masham fell into abeyance in 1517, was the wife of Sir Ralph Fitz Randolph of Spennithorne, and it was the eldest of her five daughters that married Sir Nicholas Strelley. The youngest, Agnes, was the heiress that brought Sir Marmaduke Wyvill "a great accession to his estate;" though why the last born of five sisters, all of whom were married, and (with a single exception) had children, should have been so richly endowed, I am at a loss to conjecture.

Their grandson, another Sir Marmaduke, Vice Chamberlain of the Household to Queen Elizabeth, was created a baronet in 1611, and towards the end of James I.'s reign, removed to Constable-Burton, their present seat. The next Sir Marmaduke suffered heavily for his loyalty during the Civil War; his house was twice sacked by Cromwell's troopers, and he was mulcted of upwards of,1,300 as composition for his estate. The last in succession was the seventh baronet—again Sir Marmaduke—who died a bachelor in 1774. His sister had married her cousin, the Rev. Christopher Wyvill, to whom she brought the estates, but who could not claim the baronetcy. An uncle stood in his way; for his father (who was a grandson of Sir William Wyvill, the fourth baronet) had an elder brother who went out to America, settled in Maryland, and died there about 1750, leaving a son. On this son's posterity, if alienage do not bar their right, the baronetcy (unclaimed and dormant for more than one hundred years) has clearly devolved.

Vancorde :

see Venecorde: a duplicate.

Valenges :

or, as Leland gives it, Vallonis; from Valognes in the Cotentin. Peter de Valognes or Vallonis received from the Conqueror fifty-seven lordships in the counties of Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Hertford, Cambridge, and Lincoln, and built his castle at Orford in Suffolk. He was Viscount of Essex 1087; and with his wife Albreda, the daughter of Hubert de Rie, founded Binham Priory in Norfolk "for the welfare of the souls of William the Conqueror and Maud his Queen, and for the good estate of Henry I." His son Roger was an adherent of the Empress Maud, and left six sons: 1. Peter, d. s. p.; 2. Robert, who had only a daughter, Gunnora, married to Lord Fitzwalter; 3. Geoffrey, Lord of Burton in Yorkshire, d. s. p.; 4. John, a priest; 5. Philip; 6. Roger, who obtained from William the Lion, King of Scotland, Kilbride in Clydesdale, with other lands in the west of Scotland, that passed to his daughter Isabel, the wife of David Comyn.

"Philip de Valoniis, the fifth son, also came into Scotland, towards the end of the reign of Malcolm IV. He was a constant attendant on William the Lion, and was one of the hostages for his liberation. In recompence, the King made him a grant of the manors of Panmure and Benvie, and appointed him High Chamberlain of Scotland about 1180. He witnessed the agreement betwixt King William I. and King John in 1209; was continued Chamberlain by Alexander II. on his accession, 1214: and dying on the 5th of November 1215, was interred with great solemnity in the chapter-house of Melrose."—Wood's Douglas. His son William succeeded him as High Chamberlain, but only survived him by four years, leaving an only daughter, Christian, his sole heiress, who was married about 1224 to Sir Peter de Maule.

"Of this Family," says Dugdale, "was also Alan de Valoines, who in 32, 33, and 34 Henry II. was Sheriff of Kent. So likewise in 1 Richard I." He had considerable grants in Kent from the latter, "with liberty to keep Greyhounds and Braches, to hunt and take the Hare and Fox in any of the King's Forests:" but left no heir save his brother Robert, whose line ended with two grand-daughters. "Another Branch of this Stock" was Theobald de Valoines, Lord of Perham in Norfolk whose daughter Berta married Ranulph de Glanville, Justice of England; he had also a son named Thomas, who took part in the Baron's War. There is no further mention of his descendants, but in Coeur de Lion's reign we find another Philip de Valoines, whose heiress, Sybilla, married one of the Stutevilles. Their son, Eustace, probably died s. p., as her lands were inherited by her kinswoman Christian de Maule.

Wardebois :

in Leland's list Verbois, from Verboys, near Rouen. This family gave its name to Warbois or Warboys, formerly spelt Wardeboys, a considerable village on the high road from Huntingdon to Ramsey. Unfortunately there exists no History of Huntingdonshire in which to seek for some notices of its owners: and Camden only tells us that the families of this little county "have been so worn out, that though it has been very rich in Gentry, yet but few Sirnames of any note are remaining, which can be drawn down beyond the reign of the last Henry." Warboys passed to the Cromwells, and "Sir Oliver" (the usurper's uncle), "sold it to Sir John Leamon, who said, It was the cheapest Land he ever bought, tho' the dearest that ever Sir Oliver sold; for it seems that this latter, tho' otherwise a wise Man, yet had not that Wit, either to keep his Estate, or sell it to its Worth."

Walter Wardebois is mentioned in the county as early as 1199. (Rotuli Curiae Regis.) Geoffrey de Wardbois, a townsman of Cambridge, was "charged with having joined in the great riot against the Master and Scholars of the University" in 1322.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs.

I find in Anselme's Histoire Genealogique de la France that the seigneurie of Verbois was brought to the Harcourts in 1326 by Alix de Brabant.

Ward :

see Delaward.

Wafre :

According to Eyton, "this name occurs frequently in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries;" and it is still borne by Hopton-Wafre in Shropshire, and Tedston-Wafre in Herefordshire. Robert le Wafre, in 1253, held Hopton in capite of the Earl of Hereford of the Honour of Brecknock; and Tedstone under John de Wildebouf of the same Honour; both of which were brought in marriage by his only child, Lucia, to a younger son of Lord Mortimer of Wigmore. "The obit of Alice, mother of the above-mentioned Robert, was annually celebrated in Hereford Cathedral. John le Wafre 20 Ed. I. held two virgates of land at Marston by the service of conducting the treasure of our Lord the King from Hereford to London, as often as he should be summoned by the Sheriff, with one horse and an iron helmet, at the costs of the King, to wit, twelve pence a day towards London, and returning at his own proper costs."—Duncumb's Herefordshire. Simon de Wafre held by the same serjeanty, as did Petronilla de Wafre in the time of Henry III. William de Waure represented Canterbury in the parliament held at Westminster 9 Ed. III.—Hasted's Kent. He was one of the three Crown Commissioners appointed to enquire into the case of William de Septvans 41 Ed. III.—Archaeologia Cantiana. "Robertus de Waura" held three parts of a knight's fee of Robert Fitz Odo at Wavre (now Church-Over) in Warwickshire.—Liber Niger. William de Waure occurs in the Staffordshire Pipe Roll of 1199-1200.

Wake :

or Wac; a baronial name, first mentioned in Normandy in the early part of the eleventh century. "There is a charter to Bernay in the Mem. Anti. Norm. IV. 381, granted it would seem, by Duke Richard II. at the great council at which he, in 1027, made disposition of his duchy in favour of his son. Besides dignitaries of the church, it is signed by one hundred and twenty-one viscounts, barons, &c, and among them is Goffredus Wac."—Taylor's Wace. He held Rebercil (now Rebercy) in the arrondissement of Bayeux, and was in all probability the father of the "Sire de Rebercil" who figures in the Roman de Rou as one of the five knights that challenged Harold to come forth and cross swords with them in the battle. It is strange that the name should not be written in Domesday; but we find the Wakes seated at Dowlish-Wake, in Somersetshire early in the ensuing century.—Collinson. Dugdale commences the pedigree with Hugh Wac (probably the same Hugh that founded the Abbey of Longues in Normandy and endowed it with the church of Rebercil in 1168), who married a great Lincolnshire heiress, Emma de Gand. She was a descendant of the famous outlaw Hereward, that defended the Isle of Ely against the Conqueror; and from him the English Wakes, repudiating their Norman ancestry, have gloried to derive their name. Through him they have been traced back by some fanciful genealogist to "Oslac, general and butler to King Athelwulf in 849;" and they retain as their crest the Wake knot[109] that is traditionally said to have been his badge. Yet Mr. Freeman avers that "the surname of Le Wake is not given to Hereward in any authentic writing, though it is given him in writings that are not of yesterday." Neither his only child and heiress, Torfrida, nor her husband Hugh de Evermue, assuredly ever bore it. Torfrida, again, had no son; and her baronies of Bourne and Deeping were conveyed by her daughter to Richard de Rollos, whose father, Richard de Rullos or de Ruelles, had been Chamberlain to William the Conqueror. He had two sons; of whom the younger, Richard, left an heiress named Adelidis, married to Baldwin Fitz Gilbert or De Gand, who founded Bourne Abbey (in 1156) as well as Deeping Priory. Their daughter and sole heir, Emma, was the wife of Hugh Wac. It thus seems clear, that the first authentic appearance of the name of Wake in the descendants of Hereward was through an intermarriage with a Norman family nearly one hundred years after his death.

Emma de Gand must have been Hugh's second wife, as his son Geoffrey (mentioned in his charter to Longues), did not succeed to her estates. This may have been the same Galfrid or Geoffrey Wac to whom King John granted Ebbesborne-Wake in Wiltshire, where his posterity continued only till the time of Henry III.

The son of Hugh and Emma, named after his grandfather Baldwin, and endowed with his mother's two Lincolnshire baronies, attended Coeur de Lion's coronation, and was one of the hostages given for his ransom. He was followed by two more Baldwins, treading so quickly on each other's heels, as to suggest the interpolation of a generation. According to Dugdale's dates, the first Baldwin died in 1201, his son in 1206, and his grandson before 1213. The last-named married Isabel de Bruere, and their son Hugh inherited Torbay, and a great estate when her brother William de Bruere died s. p. in 1232. Hugh's own wife was one of the richest heiresses in the north of England, Joan de Stuteville, dowered with Cottingham, &c, in Yorkshire, and the Barony and Forest of Lydal in Cumberland. When she was left a widow in 1241, she resumed her maiden name, and paid a very heavy fine (9000 marks) to obtain the wardship and marriage of her son, and "liberty for herself to take to Husband whom she should think fit." This proved to be Hugh Bigot, Lord Justice of England.

Her son Baldwin was in arms against Henry III. in the Baron's War, and twice taken prisoner; first at the storming of Northampton, and then with young Simon de Montfort at Kenilworth. How he made his escape on either occasion, "I have," says Dugdale, "not seen; but having been an active person in the North against the King, he was one of those, who after the Battel of Evesham made head again, with Robert Earl Ferrers in Derbyshire; and was with him at the Battel of Chesterfield. Whence (though Ferrers had the fate to be there taken, and many of his party slain) he fled; and after that, with young Simon Montfort and some others, got to the Isle of Ely; where having held out as long as they could, he at length rendred himself; and submitting himself to the King's mercy, obtain'd pardon and restitution of his Lands."

These had been increased by his marriage with one of the co-heiresses of Robert de Quincy of Colne-Quincy in Essex and his wife the Welsh princess Helen; and in this parish—since known as Colne-Wake—a very ancient building still bears the name of Wake's Hall.

John, the next heir, who had served in France and Gascony, had summons to parliament as a baron in 1294; and dying a few years afterwards, was succeeded first by a son of his own name who did not long survive him, and then by another, Thomas, Lord Wake, for seventeen years one of the most potent nobles of the realm.

He early showed an independent spirit, for in 1317, "being still in Ward, he refused to marry the person tendered to him, taking another Wife without the King's License," for which he was mulcted of 1000 marks. The offence was of course aggravated by the high rank and Royal blood of this chosen bride, who was the daughter of the Earl of Lancaster, Lady Blanche Plantagenet. "In 19 Ed. II., when most of the Nobility forsook the King, and took part with Queen Isabell, he joyned with her in raising an Army: which causing the King (with those his Favourites, who had occasioned that unhappy breach), to flee into Wales, she took upon her the whole sway of the Realm; and thereupon shortly after, in the King's name, constituted this Thomas, Lord Wake, Justice of all the Forests South of Trent, and Constable of the Tower of London." After the King's deposition, he was further appointed Constable of Hertford, with licence to castellate at Cottingham; and served Edward III. in his Scottish wars, where he sought to recover some lands that had been wrested from him by Robert Bruce. In 1329 he was Governor of the Channel Islands, and in 1339 the Guardian of the Lincolnshire coast. Yet he was far from having always been on cordial terms with his Royal master, who had entertained suspicions of his loyalty; and in this latter year, "the King, returning from Brabant, came about midnight to the Tower of London, and finding no more than three servants there, and his own Children, grew so highly offended, that he presently caused the Lord Mayor of London, as also this Thomas, several of the Judges, and other persons of note, to be sent for, and committed them to several prisons."

Lord Wake died childless in 1349; and his sister Margaret, then the widow of Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, inherited the barony, with a long list of possessions in Yorkshire, Bedfordshire, Cumberland, Westmorland, Norfolk, Essex, Hertfordshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire. She, too, died shortly after; and as the last of her two sons, John Earl of Kent, followed her to the grave within three years, the Wake barony passed with the Earldom to her daughter Joan. This was the beautiful Plantagenet heiress, who has gone down to posterity as the Fair Maid of Kent, and after being twice married and twice divorced, became the wife of the Black Prince and the mother of Richard II.

There yet remained the descendants of the first Lord Wake's younger brother Sir Hugh, who had by his father's gift Blisworth in Northamptonshire with Deeping in Lincolnshire, and is the immediate ancestor of the present house. Sir Thomas, the next, distinguished himself under the Black Prince at Najara and elsewhere, and was Seneschal of Rouergue. He married an heiress, as did his grandson and great grandson; and the latter, a gentleman of Ed. IV's bedchamber, who was five times sheriff and three times knight of the shire for Northampton, was styled the "Great Wake" from the extent of his property. Other wealthy alliances brought the family into Somersetshire: and in 1621 "King James thought fit to fix Baldwin Wake of Clevedon in that co. somewhat nearer the rank of his ancestors by creating him a baronet." His son raised a troop of horse for Charles I., and mortgaged his estate to serve him. The sixth baronet took the name of Jones on inheriting Courteen Hall—still the family seat in Northamptonshire—and Waltham Abbey in Essex: but he left no children, and it was discarded by the cousin who succeeded him. It would have been a grievous lapse from the stately baronial name they have the honour to bear, which has enjoyed the exceptional distinction of being perpetuated by an unbroken and unquestioned descent in direct male line, from the distant time when it was first heard in England.

Baynard's Castle, in the East Riding, was among the multifarious possessions of the Wakes; and there is a local tradition that it was burnt down by the owner on the very night that he had received intimation of the coming of Henry VIII. The King, who was then at Hull, signified his intention of paying him a visit: and Wake, who had a remarkably handsome wife, and was unable to decline the proffered honour, "preferred the loss of his house to the risk of the King's admiration."

Wareine :

William de Warrenne, the "loyal young vassal" to whom, as Orderic tells us, Duke William had committed the castle of Mortemer in 1054, was the son of Ralph, Sire de Garennes, so called from a place in Normandy, afterwards named Bellencombre, where a magnificent castle long remained. He attended the great council at Lilleboune, and fought at Hastings:

"De Garenes i vint Willeme,
Mult li sist bien el chief li helme."

Few among the Duke's followers were as munificently dealt with, for "his possessions resembled the dominions of a sovereign prince rather than of a subject." He held the great baronies of Castle Acre in Norfolk, Lewes in Sussex, and Coningsburgh in Yorkshire (with twenty-eight towns and hamlets within its Soke), besides grants in nine other counties—three hundred English manors in all. Like many other Norman nobles, he claimed as an ancestress one of the numerous nieces of Duchess Gunnor (Nepotes plures praedictae Gunnorae) whose descendants "have been inaccurately set down as kinsmen instead of distant connections of the Conqueror."—Planche. But he himself was bound to his sovereign by a closer tie. He was probably William's son-in-law, as his wife, who died in child-bed in 1085, was the mysterious Gundreda believed to have been Queen Matilda's daughter. Orderic says she was the sister of Gherbod the Fleming, Earl of Chester, without alluding to her parentage, but William de Warrenne, in his charter to Lewes Priory, states his donations to be for the soul (among others) of his Lady, Queen Matilda, the mother of his wife (matris uxoris meae). Mr. Freeman conjectures that she and Gherbod were the children of the Queen by a former marriage—probably clandestine and informal, as it is passed over in silence by all the chroniclers. From the splendid provision made both for Gherbod and his sister's husband it is at all events clear that they must have been closely connected with the Conqueror.

When the new King returned to Normandy the year after the Conquest, William de Warrenne was one of. the "valiant Men" employed under Bishop Odo and William Fitz Osbern in the government of the Kingdom, and in 1074 he and Richard de Bienfaite were Chief Justiciaries of England. On the breaking out of the rebellion of Ralph Guader and the Earl of Hereford, having vainly summoned the two Earls to appear before the King's High Court, "they laid aside the Gown, and took up the Sword; wherewith, meeting with those bold Rebels at a place called Fagadune, they valiantly fought, and happily vanquished them; and for terror of others, cut off the right Foot of all they took alive."—Dugdale. In 1087 he stood firm for William Rufus against the revolted Bishop Odo, and for his good service in the field and council chamber received the Earldom of Surrey. He died the year following, and was buried by Gundreda's side in the priory he had founded at Lewes. This, as well as its cell in his Norfolk stronghold of Castle Acre, was for Cluniac monks, in ever-grateful remembrance of the great respect and honour with which he and his wife, when passing through Burgundy on a pilgrimage to Rome, had been entertained at the Abbey of Cluny.[110]

The second Earl—"a skilful and stout Soldier"—forfeited his great estate in 1101 by taking part with Robert Courtheuse; but when peace was concluded between Henry I. and his brother, he was restored to his Earldom, and from that time forward continuing faithful to the King, and "in favour as much as any," commanded the rear-guard at the battle of Tinchebrai, where Courtheuse was vanquished and taken prisoner. He died in 1135, leaving by his wife, Elizabeth de Vermandois, the widowed Countess of Mellent, three sons; William, third Earl; Reginald, who married the heiress of Wirmegay; and Ralph, who died s. p., besides two daughters. Adelina, the youngest of these, married Prince Henry, the son of David of Scotland.

The third William—the last Earl of his race—died in the Holy Land, but the manner and place of his death are not known. He had joined the Crusade of 1145 under the Emperor Conrade and St. Louis, and never returned home. His only child was a daughter named Isabel, on whom devolved his Norman and English honours and splendid domain. She was twice married, each time to a bastard; for her first husband, William de Blois, was the son of King Stephen, who gave him the Earldom of Mortaine in Normandy; and the second, Hamelin Plantagenet, was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou, and base-brother to Henry II. Each bore her titles of Earl of Warrenne and Earl of Surrey, for she had no children by her first marriage.

William de Blois had been a quiet, unambitious man; but Hamelin Plantagenet[111] and his posterity were great potentates in five successive reigns. He carried one of the three Swords of State at Coeur de Lion's coronation, and was entrusted with the 70,000 marks of silver collected for his ransom. His son was numbered among the four Earls that guaranteed to the Pope that King John (then under excommunication) should "do whatever was required of him"; witnessed his consequent abdication and homage; was present at Runnimede; and Constable of Bamborough and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with all Northumberland "committed to his trust." Henry III. several times employed him; first of all in getting rid of the obnoxious favourite Falk de Breant, whom "he had command to take to the Sea Coast, and then leave to the Winds"; and he officiated as Cup-bearer at the King's marriage. John, the next heir, a man of fiery, imperious, and unstable temper, who bore the title of Earl of Surrey for fifty-four years, had married Alice, daughter of Hugh le Brun, Count de la March, the sister on his mother's side to Henry III., and took up arms against Simon de Montfort in his brother-in-law's behalf. But, "being in the Van of the Royal Army at Lewes with Prince Edward, he and William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, did there unworthily desert him at the very beginning of the fight, and fled to Pevensey Castle, and thence to France." The barons promptly seized Lewes Castle and his other possessions, which he vainly strove to recover, till he joined Prince Edward after his escape from Hereford, and, taking part in the battle of Evesham, he "had the benefit of that glorious Victory," and was re-instated. About the year 1268, he had a bitter quarrel with Sir Alan le Zouch touching some title of land, and "discerning that he must submit to the Justice of the Law, having first passionately vented himself in foul language, at length assaulted Sir Alan and his son in Westminster Hall with such violence, that he almost killed the one and much wounded the other. And having done so, fled to his Castle at Reigate," locally known as Holms Castle; a strong place, built on the site of a former Saxon fortress that had arrested the march of the Danes, and commanded the pass through the wide valley that stretches across West Kent—

"Holmesdale,
Never won, ne never shall."

But he was closely pursued and pressed by Prince Edward with a superior force, and had to submit in all humility, meeting the Prince on foot, and imploring his mercy. Nevertheless, he was mulcted of 8,400 marks fine. When Edward I. issued the first writs of Quo Warranto in 1277, and the barons were questioned as to their titles, our Earl brought out a rusty sword, and unsheathing it before the justices—"Behold, my lords," he said, "here is my warranty; my Ancestors coming into this land with William the Bastard, did obtain their lands by the Sword, and with the Sword I am resolved to defend them, against whoever shall endeavour to dispossess me: for that King did not himself conquer the land and subdue it, but our progenitors were sharers and assistants therein." The next year he claimed and obtained free warren on some of his Sussex lands, pleading a former grant by King John "in regard of their surname De Warenna"; and in 1282, when the King appointed him and Roger Mortimer guardians to the sons of Griffith ap Madoc, one of the loyal Welshmen that had opposed Llewellyn, he appropriated the poor boy's inheritance with a high hand. "These Guardians," writes Powell, "forgetting the service done by the Fathers of the Wards to the King, so guarded their Wards with small regard, that they never after returned to their Possessions: And shortly after the said Guardians did obtain the said Land to themselves by charter of the King." He commanded three several expeditions into Scotland, and was appointed Governor of the kingdom after the victory of Dunbar; but met with a crushing defeat at Stirling in 1296. He died in 1303, on his return from another Scottish campaign, and was buried under the chancel pavement at Lewes, with this inscription:

"Vous qe passer ob bouche close,
Prier pur cely ke cy repose:
En vie come vous esti jadis fu,
Et vous tiel, serretz come je su:
Sire Johan Count de Garenne gist ycy;
Dieu de sa alme eit mercy.
Ky pur sa alme priera
Croiz mill jours de pardon abera."

"Certain it is," concludes Dugdale, "that he was a Person of high Esteem with the King," for, according to his mandate to the Archbishop, prayers were offered up throughout the Province of Canterbury for the soul of "this our Earl, who had been a most faithful and useful Subject to him and the whole Realm."

He left two daughters—one of them married to John Baliol, afterwards King of Scotland. His only son had died in early life, long before, leaving a posthumous child, that succeeded to the Earldom, and proved the last heir-male. This second Earl John, a stout soldier in Edward III.'s wars, who received from Edward Baliol a grant of the Scottish Earldom of Stratherne, was twice married, but both his wives were childless; and on his death in 1347, an elder sister, Alice Countess of Arundel, was his sole heir. Her son, Richard FitzAlan, ninth Earl of Arundel, in her right also bore the title of Earl of Surrey; and it remained vested in his descendants till the time of Elizabeth. The famous house of FitzAlan then ended with its eighteenth Earl, whose daughter Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, conveyed his two Earldoms to the Howards. One or both of them have been since borne by the eldest son of each successive Duke.

The last Earl Warren had, during the lifetime of his first wife Joan de Barre (the granddaughter of Edward I.) lived openly with a concubine named Maud de Nereford, by whom he had an acknowledged son, who bore his name, and (with a canton added) his arms. This Sir Edward Warren acquired the Cheshire barony of Stockport, with Poynton, through his wife Cecily, the heiress of Sir Nicholas de Eton; and their descendants remained in the county for fourteen generations. A second Sir Edward was High Sheriff in 1563. His grandson, called Stag Warren for his great size and strength, was, as a Royalist, "in ill odour with the Parliamentarians," and lost his wife through the rough handling of a party of Cromwell's soldiers, sent to search Poynton for horses and arms. She had a favourite nag, which she endeavoured to save by mounting it herself; but she was brutally dragged out of her saddle, and so threatened and terrified that she was brought to bed before her time, and died in child-birth. The last of the house, Sir George, who lived till the beginning of the present century, left an only daughter, married in 1777 to Thomas, Viscount Bulkeley. She had no children, or near relatives; and, casting about her eyes in search of an heir, selected her friend Lady Vernon, the daughter and heiress of Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, of Stapleford, co. Notts, to whom she bequeathed Poynton and Stockport. "Lady Bulkeley was slightly influenced in her devise of the property by her belief in the remote kinship of that family to her own. Watson, in his History of the Warrens, makes the Borlase Warrens to descend from a younger son of the Poynton house, temp. Hen. VII.; but this is effectually disposed of by the Herald and Genealogist (vols, vii., viii.) which shows that their descent was from a family named Waring, long settled in Warwickshire, who may possibly have descended from some earlier Wareyne of this house."—Ormerod's Cheshire (Helsby's Edition.) The Lancashire estates were devised to Lord de Tabley, who took the name and arms of Warren. Lady Vernon did the same; and on her death in 1837, her son George, fifth Lord Vernon, by Royal Sign Manual, "assumed the name of Warren only for himself, and his children thenceforward to be born."

Wate :

a name of homely and familiar sound. "Le Wayte" was the watchman who went his nightly rounds, carrying a lantern, and "a trump with which to sound the watches or give the alarm:" the guardian of the peace in the old couvre-feu days, when all decent folks were a-bed betimes.[112] The name is very common in old registries, and was in course of time borne by many "worshipful" families. Adam de Wayte, in 1306, held in Lincolnshire; and a monumental brass in Stoke-Charity Church commemorates Thomas Wayte, who died in 1482. But surely no interpolator, however ignorant or intrepid, could venture to place it on the roll of the Norman conquerors.

It is true a Robert La Waite is entered on the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180: but in the preceding century the only name I can find that resembles it is Waet, the Anglicized form of the Breton seigneurie of Vacajet. It gave one of his designations to the mysterious Earl of Norfolk whose parentage remains an unsolved problem, and was, in this country, variously styled Ralph de Wayer or Guader and De Waet; but is called by French writers Raoul de Vacajet, Seigneur of Guader and Montfort in Brittany (v. Neustria Pia, pp. 596, 612, 627).

The vexed question of his nationality can probably never be set at rest. Mr. Freeman brands him as "the only English traitor in the motley host" of the Conqueror; a Norfolk man born of a Breton mother; and charitably suggests that, as he fought on the Norman side at Hastings, he "must have been outlawed by Harold for some unrecorded treason or other crime." The statement that he was an Englishman rests on the authority of the Abingdon and Peterborough Chronicles; while William of Malmesbury and Wace distinctly declare him to have been a Breton:

Joste la cumpaigne Neel
Chevalcha Raol de Gael:
Bret estoit e Bretonz menout,
Por terre serveit ke il out.—Roman de Rou, 13,625.

From this it appears that he commanded a contingent from Brittany, which it is difficult to conceive would have been entrusted to an outlawed alien. We learn from Domesday that he was the son of an Earl Ralph who had held in England under the Confessor, and whom Mr. Freeman, adopting Mr. Taylor's suggestion, identifies with Ralph the Staller. Mr. Planche is of opinion that he was the Confessor's nephew, Ralph Earl of Hereford, the fourth son of his sister Goda by her first husband Dreux, Count of the Vexin. He married Githa or Gueth, an English heiress, and had (according to this theory) two sons, of whom Ralph Guader was the elder, and Harold, Lord of Sudeley, the younger. He "is called Earl of Hereford by the majority of the historians, but is expressly described by the old Norman poet Gaimar as Earl of the East Angles;" and in Duchesne's list of the Normans who flourished in England before the Conquest, occurs as "Comes Est Anglias, pater Heraldi dominus de Sudeley." Ralph Guader was consequently rewarded for his services at Hastings "by confirmation only in his hereditary rights and dignities.

"The assertion that the elder Ralph was an Englishman, born in Norfolk, may not be untrue, for his mother, sister of Edward the Confessor, might have
been in this country, and in that county, at the time of his birth; while on the other hand, the Countess Githa was probably in Bretagne when Raoul was born, from which circumstance he might take the name of Gael, as having first seen the light in that castle."—The Conqueror and his Companions.

Ralph Guader had himself held land in England in the time of the Confessor, when, according to Blomfield, he possessed nearly the whole town of Buckenham in Norfolk. After the Conquest, we find him installed as Earl of East Anglia, and gallantly repelling the invading Danes, who had attacked his castle of Norwich. Yet in 1075—scarcely six years afterwards—he was in open rebellion against the Crown. The King, for some reason or other, had refused him permission to marry Emma, the daughter of his late Seneschal, William Fitz Osbern, and the sister of Roger Earl of Hereford; and Ralph, in defiance of his authority, took the opportunity of one of his absences in Normandy to celebrate the wedding with great splendour at Exning in Cambridgeshire.

"There was that bride-ale
To many men's bale."

Besides his new brother-in-law, Earl Roger, and the Saxon Earl Waltheoff, "a great company," says Freeman, "of Bishops and Abbots and other great men was gathered together;" and a large number of Bretons settled in England attended at their countryman's summons. "At the feast men began to talk treason," and air their grievances; many charges were brought against the King; and the time was declared opportune for shaking off their allegiance. All agreed upon a rising, and swore to stand or fall together. Waltheoff—whether willingly, or as he subsequently alleged, unwillingly—took the oath with the rest; but presently repented, and hastened to betray the plot to Archbishop Lanfranc. Thence he proceeded to Normandy, laden with rich gifts for the King's acceptance, to implore his clemency; but only succeeded in staving off his own execution for a time.

The two Earls, meanwhile, had gone to their several Earldoms and collected their forces, having agreed to join hands at an appointed trysting place. The Bretons flocked to Ralph's standard, and with them, added to a considerable array of mercenaries, he set out to meet his ally. But he had got no further than Cambridge when he was confronted by a formidable host, led by the Justiciary, William de Warren, Robert Malet, and the two soldier Bishops, Odo of Bayeux and Geoffrey of Coutances, that he could not attempt to encounter in the field. He retreated to Norwich, where he took ship, and went to seek aid in Denmark, leaving his newly-made bride in charge of his castle. The young Countess was a brave woman, and defended the place during a three months' siege against all the engineering skill that could be brought to bear upon it. She held it till "the King was forced to grant her his Peace, and licence to go out of the Realm" with her garrison, and then departed in triumph to Brittany, where she was soon after joined by her husband. Then, at last, Lanfranc could write the King word that "the Kingdom was cleansed of the filth of Bretons." But the fate of the poor, prisoners was altogether terrible. All who had been at that fatal bride-ale were grievously punished; some had their eyes put out; others their right feet cut off: and every one who had aught to lose suffered forfeiture. Of Ralph's own lands in Norfolk, the greatest share went to the Bigots.

Ralph, thus banished from England, long flourished in Brittany. "He lived to take the Cross at the preaching of Pope Urban, to set forth as a Crusader in the train of William's eldest son, and to die, along with his heroic wife, on their way to the Holy City. His son succeeded to his Breton estates of Wader and Montfort, and his daughter was restored to England by a marriage with Earl Robert of Leicester."—The Norman Conquest.

Watelin :

for Wacelin or Gacelin. "Gacelin, or Wazelin, probably a noble of Anjou, held lands from Geoffrey de Wirce in Lincoln 1086. John Wascelin was of Lincoln 1189, and Reginald held of Crevecoeur (Testa de Nevill). Geoffry Gascelyn was summoned to parliament by writ, 1259."—The Norman People. This must have been the Geoffrey Watelin or Wacelin entered in the, Hundred Rolls, c. 1272, as seated in Norfolk, who was a benefactor of Jerveaulx Abbey; but I can find no record of his barony either in Dugdale or Banks. Another of the name, Roger Wacelyn, occurs in the Testa as holding a knight's fee of the Honour of Hastings. The family continued in Lincolnshire for a considerable time. Richard de Wacelyn or Walkelin, 28 Hen. III., held in Foteburne, in that county, by the serjeanty of finding (with two others) one balistar, with six quarrels and a sumpter horse, in the King's army, for forty days.—Blount's Tenures. John Wascelyn, and his son, Dom. Robert—perhaps the same Robert who witnesses William de Mandevilie's grant to Waltham—are mentioned there at about the same period (Rot. Hundred.): and in the reign of Henry IV., William Wacelyn's name is appended to one of the charters of Newland Abbey, Lincoln. Unfortunately there is no county history to which we can refer for details; nor do I find any but the most cursory and disconnected notices of them elsewhere. Yet it is abundantly clear that they were pretty numerous, and widely distributed. Walter Wacelin, of York, t. Ed. I. (ibid.), is evidently the "Mons. Waut. Gacelyn, De la compaignie Mons. Eymar de Valence," who served at the siege of Stirling in 1303. At about the same date, there was an Andrew Wacelyn in Norfolk, and an Edmund Gacelyn, Warden of Clarendon Forest, in Wiltshire (Hoare's Wilts). Compton-Wascelin bears the name in Hampshire. The arms of "Sire Simond Gacelin," as given in Guillim's Roll, are Or six billets Azure, and a label of five points. Two other notices of very ancient date are to be found of them in the Monasticon. William Wascelin witnesses David Earl of Huntingdon's foundation charter of Londres Abbey, Scotland (this must have been previous to 1124, when he succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Alexander): and somewhat later in the same century we meet with John Wascelyn in Ireland, as a witness to Theobald Fitz Walter Pincerna's foundation charter of Arklow.

Wateuil :

"from the village of Vatteville-sur-Seine, of which the Earl of Mellent was chief lord, and where he had a castle. Willielmus de Watevilla is a witness to a charter of Robert de Mellent to the Abbey of Jumieges, about the time of the Norman survey; and he himself gave to that monastery, with the consent of his wife, the church, fair, and tithes of Croixman, in the Pays de Caux."—Gage's Suffolk. It is apparent, from the accompts of the Norman Exchequer Rolls, that in 1195, Vatteville was a Royal residence, when the King hunted in the forest of Vatteville. Among the items furnished by its custodian, Robert d'Appeville, are "four nets to catch wild boars, two tunics for the use of two dog-keepers," &c, &c.

Three De Watevilles are entered in Domesday: William, who held of the King in Essex and Suffolk, and Percinges (Perching) of William de Warrenne, with two other manors—one of which was Brighton—in Sussex; Robert, who held de capite in Surrey, with five manors in other counties, under Richard de Tonbridge; and Richard, an under-tenant in Surrey.

William de Wateville—in all probability the same William who was a benefactor of Jumieges, and the head of the family, held High Rodinges and Hanningfield in Essex; and some of his descendants, "from their abode at Hanningfield, took their denomination from thence, being in old evidences written promiscuously De Hanningfield and De Wateville. Robert was probably either brother or son of that William."—Morant's Essex. According to the same authority, he was the progenitor of the Essex family. He appears as a witness to two deeds in the Bishopric of Durham in the time of Ralph Flambard (1099-1133): and has left his name to the manor of Biddic-Watervile, or South Biddic, in the parish of Houghton-le-Spring; but this would appear to have been his only connection with the North of England. His posterity was seated at Hempstead, one of the two Essex manors that he held of the Honour of Tunbridge, in which Henry III. granted Sir William de Wateville a charter of free warren in 1253. This can scarcely have been the Sir William de Waterville mentioned by Thomas of Gloucester, who, sixty-two years before, went with Coeur de Lion to the Holy Land, and was one of the six knights through whom he sent his challenge to the Soudan. (See Brande.) Both he and his son married heiresses; the latter a daughter of Sir Robert Roos of Radwinter, who bore the uncommon name of Thorema, and was the grandmother of the last of the line, Sir John, and his sister Joan. "Upon his dying without issue, she became the sole heir, and brought with her a considerable estate in marriage to Richard de Mutford, her first husband, about the year 1330. Having no issue by him, she was again married to Sir William Langham, about 1341.

"Of the same family were no less than three Knights Bannerets, all living at the same time in this county in the reign of Edward I., bearing these arms: Sir John de Wateville, Argent three chevrons Gules; Sir Robert de Wateville, the same, within a bordure indented Sable; Sir Roger de Wateville, the same, with a martlet Sable."—Morant's Essex. Sir Roger and Sir Robert were among the famous tilters at the great tournament at Stebenhithe (Stepney) in 1308, with another of the name, Sir Geoffrey Wauteville, who bore for arms: Sable semee of cross crosslets a lion rampant Argent langued Gules.

In Surrey, we find William de Waterville, in 1144, gave the manor of Warlingham, with the consent of Robert, William, and Otwell, his sons, to the convent of Bermondsey; on which either he or his son of the same name bestowed further benefactions in 1158. Hugh de Wateville was Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1155; and in the same year William de Wateville, one of the King's chaplains, was elected Abbot of Peterborough. It is recorded of him that he added three stories to the central tower of his church, furnished the choir, and founded a chapel to St. Thomas of Canterbury—"a bold thing for a chaplain of Henry II. to do." Another William was among the "forty knights and good men" summoned in 1292 by the Sheriff of Surrey "to be at Lambeth to enquire after the malefactors who lately broke into the King's Treasury, and carried away the King's Treasure to the value of,10,000." Two of their manors, Chelsham-Watvyle and Esher-Waterville, are still called by their name in Surrey: and Manning and Bray, in their county history, suggest that it is highly probable the Robert de Merton who founded Merton College in 1264 was of this family. "The Watteviles had large possessions in Northamptonshire and Surrey. The surname of De Merton was an assumed one, probably from his having been educated at that place, which seems to have been the case with his father also. How the Watteviles of Surrey and those of Northampton were connected does not appear." The three chevrons of Merton College were certainly borne on the coat of the Watevilles, but differenced in tincture.

"Thorp Watervile Castelle upon Avon, sumwhat lower than Wndale," as Leland describes it, in Northamptonshire, was most probably built by Azelin de Wateville, "who," says Bridges, "first possessed the lordship." No traces of it are now remaining. It passed in the time of Henry III. to the sisters of Richard de Wateville, who, in 1234, had obtained a grant of free warren in Thorp and Marham. Richard's widow held Marham in dower, and it was transferred by purchase to Reginald de Wateville in 1240. Reginald, again, had no son, and left three co-heiresses, Joan, married to Robert de Vere; Elizabeth, or Petronella, married to John Wykham; and Margaret, married to Henry de Tichmarsh. In 17 Ed. II. Marham belonged to Robert de Wateville."—Bridge's Northamptonshire. Was this—as seems likely—the same Robert who received license of pardon for having been concerned in the death of Piers Gaveston, "the Ganymede of Edward II.," and was a commissioner of array in Hampshire in 1324? Two years afterwards, he "had summons to attend a parliament at Westminster, inter caeteros proceres et magnates regni; and in the 1st, 2nd, and 4th Ed. III., had the like summons with the nobility of the realm. In the 32 Ed. I. (if he be the same person) he had a charter for free-warren at Overton-Waterville, in the co. of Huntingdon: and in the 9th Ed. II. fined forty shillings for license, to give certain lands at Overton-Waterville, and Ashele, in Huntingdonshire, to found a chantry at St. Mary's, at Ashele."—Banks. Nothing is said of his posterity: and no other summons to parliament was ever issued to the family. Several other members of it are incidentally mentioned:—such as Berenger, "one of those great men on the part of the rebel barons, who were taken prisoners by the Royal army at Northampton" and Geoffrey, who in the previous century married Ascelina, the youngest co-heiress of William Peverell of Brune and Dover. He died in 1162, and was, according to Banks, the father of Roger, of Thorp, who had issue. Bridges, on the other hand, declares that his son was Ralph de Wateville, who died s. p. in 1185, leaving as his heirs two sisters, Ascelina, married to—Torpel, and Maud, the wife of William de Diva. In Warwickshire Dugdale speaks of a Roger de Wateville, who held Bramcote under the Earl of Leicester that founded a monastery at Leicester, and bestowed some lands there on the new Abbey. His grant was confirmed by Henry II.

Wely :

for Vely or Vesli. "Hundfridus (a name more familiar in the form of Humphrey) was a vassal of Ilbert de Laci in Yorkshire, 1086. As 'Umfrido de Villeio,' we find him, before 1100, giving two garbs from the harvest yearly towards the endowment of St. Clement's Chapel in Pontefract Castle. He must have come from one of the places called Villey, in Calvados, in which Lassy also is situated."—A. S. Ellis. Or perhaps from the Norman fief of Vesli, as "Hugue and Guillaume de Vesli" are entered on the Dives Roll. He held in Snidal, Newton, and Ackworth; and two hundred years later we find his descendant of the same name continuing to be the tenant of the Lacies in Yorkshire. Thorner, in that county, was held of the Earl of Lincoln by Sir Humphrey de Veyley, who was likewise Lord of the manor of Owston. He was a benefactor of Selby Abbey, and in 1269 gave Herward-croft, in Holme, to Nostel Priory.—Burton's Mon. Ebor. His son's name was Robert. At about the same date, the name occurs pretty frequently in the Rotuli Hundredorum, where we find John Wiley of Northumberland, Hugh de Wiley and his son Roger of Bedfordshire, John and William de Wyly, of Wiltshire, and Ralph and Thomas de Wylies of Buckinghamshire. Nicholas de Wely, of Batham-Wily, Wilts, occurs in the Testa de Nevitt, where we likewise find he held land at Wyly of William de Dunstanville, and at Langford of the Abbess of Wilton. William de Wylie, at the same date, held in Bucks.

Werdonell :

for Verdenel. The Verdenels held of the fee of Marmaduke de Thweng in Yorkshire 31 Ed. I. "Adam Verdenel was bailiff of York in 1287-8. He was the son of Robert Verdenel "de Marisco, Ebor," bailiff in 1254, who founded a chantry at the altar of the Blessed Virgin in the church of St. Saviour.

John Verdenel, brother to Robert, was bailiff temp. Henry III. another John was chamberlain in 1290: Vincent Verdenel was chamberlain in 1295, and bailiff in 1304. Robert, son of the above-mentioned Adam, was living in 1304, and his son, Thomas Verdenel of York, died about 1333."—Inquisition of Knights Fees, Yorkshire, p. by Surtees Soc.

Wespaile :

Roger Waspail is mentioned in the Liber Niger as holding five fees of the Earl of Gloucester. "Smallbrook, in the parish of Warminster (a part of the Duchy of Lancaster) was held, as early at least as the reign of Henry II., by the family of Waspail by military fee. The Waspails came in with the Conqueror, and were at first tenants to the family of Clare, and afterwards became proprietors, for we frequently see their seal used in old deeds. Their residence was for many ages at Smallbrook (their mansion of Olwey), but for the last generation or two at Hertley-Waspail, or Steple Hertley, Hants."—Hoare's Wiltshire. Roger held from Coeur de Lion in 1194; William in 1295, and John in 1359: the latter is also styled Lord of Hertley-Waspail, and built the existing parish church. There is no mention of the name after the time of Henry VI., when Smallbrook "appears to have passed by a female heir to Hugh Pakenham."

Wiuel :

see Viville.


Footnotes

  1. Both Freeman and the Rev. R. Eyton deny the fact: the former contenting himself with rejecting it, as "an altogether uncertified and almost impossible scandal," with contempt and indignation : the latter adducing arguments too lengthy to be here reproduced, and which, I must confess, have failed to convince me.
  2. Pain Peverel founded Barnwell Abbey, and "introduced thirty monks, according to the years of his age at that time." He had "obtain'd a grant of Hen. I. of a spot of ground without the burrough of Cambridge; in the midst of it were extraordinary clear fountains or wells, called Barnwell, that is, the wells of children, or barns; for young men and boys met here once a year, upon St. John's Eve, for wrestling and the like youthful exercises us'd in England, and also to make merry with singing and other musick. By this concourse of boys and girls, who met here for sport, it grew to be a custom for a great many byers and sellers to repair hither at the same time; and it is now commonly call'd Midsummer Fair."—Camden.
  3. Burke states that Joel de la Pommeraie married a bastard daughter of Henry I., the sister of Reginald, Earl of Cornwall; but neither the name nor the marriage occur in Dugdale's pedigree.
  4. According to another account Sir Thomas "is said to have saved his life by making over the manor and castle of Berry Pomeroy to the Protector Duke of Somerset."—Lysons.

    The "Wishing-Tree" of Berry Pomeroy—"the prettiest superstition of the place"—is the only one left in England. It is a lofty, wide-spreading beech. Whoever walks round the trunk three times with the sun, and three times backwards, thinking the while of the wish—unspoken and known to no one—will, it is confidently believed, find it come true.
  5. This Walter de Clifford, the husband of Llewellyn's daughter, was fined about 1,000 marks, being "all the money he possessed or could procure," for having "violently and improperly treated the King's messenger, who bore his royal letters, and having forced him to eat the same, with the seal." This was in 1250. Matthew Paris tells the story.
  6. He had greatly distinguished himself in the siege. There is an enthusiastic eulogium upon him in the Roll of Carlaverock, that winds up with the declaration:

    "Si je estoie une pucelette,
    Je li donroie cuer e cors,
    Tant est de li bons li recors."
  7. "Shakespeare spoke the language of his own time when he called him Clifford of Cumberland; he should have said of Westmoreland. But the great poet despised such minutiae"—Whitaker.
  8. He had not been taught to write; and his descendant, Lady Pembroke, states that he never learnt to do more than sign his name. According to Burn and Nicholson (Westmorland) he did not even do that, and never progressed beyond the letter "C."
  9. "I hope it will be considered no extravagant conjecture that he was the hero of the 'Notbrowne Mayd.' That beautiful poem was first printed in 1521. When 'the man' specifically describes Westmorland as his heritage, we must either suppose the whole story to be a fiction, or refer it to one of the wild adventures of Henry Clifford, who really led the life of an outlaw within ten years of the time. The 'great Lynage' of the lady may well agree with Lady Percy; and what is more probable than that this wild young man, among his other feats, may have lurked in the forests of the Percy family, and won the lady's heart under a disguise, which he had taken care to assure her concealed a knight. That the rank of the parties is inverted in the ballad may be considered nothing more than a decent veil of poetical fiction thrown over a recent and well-known fact."—Whitaker's Craven
  10. "By the marriage of Cheney's heir-general with Willoughby, the manor of Broke, or Brooke, was acquired by that family."—Banks.
  11. "He kept her under the closest and most offensive supervision, for when on the journey she wanted to see a game of chess played out, he would not let her do so; and when her hood blew off, he made her put it on under a hedge-row, refusing to let her go into a house to adjust her finery."—Rye's Norfolk.
  12. It was at Stoke-Poges that we hear of the performances of the "dancing Chancellor," Sir Christopher Hatton—

    "Full oft within these spacious walls.
    When he had fifty winters o'er him,
    My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls,
    The seals and maces danced before him."
  13. Morant tells that Sir Robert Howard "purchased her in a manner from her father Sir John Playz" for the sum of fifty marks of silver.
  14. He gave them in addition two fragments of the Saint's tomb. "In the monks' hands these relics turned out to be specifics for fever."—Eyton's Shropshire.
  15. "In those days," says Freeman, "Lancashire did not exist as a shire; its northern portion formed part of the vast shire of York, while its southern portion, described in the Survey as the Land between the Mersey and the Ribble, had been Crown land under King Edward, and was held under him by a crowd of petty Thegns, who, by the nature of their tenures, seemed to have been raised but little above the rank of churls or even of serfs." But it seems clear, that during the reign of William Rufus at least, the town of Lancaster was included in Roger de Poitou's dominions.
  16. Robert was Count of Alencon in right of his mother, Mabel de Belesme: and Roger Count de la Marche, through his wife Almadis, sole heiress of her brother, Count Boson III., who was killed in 1091.
  17. James Perceval, who was born in 1530, married four wives without having any children. Many men would have despaired of posterity; not so Perceval, who made a fifth and more successful venture, for his last wife, Elizabeth Berkeley, brought him two sons and eight daughters.
  18. The mascles were borne by the Dukes de Rohan, and "adopted in regard the Carps of that Duchy had such marks on their skin."—Dugdale. This sounds absurd. Their haughty motto was—

    "Roy ne puys, Due ne daigne, Rohan je suys."
  19. Besides this residence in Holderness, to which the name, said to be derived from it, was certainly given, there is Seaton-Ros, also in Yorkshire; Lullington-Ros in Kent, held by Goisfrid under Bishop Odo at Domesday: Cratfield-Le Roos, in Suffolk, Melton-Roos, Lincoln, &c.
  20. "In visage was he some deal gray,
    And had black hair, as I heard say:
    But then of limbs, he was well made,
    With bones great, and shoulders braid.
    When he was blyth, he was lovely
    And meek, and sweet in company:
    But who in battle might him see,
    Another countenance had he."—Barbour.
  21. This is proved by the shield of arms in Hunmanby Church, East Yorkshire, where Everard de Ros and Rose Trusbut are buried. The wife's coat is on the dexter side of the shield—a place of honour occasionally accorded to great heiresses. The seal of Devorguil of Galloway, appended to her foundation charter of Baliol College, Oxford, in 1282, affords an instance in point. Her paternal coat—the Lion of Galloway—is on the dexter side, and the Orle of Baliol, borne by her husband, on the sinister side of the shield.

    The Catherine wheel may have been an allusion to Rots or Rotte (Roue).
  22. According to Banks, he had received a previous summons, as Rob's de Ros de Belv'r from Henry III., in 1260.
  23. Some writers (including Dugdale) have contended for the legitimacy of Geva; but in that case it seems obvious that her daughter Matilda would, as next in blood, have inherited her father's Earldom of Chester, rather than the son of her aunt.
  24. In the hollow of the same tree, her grandson Sir Robert, a staunch Jacobite, used to assemble two or three kindred spirits, and drink the health of "the King over the water."
  25. "Rouse a Knight gave to Hedington" (a prebend of Ramsey Abbey) "his Lordship of Bainton about half a mile from Hedington. Rouse ys buried at Hedington."—Leland.
  26. This property—now of such enormous value—was then estimated at the yearly rent of 6 and a noble!
  27. This was the Countess of Bedford on whom Ben Jonson wrote the beautiful lines, picturing

    "What kind of creature I could most desire
    To honour, serve, and love as poets use.

    "I meant to make her fair and free and wise;
    Of greatest blood, and yet more good than great;
    I meant the day star should not brighter rise,
    Nor lend like influence from his lucent state.

    "I meant she should be courteous, facile, sweet,
    Hating that solemn vice of greatness, pride:
    I meant each softest virtue there should meet,
    Fit in that softer bosom to reside."

    Her full-length portrait, gorgeous in brocade and gold bullion, and covered with jewels, may be seen at Woburn. She was the sister and heir of the last Lord Harrington.
  28. Hubert's loyalty was the more striking, as one of the five great barons then in confederacy against the Duke was Renouf de Bessin, the suzerain to whom he owed suit and service.
  29. The real culprit appears to have been Robert Fitz Hubert, a Flemish mercenary.
  30. According to Sir Francis Palgrave, this coat was first assumed by Osmond de Centville, to recall the achievement by which he preserved the liberty or life of Rollo's grandchild, the young Duke of Normandy. "When Richard Sans Peur was kept in ward and bond by Louis d'Outremer at Laon, Osmund succeeded in effecting his escape by wrapping him in a truss of forage, and thus conveying him to the stable, where he mounted his horse, and was conducted in safety to Coucy."
  31. The ancient hereditary device of her Duchy was the ermine, as the emblem of spotless purity, with the motto "Plutot mourir que souiller:" and its fur was borne as her coat-of-arms. Anne herself (as shown in her famous Livre d'Heures) used with her ermine the motto "A ma Vie" that belonged to the Breton Order of the Ermine. There is a fanciful legend connected with this bearing, thus told by Richard de Vassembourg: "Le fameux Roy Artus combatant le Geant Frollo, vit la sainte Vierge qu'il avoit invoquee, qui laissa choir sun son Escu un pan d'hermine, par la vertu duquel il vainquit le Geant; il en fit ses Armes, a la place de trois ou treize Couronnes d'or sur azur, qu'il portoit avant ce combat." The memory of the good King Arthur is still cherished in Brittany. "The Breton youths of the present generation chant, as they march to battle, the war-song of their fathers in the days of chivalry and romance: 'C'est Farmed d'Arthur: je le sais: Arthur marche devant! Si nous mourrons comme doivent mourir des Chretiens, des Bretons, jamais nous ne mourrons trop tot!'"—A Year in Western France. A. Edwardes.
  32. The following lines were written upon a churchman belonging to this family:

    "With him to strive it is no boot,
    Who takes his name from the dry root."
  33. "The Lorde Souche hath a right goodly Manor Place, by the Paroche Chyrch of this Village, buildid Castelle like. The first Courte whereof is clene doune, saving that a greate Peace of the Gate House and front of the Waulle by it yet stondith.

    The ynner Parte of this Place is meately welle maintainid, and hath a Diche aboute it. The Waulles of this ynner Courte be in sum Places imbattelid."—Leland.
  34. His father, who died in 1569, lies buried in a ruined chapel adjoining the old manor house of Haringworth, where some remains of his monument may be seen against the south wall. At the bottom of the wall opposite, a small hole communicates with the cellar of the house. This singular propinquity suggested the following lines to Ben Jonson:

    Whenever I die, let this be my fate,
    To lye by my good Lord Zouche;
    That when I am dry, to the tap I may hye,
    And so back again to my couch."
  35. "In Walker's account of the sufferings of the clergy in the time of the Great Rebellion, the family of Tate is not only illegitimately, but most contemptuously mentioned, and that Elizabeth Zouche would not have been given to such a man as Tate had she not been before with child."—Banks.
  36. "Nicholas does not consider this writ a regular summons to parliament, nor the person summoned under it a baron of the realm, because none of the higher temporal nobility, nor any of the spiritual peers, were included in it; nor was there any day fixed for the meeting."—Burke.
  37. The champion's name was, in reality, William.
  38. John Sante was Abbot of Abingdon, where he "enlarged the church buildings."—Cooper King's Berkshire.
  39. "Redcap is a popular appellation of that class of spirits which haunt old castles. Every ruined tower in the S. of Scotland is supposed to have an inhabitant of this species."—Sir Walter Scott.
  40. "It is a curious fact that one of these Sussex Someries is styled John Pycard, alias Somerie, and that in a Roll of Arms (1308-1314), published by Sir Harris Nicolas, a Sir John de Somerie of co. Herts bears Quarterly Or and Azure, a bend Gules, whilst, according to the Heraldic Dictionaries, Pychard bears the same arms without the bend." Herald and Genealogist, vol. v. p. 105. The baronial Someries bore Or, two lions passant in pale Azure.
  41. The compiler of the House of Yvery asserts that the Percevals and Someries were one and the same family; and there is no evidence either to prove or disprove this statement. Dugdale calls the grandson of the Paganel heiress William Perceval de Somerie, and one of the coats assigned to the former name in Burke's Armoury—that borne by the Earls of Egmont is altogether different—is the Or, two lions passant in pale Azure, of Somerie.
  42. The two eagles that form Viscount Bolingbroke's supporters are each charged on the breast with a golden "heme."
  43. Dugdale appears to have inadvertently separated the St. Johns of Stanton St. John and of Lageham, though clearly the same line."—Sir Egerton Brydges, It is certain that the house of Lageham inherited Stanton-St. John.
  44. It is said some of them were playing at cards; and there is still a common saying among card-players in that neighbourhood: "Clubs trump, as when Basing House was taken."
  45. He had wished to receive the Earldom that had lately become extinct in the family, but a Viscountcy only was accorded to him.
  46. Besides those already enumerated, Burke speaks of two others, Sir Thomas St. George, Garter, and Sir Richard, Ulster King of Arms in Ireland.
  47. Siward, Earl of Northumberland, was said to be the grandson of a Danish princess and a bear; and his father is supposed to have borne visible marks of his parentage, having long hairy ears, whence he was called Barn or Berne.
  48. They professed to descend from "Eneas Seys, who was Hostage for the County of Glamorgan, sent to William the Conqueror, and bore Sable, a chevron between three spear-heads, Argent, with their points imbrued."
  49. "The Salvins must have been settled at Thorpe-Salvin soon after the Conquest, and as they appear to have been a family of distinction, it is probable that the ancestor might be one of the two knights of De Busli mentioned in the Domesday Survey of Laughton."—Hunter's South Yorkshire.
  50. A nefarious attempt has been made to rob him of his cherished and beneficent cat, whose existence has been explained away as a popular error. She is said to have been nothing more than a flat-bottomed boat, such as are commonly used in the Thames for carrying coal from the colliers to the wharf, then known as "cats," of which he owned a considerable number. With these, as is asserted, he built up his fortune. Others, again, maintain that his success in life "was the result of commercial transactions, called in the fourteenth century 'achatting.'" But, as if to refute these laboured and far-fetched derivations, an effigy that curiously confirmed the old belief was brought to light in 1861. "In an old house, then pulled down in Westgate Street, Gloucester, was found a sculptured tablet intended to be placed over a doorway or chimney-piece, representing a boy in a long loose gown reaching to his feet, with a hood dropped on his shoulder, and fastened by a button to the throat, holding a cat in his arms. The Whittingtons had, according to old deeds, a tenement in Westgate Street in 1460."—Ibid.
  51. Besides the land, she brought him,10,000, which was paid over in a most primitive fashion. Her dowry, "as the Editor remembers to have heard from a very aged member of the family, was conveyed in two carts from Werrington (her father's house) to Clowance, all in half crowns, and that he assisted in taking them."—Gilberts Survey of Cornwall.
  52. According to Sir Francis Palgrave, this coat was first assumed by Osmond de Centville, to recall the achievement by which he preserved the liberty or life of Rollo's grandchild, the young Duke of Normandy. "When Richard Sans Peur was kept in ward and bond by Louis d'Outremer at Laon, Osmund succeeded in effecting his escape by wrapping him in a truss of forage, and thus conveying him to the stable, where he mounted his horse, and was conducted in safety to Coucy."
  53. Some entries in the inventory of her jewels recall the ideal rope of pearls in 'Lothair':

    Item: a dowble rope of pearle one ell longe.
    Item: a dowble rope of pearle one yarde III quarters longe.
    Item: a chayne of pearle of a bigger sorte, of fower dowble. Nor were these by any means all.
  54. He is said never to have lost the memory of his early love; and, "though he married again, he christened the daughter of his second wife by the fondly-remembered name of Arabella Stuart."
  55. Though greatly her inferior in birth, he came of an ancient family. "This curious and interesting local name belonged to a Cheshire family who frequently occur in the Palatine Rolls. Roger de Thickenes, and his brothers William and Henry, are mentioned in Edward II.'s time. It signifies Thickwithens or willows."—Notes to Ormerod's Cheshire. The homely adage current in the county, "Better over the mixon than over the moor," marking the old prejudice against all intermarriage with strangers, might at least be quoted in his favour.
  56. Banks attributes this "cruelty" to her father, but, according to Collins, she had lost her father nine years before her marriage. Her mother had previously died.
  57. "The manor of Doccombe, Daccombe, or Dockham, in the parish of Moreton Hampstead in Devonshire, still forms part of the possessions of the church of Canterbury."
  58. Eyton makes her the wife of his elder brother.
  59. Banks mentions an earlier writ of summons received in 1293 by Sir William Trussell, the husband of the Mainwaring heiress. But in this case, again, it was not repeated.
  60. Thor-aide, the old Scandinavian cri de guerre, once in general use among the Northmen, which was exchanged for Dex-aie (Dieu-aide), their war-cry at the battle of Hastings.
  61. It is not territorial, nor have I ever seen any explanation of its meaning, though it seems evident that, like Talmash or Taillebois, it must be derived from the French tailler—to shape or cut. In later times it was used to designate a mastiff (a "kinde of dogges called in Latine, canes sagaces, for the tenderness of their scent," says Gwillim); probably because the "beast" of the great Earl of Shrewsbury was "a silver running hound or talbot;" and he is called in a satirical poem of the fifteenth century "Talbot, our good Dogge." The feet of his effigy at Whitchurch rest on a talbot: and Sir Humphrey Talbot, t. Edward IV., had for badge a running hound silver, charged on the shoulder with a mullet.
  62. See vol. i., Dispencere.
  63. "The cry of Talbot serves me as a sword."
    —King Henry VI. 1st Part, Act II., Scene 1.
  64. On his sword was inscribed Sum Talboti pro vincere inimicos meos:—" a sword," says old Fuller, "with bad Latin upon it, but good steel within it, which constantly conquered where it came." It was found, many years after his death, in the River Dordon, near Bordeaux.
  65. "II le baisa en la bouche, en disant ces mots, Monseigneur mon maistre, ce estes vous, je prie k Dieu qu'il vous pardonne vos mesfaits, j'ay este votre officier d'armes quarante ans ou plus, il est temps que je le vous rende, en faisant piteux crys et lamentations, et en rendant eau par les yeux tres pitousment, et alors il revestit sa cotte d'armes et la mit sur son maistre."
  66. "Ther was great Hart Burning betwixt the Lorde Berkeley and the Lorde Lisle for the Maner of Wotton under Egge, in so much that they pointed to fight, and meting yn a Medow at a Place caullid Nebley, Berkeley's Archers sodainly shotte sore, and the Lord Lisle lifteing up the Visar of his Helme was by an Archer of the Forest of Dene shotte in at the Mouth and oute of the Nek: and a few beside beyng slayn Lisle Menne fled; and Berkeley with his Menne straite spoilid the Maner Place of Wotton, and kept the House. Berkeley favorid Henry the 6. Parte. Lisle favorid Edward the 4."—Leland.
  67. Douglas Jerrold has dramatized this story in his play of "The White Milliner," first produced at Covent Garden in 1840.
  68. "Waddington Hall, the ancient seat of the Tempests, is now divided into cottages: but one room retains the name of King Harry's Chamber. It is well known that this is the house in which he was betrayed."—Whitaker's History of Craven. On finding himself in the toils, he escaped by one staircase while his pursuers were ascending the other, got out of a window, and succeeded in reaching the River Ribble, which he hoped to place between him and them. But here the Talbots came up with him, and captured him midway in the ford as he was crossing the water.
  69. There is no more picturesque mediaeval romance than the story of Helias the Knight of the Swan. "When Otho, Emperor of Germany, held court at Neumagen, to decide between Clarissa, Duchess of Bouillon, and the Count of Frankfort, who claimed her duchy, it was settled that their right should be established by single combat. The Count was to appear in person in the lists, whilst the Duchess was to provide some doughty warrior who would do battle for her." But the poor lady, "as all abashed," looked round in vain for a champion; no one present would meddle in her quarrel; "whereupon she committed her to God, praying Him humbly to succour her." The council broke up, and lords and ladies were scattered along the banks of the Meuse, when lo! a stately swan with a silver chain round its neck came sailing down the river, drawing a small skiff in which lay a knight in resplendent armour, resting on an argent shield blazoned with a double cross of gold. He leaped ashore, offered his sword to the forlorn princess, carried her colours in the lists, and triumphantly overthrew her adversary. She rewarded him with the hand of her fair daughter; and thus Helias became Duke of Bouillon, and in due time the father of a little girl, who received at the font the name of Ydain, married Eustace Count of Boulogne, and was the mother of Godfrey de Bouillon, King of Jerusalem, and of his brothers Baldwin and Eustace.
  70. "The most zealous advocate for equality must surely here be highly gratified, when he is told that the great-granddaughter of Margaret, daughter and heir of George Duke of Clarence, brother to King Edward IV., was the wife of a common joiner, and her son, the mender of old shoes!"—Banks.
  71. "Probably so called from his generosity, or from an artificial hand, plated with silver, which supplied the want of his natural hand, lost by some accident."—Banks.
  72. Morant, in his History of Essex, asserts that Sir Walter took his name from Mark's-Tey in that county, of which he first became possessed in the reign of Edward I. But this does not quite agree with the pedigree he gives, for he makes out Robert Tey, 8th in descent from Sir Walter, to be living in 1426! This family ended in 1540 with four co-heiresses. They bore Argent three herons' heads gorged with a crown Or, within a bordure of the second, with the motto "Tais en temps." This relates to one of the name, "who, living in the wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster, had a significant device, Not to be hanged for Talking.
  73. Here, alas! is another "pretty story" that has vanished away in smoke. Mr. Vincent has recently proved that Helghminam is a mistake for Hedingham in Essex, where Queen Elizabeth was in reality staying at the time; and that this treasured "ebony lute, inlaid with ivory and enriched with gems," cannot possibly have been her parting gift.
  74. All three of them, according to Leland's account. "The trewthe is that Richard Lord Scrope bowght of the Kynge the 3. Dowghters and Heyres of the Lorde Tiptote, whereof the eldest was maried to Roger his 2. Sonne. The 2. Dowghter was maried to William his eldest Sonn, aftar Erie of Wilschere, by whom she had no Ysswe, and aftar was maried to Wentworthe. Stephen the 3. Sonn maried the youngest Dowghter, and the Yssue of this Scrope remaynethe yet." Elizabeth's children were by her second husband; "& that Parte of Lande the Lord Wentworth hath now."
  75. One of the earliest of these Royal gifts, was (upon the attainder of Thomas Moubray, Earl Marshal,) "of all the Apparel pertaining to the Body of that Earl, and all his Harness, for Peace and War: as well for great Horses called Coursers, as Saddles for Tilts and Tourneaments." This second-hand equipment has an unpleasant flavour of cast-off clothes.
  76. In the time of Edward VI., Norbeton Hall, in Surrey, was the property of Richard Taverner, a celebrated man, who being a zealous Protestant, obtained a licence to preach within the King's dominions, and actually did preach before the University of Oxford when he was High Sheriff, with a sword by his side, and a gold chain about his neck."—Manning's Surrey. A choice specimen of his eloquence has been preserved by Sir John Cheek. He commenced his discourse with these words: "Arriving at the mount of St. Marie's in the stony stage, where I now stand, I have brought you some fine Bisketts, baked in the oven of Charity, and carefully conserved for the Chickens of the Church, the Sparrows of the Spirit, and the Sweet Swallows of Salvation." His seat was at Woodeaton in Oxfordshire.
  77. Perhaps Contrevent denoted the unhappy mariner who had the wind always in s teeth. Heurtevent might be similarly interpreted.
  78. Vitalis says there were some others.
  79. "William of Malmesbury says nothing about the tree from which nearly all modern historians represent the arrow as glancing. Vitalis expressly states that it rebounded from the back of a beast of chase (fera), apparently, by the mention of bristles, a wild boar. Matthew Paris first mentions the tree, but his narrative is doubtful."—Ibid.
  80. "It is noteworthy that Giraldus Cambrensis names another courtier as the culprit. According to his account, the arrow that the Prior of Dunstable had seen prefigured in a dream as destined to cause the King's death was given by William himself to one of his followers, Ralph de Aquis. By an arrow from that knight's bow William Rufus fell before the day had passed."
  81. This Sir Edward took so hearty a dislike to his eldest son Robert, that he attempted to oust him from the succession by surrendering his patent to the Crown in 1638, and obtaining a fresh one in favour of Toby his second son. But it was found that he could not legally prejudice his next heir; and thus, at his death, both his sons inherited baronetcies. Sir Robert, however, died unmarried, and both merged in Sir Toby.
  82. "As Sir Thomas Trivet was riding towards Barnewell, with the King, where the King lodged, by forcing his horsse too much with the spurs, the horsse fell with him so rudelie to the ground, that his entrails within him were so burst and perished, that he died the next day after. Manie rejoiced at this man's death, as well as for that men judged him to be exceeding haultie and proud: as also for that he was suspected not to have dealt justlie with the Bishop of Norwich, in the journey which the Bishop had made into Flanders: but speciallie men had an ill opinion of him, for that he stood with the King against the lords, counselling him in the year last past to despatch them out of the way."—Holinshed.
  83. According to Dugdale, this Beatrice was Countess of Guisnes in her own right; but Mr. Stapleton has proved that he confounds her with another Beatrice, who married her grandson.
  84. This miraculous star, the pride and boast of De Vere, is remorselessly declared by Planche to be neither more nor less than "a mullet for difference," always used to distinguish a younger from an elder son; and as the coats of De Vere and Mandeville are, with this exception, absolutely identical, it follows that the former must have been a junior branch of the latter house. Their celebrated badge proved fatal to the Lancastrian cause at the battle of Barnet. "The erle of Oxford's men" (arrayed for the Red Rose) "had a starre with streames booth before and behind on their lyverys," while King Edward's men bore the sun of York. The day was misty, and Warwick's men, mistaking one for the other, charged their allies instead of their enemies. The former raised a cry of "Treason, treason! We are all betrayed!" broke their ranks, and took to flight; and the confusion thus caused lost the day.
  85. The exaggeration of this statement is patent to any student of genealogy, and has been fully exposed by Sir Bernard Burke. "In personal achievement and historical importance the De Veres can bear no comparison with the Talbots, the Howards, the Nevills, the Percies, and the Scropes; and in splendour of alliances, many a less distinguished family far surpassed them. There was scarcely one of our grand old houses of the times of the Henrys and the Edwards that had not more of royal blood." The house of Talbot can also show an uninterrupted succession of twenty Earls.
  86. Dugdale says he was "an intire friend" to the Duke of Norfolk, and vainly interceded for his pardon with the Lord Treasurer Burghley (his wife's father), "but prevailing not, grew so highly incensed against Burghley, knowing it was in his power to save him, that, in great indignation, he said, he would do all he could to ruin his Daughter; and accordingly not only forsook her Bed, but sold and consumed that great Inheritance, descended to him from his Ancestors; leaving very little for Henry his Son and Successor." But it should be observed that Henry was his son by his second wife, and he could only have intended to injure the three daughters borne to him by Anne Cecil.
  87. This decision, strangely at variance with our present notions—for he was not the heir general of the De Veres—has nevertheless always held good. Lord Lindsey duly officiated at the coronation of Charles II., and the representatives of his descendant, the last Duke of Ancaster, the Marquesses Cholmondeley and Lords Willoughby de Eresby, now alternately hold the office.
  88. One of his grandsons was the Sir Richard Vernon of Shakespeare's Henry IV., mentioned by Holinshed among the "chiefteines" of the army of the Percies at Shrewsbury. He was taken prisoner and beheaded after the battle.
  89. "In the Mem. Aut. Norm. viii. 28, William Vassy and Robert his brother appear in a charter, which is afterwards quoted p. 143, giving their names as Waace—apparently the same name as the poet's."—Edgar Taylor.
  90. Hornby, in his Remarks on Dugdale's Baronage, denies her existence. "Our Northern King at Arms has, like Jupiter, hatched out of his own brain yet another daughter of King William of Scotland, and given her a name, a husband, and a son. He calls her Agnes, married to William de Vesci, and by whom she had a son, William; but I dare believe that neither Agnes nor her husband were ever seen in this world, or will appear at the resurrection." In point of fact the only mistake made is in the Christian names.
  91. "Thus pence are like shillings; and as Carmel had a Hill, with the river Kishon running under it, a Forest beside it, and the Midland-sea some three Miles from it; so this had the River Alne, a Park adjoining, and. the German-sea at the same Distance.

    "But Northumberland was but a cold Carmel for these Friars; who soon got themselves warmer Nests, in Kent, Essex, London, and where not? multiplying more in England than in any other Country."—Fuller.
  92. "There are few noble families whose early history has suffered worse at the hands of genealogists than the family of Audley. Dugdale's Baronage, a splendid work, but from its very nature occasionally inaccurate, has been followed with such servility that his errors, by constant repetition, have almost acquired the sacredness of truth."—Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords, by C. J. Robinson.
  93. She was probably his heir, as Cockfield (a village in the county of Durham) belonged to the Vavasours; and the effigy of a little child, popularly called "the last of the Vavasours," who was there drowned in the moat of their manor house, may still be seen in the parish church.
  94. A pedigree-roll of Legh of Adlington (quoted by Sir Peter Leycester) makes the astounding assertion that he was the younger brother of Stephen Earl of Blois!
  95. There is a legend that one of his manors—Moston, "then consisting chiefly of swamps and morasses"—was won by a hand-to-hand encounter with a dragon, further commemorated by the extraordinary crest borne by his posterity; a wyvern, pierced with an arrow, issuing out of a weir for taking fish, and devouring a child. "It chaunced in his tyme," (so runs the story) "a terrible dragon to make his abode in the lordeshippe of Moston, wheare he devowred all suche p'sons as he laid holde on, whych the said Venables hering tell of, dyde in his awne p'son valiantlie and couragiouslie set on the saide dragon, where firste he shot him throwe with an arrowe, and afterward with other weapons manfullie slew him, at whych instant tyme he was devowring a childe." Moston, however, was only acquired through an heiress in the time of Henry IV. Ormerod suggests that the legend relates to an ancestor of this heiress, whose crest was adopted by the Venables.
  96. Robert le Graunt venur witnesses a Cheshire charter of about Edward I.'s or Edward I I.'s time: and Stephen Venator, c. 1300, occurs also as Stephen Grauntvenour.
  97. There is a touch of fun in the evidence he gave. "II dist qil estoit une foitz en Friday Streete en Loundres; com il alast en la rewe il vist pendant hors une novell signe faitz dez diz armez: et demandast quele herbergerie ceo estoit, qui avoit pendu hors cestez amies du Scrop, et un autr' luy repondist et dit, Nenyl, seigneur ils ne sount mys penduz hors pour les armez de Scrope, ne depeyntez la pour ces armees, mes ils sount depeyntez et mys la pour une chivaler del comte de Chestre, que homme appelle mons. Robert Grovenor; et ceo fuist le primer foitz que unques il oiaist parler de mons. Robert Grovenor, ou de cez ancestres, ou de aucun autre portant le nom de Grovenor."
  98. In many cases it was even more esteemed. The ancestors of the two great houses of Percy and Nevill, Josceline de Louvain, and Robert Fitz-Maldred, when offered the choice of resigning either their names or coat-armour, both elected to retain their coats of arms.
  99. There is every reason to believe that he was thus deprived of his original coat of arms, as it differed but slightly from that of his Continental cousins. The Le Veneurs of Normandy bore Or (or) Argent a bend Azure (La Roque, Maison d'Harcourt, ii. 1181): and the French line a bend Azure fretty Or (Anselme viii. 236).
  100. George IV., on the day of his coronation, having been warned not to return home by the way he came, lest he should be torn in pieces by the infuriated rabble that was clamouring in the streets for the Queen's rights, escaped from Westminster by this unfrequented route. One of the officers of his escort, Lieut, (afterwards Lord) de Ros, who had been a Westminster boy, piloted the Royal carriage through the back slums to Tothill Fields; and thence, past Millbank, through a squalid and little known region, to the Five Fields, from which, by Constitution Hill, they reached the back door of Carlton House at eleven o'clock at night.
  101. Lord Kingsale enjoys it in right of his descent from John de Courcy, Earl of Ulster, to whom it was granted by King John. The Earl was at that time a prisoner in the Tower. "A French Castle, being in Controversy, was to have the title thereof tried by Combat, the Kings of England and France beholding it. Courcy being a lean lank Body, with staring Eyes (prisoners, with the wildness of their Looks, revenge the closeness of their Bodies), is sent for out of the Tower, to undertake the Frenchman; and because enfeebled with long Durance, a large Bill of fare was allowed him, to recruit his Strength. The Monsieur, hearing how much he had eat and drunk, and guessing his courage by his Stomach, took him for a Cannibal, who would devour him at the last Course; and so declined the combat because.

    "Afterwards the two kings, desirous to see some proof of Courcy's strength, caused a steel Helmet to be laid on a Block before him. Courcy, looking about him with a grim Countenance (as if he intended to cut with his Eyes as well as with his Arms) sundered the Helmet at one blow into two pieces, striking the Sword so deep into the Wood, that none but himself could pull it out again.

    "Being demanded the cause why he looked so sternly, 'Had I,' said he, 'failed of my design, I would have killed the Kings and all in the Place:' words well spoken well taken, all persons present being then highly in good humour."—Fuller. In proof of which, the King bade him ask for any favour in his power to grant. "The Earl replied he had titles and estates enough (25,000 marks sterling per annum, a vast income in those days), but desired that he, and his heirs male after him, might have the privilege (after their first obeisance) to be covered in the presence of him and his successors, Kings of England."—Banks. His sword and armour are preserved in the Tower.
  102. The Dives Roll gives "Guillaume de Vauville."
  103. "Among other duties, the usher lay at the door of his lord's sleeping apartment. The Boke. of Curtasye says the

    "Usher before the dore
    In outer chambur lies on the flore."
    —Bardsley's English Surnames.
  104. The Bartelotts of Stopham, Sussex, also bear three falconer's gloves pendant.
  105. The manor of Hempsted-Marshal in Berkshire, belonging to the Marshals, was held by grand serjeanty of the Kings of England, to be the knights marshals of the King's house."—Burke.
  106. According to Duchesne, the Vivilles held of the Feoda de Grentemesnil in Normandy.
  107. When the coffin of her second daughter, the Princess Mary (a beautiful girl of fifteen, who died the year before her father) was discovered in St. George's Chapel in 1810 it was found that "a curl of hair of the most exquisite pale gold had insinuated itself through the chinks."—Miss Strickland.
  108. The Duchess was so skilled and successful in intrigue that her power over the minds of men was popularly attributed to sorcery. She was believed to have inherited the enchantments of the fabled water-nymph of the Rhine, who held all hearts spellbound, and had enthralled her ancestor. The serpent of the fairy Melusina was borne as their device by several of the princes of the House of Luxemburgh.
  109. Two interlaced rope-girdles, such as are worn by monks, assumed to show that Hereward was "a monk's knight, and not a king's," as he had been knighted by the Abbot of Peterborough on the eve of a projected attack, to give him the rank necessary for taking the command. "The belt and sword of knighthood could, until 1102, be bestowed even by abbots. The new knight was required to be a freeman, but there was no limit as to age, and, like the Hungarian nobles to this day, he was freed from all taxes by Henry I."—Blaauw's Barons' Wars.
  110. He guarded his gifts by the most solemn curses: "May God meet those who oppose or destroy them with the sword of anger and fury, and vengeance, and eternal malediction!" Yet even the memory of his place of sepulture was altogether lost, and his tomb and that of Gundreda was only discovered by chance a few years ago, in making a railway cutting.
  111. The cross supposed to have been put up in his time at Braithwell, in South Yorkshire, bears this inscription:

    Jesu le fiz Marie
    Pense toy
    Le frere no roy
    Je bus prie.
  112. "To the former title of this official duty it is we owe the fact of our still terming any company of night serenaders 'waits,' and especially those bands of strolling minstrels who keep up the good old custom of watching in Christmas morning. A good old custom, I say, even though it may cost us a few pence, and rouse us somewhat rudely, may be, from our slumbers."—Bardsley's English Surnames.