Battle Abbey Roll Volume 1







This electronic edition
was prepared by
Michael A. Linton, 2007


No one can be more sensible than I am myself that the task of investigating the Battle Abbey Roll should have been committed to more competent hands than mine. My only excuse for attempting it is that it has in reality been unattempted hitherto, as Sir Bernard Burke, in his commentary on Holinshed's list, has only dealt with two hundred and nine of the best-known names, passing over the remaining four hundred and twenty without notice, and Sir Egerton Brydges' brief and peremptory annotations were evidently made in haste, and refer to an imperfect copy. From being a resident at Battle Abbey, and entertaining a higher opinion than is expressed by many of my contemporaries for "the scum of Bretons and rags of France" that conquered and colonised England, I have felt an interest in the subject, and a desire to do my best, at all events, towards elucidating it. For this purpose I have waded through many county histories, peerages, and other volumes that are scarcely lively reading, but I have received most assistance from 'The Norman People' and the 'Recherches sur le Domesday.' Chartularies and public records appear to be the only reliable guides in the study of genealogies, for the Visitations furnish no dates,[1] and I own to having been lost in amazement at some of the pedigrees furnished by the heralds. Take one instance only. Is it not a cruel mystification for an old county family to be led to believe that the son of their ancestor Clement Cox (such a name for a Saxon noble!) received an Earldom from Edward the Confessor, and that his descendant, who fell at the battle of Naseby, is styled on his monument "the twenty-fourth titular Earl Cox"?[2] This does not apply to Dugdale, who evolves no fictions from his inner consciousness, but is invariably and scrupulously honest; and I may add that Mr. Planche, in his 'Conqueror and his Companions,' aims only at being impartial and truthful.

I think I can, with all due humility, say the same of myself. But I have found the pursuit of truth a path bristling with thorns, and beset with pitfalls. One of the chief difficulties to be met is the confusion caused by contradictory statements that no ingenuity can reconcile; and in too many cases conjecture alone is possible. Although I may conscientiously assert that I have taken all imaginable pains to be accurate, I am aware that I must have made plenty of mistakes. I shall be most grateful to be corrected.

From the great number of names of which I have endeavoured to give an account, each account is necessarily brief and more or less imperfect, as in so limited a space it would be utterly hopeless to trace out every collateral branch in detail. Until I commenced this undertaking, I had no conception how deep a root these ancient lineages had struck in the land, and how numerous and widely spread their ramifications were.

I have retained the picturesque old legends that have been so long associated with them as to form part of their history. What would De Vere be without its meteor star, or De Albini without its conquered lion? I have also given all the anecdotes that I could collect, partly to relieve the inherent dullness of a mere catalogue of descents, and partly because many of them incidentally furnish vivid pictures of manners and customs long since passed away.


The famous Roll of Battle Abbey is believed to have been compiled in obedience to a clause in the Conqueror's foundation charter, that enjoined the monks to pray for the souls of those "who by their labour and valour had helped to win the kingdom."[3] The great Sussex Abbey that was "the token and pledge of the Royal Crown," had been intended to be not only a memorial of his victory, but a chantry for the slain; and the names of his companions-in-arms, enshrined on this bede-roll, might thus be read out in the church on special occasions, and notably on the anniversary feast of St. Celict. It was most likely originally copied from the muster-roll of the Norman knights, that had been prepared by the Duke's orders before his embarkation, and was called over in his presence on the field of battle, the morning after it had been fought.[4] The list, thus composed, was inscribed on a roll of parchment, and hung up in the Abbey Minster, with this superscription:

"Dicitur a bello 'BELLUM' locus hic, quia bello
Angligenae victi sunt in morte relicti,
Martyris in Christi festo cecidere Calixti.
Sexagenus erat sextus millesimus annus.
Cum pereunt Angli, Stella monstrante cometa."[5]

With it were preserved two other mementos of the conquest of England. King William's sword,[6] and the robe he had worn at his coronation, and specially bequeathed to the monks by his will. This "royal pallium was beautifully ornamented with gold and very costly gems, and three hundred amulets suitably fabricated of gold and silver, many of which were attached to chains of those metals, and contained innumerable relics of the saints;" and he also gave "a feretory in the form of an altar, in which likewise were many relics, and upon which, in his expedition, mass had been accustomed to be celebrated."—Battel Abbey Chronicle. These relics, according to Mr. Lower (the translator of the Chronicle) "must have been the same with those which William had, in 1065, surreptitiously introduced under the portable altar upon which he had compelled Harold to take a solemn oath to assist him in his designs upon England. In the Bayeux Tapestry, where the scene is represented, Harold is placing his right hand upon an altar in form of a feretory."

But these precious bequests were not suffered to remain untouched for more than ten years from the date of the Conqueror's death. Before the end of the century, Henry, second Abbot of Battle, cut off and sold some of the gold and silver chains and amulets of the coronation robe, to make up a sum of money that had been demanded of him by William Rufus; and the remainder of these valuables were finally disposed of by his successor, who invested the proceeds in land. They had been gradually dropping off and disappearing—even some of the jewels of the feretory were missing, lost or "despoiled by unfortunate mischances," and it was probably judged wisest to put the rest out of the reach of temptation. For the relics they had enshrined, a reliquary was provided, and solemnly consecrated by the Bishop of Winchester.

Nor did the Roll fare any better. As time went on, it became more and more an object of ambition to own an ancestor that had come over with the Conqueror; and the monks were always found willing to oblige a liberal patron by inserting his name. "Such hath been the subtilty of some Monks of old, that, finding it acceptable unto most, to be reputed descendants to those who were Companions with Duke William in that memorable Expedition whereby he became Conqueror of this Realm, as that, to gratify them (but not without their own advantage) they inserted their Names into this antient Catalogue."—Dugdale. Camden likewise speaks of these interpolations. "Whosoever considers well shall find them always to be forged, and those names inserted which the time in every age favoured, and were never mentioned in that authenticated record." Thus its value as an authority is irretrievably lost; and though the earlier genealogists and county historians often quote and refer to it, it has latterly been altogether discredited and condemned. Like many of the other familiar credences of our forefathers it has fallen into disgrace and suffered obloquy. Sir Egerton Brydges, in the Censura Literaria, calls it "a disgusting forgery:" Mr. Freeman, "a source of falsehood" and "a transparent fiction;" the author of 'The Norman People' declares that its date is "a mere myth, depending on the authority of some unknown herald of the sixteenth century:" while another writer (in the Sussex Archaeologia), settles the question according to the summary process by which Garibaldi disposed of the claims of poor St. Peter, and declares that it never existed at all.

It is at least certain that it does not exist now: nor is it precisely known what has become of it. According to family tradition, it passed into the possession of Sir Anthony Browne, Master of the Horse to Henry VIII., who in 1538 received a grant of "the house and site of the late Monastery of Battel in Sussex" about three months after it had been taken possession of by the Royal Commissioners. He commenced building a manor house there, which was completed by his son Viscount Montague, but seldom occupied by his descendants, who transferred their residence to Cowdray, in the western division of the county: and finally, in 1717, the sixth Viscount sold the place to Sir Godfrey Webster. The three precious memorials of the Conquest, the King's sword, his despoiled pallium, and the Roll of Battle Abbey, were then, with several other curious and interesting relics of the former monastery, removed to Cowdray, and perished in the great fire of 1793 (see Browne). This is the only explanation I have ever heard given of the disappearance of the Roll; and though I can certainly furnish no proofs in confirmation of the statement, there would seem to be no particular reason for doubting its probability.

Nothing, at all events, now remains to us but copies of this celebrated record. Of these there are three; one published by Leland in his Collectanea, which was the first that ever appeared: another in Holinshed's Chronicle, dated 1577: and a third printed a few years later by Stowe, and afterwards copied by Duchesne, who received it from Camden. There are at least ten—if not more—other lists of the Norman Conquerors; but none of them even pretend to have any connection with the bede-roll of Battle Abbey.

One solitary exception, however, must, according to the old adage, prove the rule. This, which shall be number one in our catalogue, is a list published by Hearne, and taken from the collections of William of Worcester, a chronicler of the fifteenth century. It is prefaced by the five Latin lines (already quoted) that are given by Holinshed, with the addition of a sixth—

"Et tunc praeteritos numerus praesens notat annus;"

referring to the number CCCLIII. in a marginal note. This is supposed to indicate that the list was written three hundred and fifty-three years after the battle, which would give the date 1419, when William of Worcester was a boy of four years old. Hearne believes that it was "undoubtedly copied from some noted register of Battle Abbey, from which register the Tetrastich, which heads it, was, in all probability, also taken; but whether in actual connection with the list of names is not apparent. I certainly do not consider," he continues, "that the names were taken from the well-known Roll of which Leland made use, and which clearly differs from this register, as in fact it does from that given by John Stowe; but whatever the register may have been, it was certainly a noteworthy monument of antiquity, and the time-honoured names it enrolls deserve to be cherished by all interested in antiquity." Quite true; but they are so mangled and distorted by their strange orthography as to be mostly unrecognizable. Take the following specimens—Seintbrewel: Wadel: Spigurnel: Tupz: Butet: Punchet: Pachet: Parli: Cunli: Cicerli: Wilbi: Spinevile: Ferebrace: Feteplace: Gunter: Carli: Brok: Kusas: Escot: Figarvi: Kosni, &c. As far as we are enabled to judge, these maltreated patronymics are not found on our Roll.

The second list—an additional one furnished by Leland—is entitled 'Un role de ceux queux veignont in Angleterre ovesque roy William le Conquerour:' and gives fifty-eight names, declaring "Tous ycels seigners desus nome estoient a la retenaunce Monseir de Moion." This (as has been shown by Mr. Planche in his Companions of the Conqueror) is simply a transcript of the list given in the Roman de Rou of the leaders at the Battle of Hastings, from line 13,621 of the poem to 13,761.

The third is contained in the Chronicle of John Brompton, Abbot of Jervaulx in Yorkshire a.d. 1436. He tells us that he found it written (without informing us where), and introduces it in a piece of old French verse, in which he announces his intention of giving a catalogue of those who came over with the Conqueror. But, finding that the names given at the font are often changed, as Edmund into Edward, Baldwin into Bernard, Godwin into Godard, and Elys into Edwine, he will content himself with giving the surnames only, which were not changed. Then follow two hundred and forty of these, arranged in rhythmical order, beginning with

"Maundevyle et Daundeville,"

and ending with

"Straunge et Sauvage,"

all of which, he adds, were then in common use in England.

The fourth, now in the Harleian Library, claims to be taken from a MS. of Matthew of Westminster in the library of All Souls College.

The fifth, in the same collection, is an English poem, entitled, 'The names of Northmen and French that came in with William the Conqueror.' These follow in alternate rhymes, commencing

"Percye and Browne, the Malet and Bewchampe,
Menile-Vilers, and eke the Umfravile:"

to the number of two hundred and forty.

The sixth, in the same collection, is considerably longer, consisting of about five hundred and forty names in all. The first given are

"Dominus Percy, Magnus Constabellarius;
Dominus Mowbray, Mariscallus;
Dominus Radulphus de Mortuo-mari omnium strenuissimus velut alter Samson leonina ferocitate:"

These, however, are the only flights of fancy in which the author indulges, and he then proceeds with due sobriety; beginning with Ayncourt, and Bardolf, and ending with Percely and Perer.

The seventh, in the same collection, classes the names according to their terminal syllables, as: Bastard, Baygnard, Brassard, Maignard, &c.: and comprises about four hundred.

The eighth, of three hundred and eighty names, is printed by Fuller in his 'Church History,' and is arranged alphabetically, beginning with Archerd, Averenges, and ending with Yvoire.

The ninth immediately precedes the Battle Abbey Roll in Holinshed's Chronicle. "We have here," he tells us, "in a table noted all the noble captains and gentlemen of name, as well Normans as other strangers, which assisted Duke William in the conquest of this land, as we find them written in the chronicles of Normandie by one William Tailleur." This list begins with

"Odo bishop of Bayeux," and ends with

"The erle of Hiesmes."

One hundred and sixty-eight names are given, but of these several are duplicates. For instance, we have both "Hue de Gourney, alias Geneuay," and "Hue erle of Gournay" (the only instance in which he appears as an Earl): "Le seig. de Aurenchin," and "Richard d'Aurinchin;" "Le seig. de Touarts," and "Amaury de Touars," &c, &c. It is admitted to be very incomplete, for Holinshed adds at the end: "With other lords and men of account in great number, whose names the author of the chronicles of Normandie could not come by (as he himself confesseth). In consideration thereof, and bicause diverse of these are set foorth onlie by their titles of estate, and not by their surnames; we have thought it convenient to make you partakers of the roll which sometime belonged to Battell Abbeie, conteining also (as the title thereof importeth) the names of such Nobles and Gentlemen of Marque, as came at this time with the Conqueror, whereof diverse may be the same persons which in the catalog above written are conteined, bearing the name of the places whereof they were possessours and owners, as by the same catalog maie appeare." Then follows "The Roll of Battell Abbeie."

The tenth is modern, having been inaugurated at the celebration of the eighth centenary of the battle, when it was solemnly affixed on a tablet in the ancient Church of Dives. For it was this small seaport on the coast of Normandy—now almost unknown—that had been the appointed trysting-place of the Conqueror's fleet in 1066; and it was in the church now standing that he offered up his parting prayer. I have given a copy of this list (v. p. xxxi.); only varying its arrangement by placing the surnames, instead of the Christian names, in their alphabetical order, as it can thus be more easily used as a reference. It is entitled 'Companions of William the Conqueror at the Conquest of England in 1066': and was compiled with much care and labour by M. Leopold Delisle, the greatest antiquarian authority in France, who professes to give no name that is not vouched for by some deed or document of the period. In many (perhaps most) instances it appears to be taken from Domesday Book: and it is especially useful as furnishing, besides the Christian names, the correct French spelling of the surnames. But it is to be regretted that he has in no case cited an authority, or given a reference. M. de Magny reproduces this list in his 'Nobiliaire de Normandie,' with the addition of fifty names "that his researches in the Norman and English archives have enabled him to include." He, too, eschews references; and I am curious to know upon what authority he has included Courtenay.

There are probably other MS. lists with which I am not acquainted. All those I have mentioned, though very evidently the work of different hands, resemble each other in so far that they have many names in common. With these, however, we have not here to do, as only one of them (as I have already said) professes to derive its authority from the Roll of Battle, and they do not in the least resemble it in their arrangement. Leland, Holinshed, and Duchesne therefore alone remain in the field as its interpreters.

Leland himself affords us no information respecting his list; for the two pages that precede it, as well as the four that follow it, are left blank in his MS. It is certain that he visited Battle Abbey, for he makes mention of the place, and gives a catalogue of the Latin books in the monks' library; and Browne Willis, and others declare this to have been "the table of the Norman gentry which came into England with the Conqueror, preserved by the monks of Battle." I think I shall be able to show that this is borne out by internal evidence; but I will begin with the two acknowledged copies of the Roll—Holinshed's and Duchesne's.

When placed side by side, as I have here printed them (see p. xix.), it seems to me that no dispassionate person can doubt their common origin. In both, the names are arranged alphabetically, and (in spite of many gaps, and some differences of orthography) follow each other in the same order. Duchesne's copyist evidently did not relish his task, and skipped as much as he decently could; and thus, while Holinshed gives us six hundred and twenty-nine names, only four hundred and seven are to be found in Duchesne. As the work progresses, we see how he becomes puzzled as well as weary, and now and again helplessly loses his way in the entangling labyrinth of names. In the letter M he inverts the order altogether, by putting some last that should be first; and in his impatience to conclude his irksome labours, hurries over T, V, and W, leaving more and more yawning blanks as he goes. Yet, careless and ill done as his copy is, it provides us with forty names that are left out by Holinshed, and in several cases restores the proper spelling. What further liberties Holinshed's transcriber may have taken with the Roll we can only conjecture, but, from the number of duplicates to be found on his list, we may safely conclude that he was neither very painstaking nor very accurate. Nor ought we to forget that in neither case were these copies transcribed from the original, but taken from other copies that had probably undergone similar manipulation. Many of the lapses and omissions complained of in the Battle Roll thus admit of an easy explanation. A more trifling degree of negligence than that displayed (for instance) by Duchesne's scribe, would account for the disappearance of all the missing names that have an undoubted right to a place on a roll of the Conquerors of England. There are certainly not a few of them; but in this respect some copies appear to be more defective than others.[7] The one so severely handled by Sir Egerton Brydges must have been unusually meagre and imperfect, for he complains that it omits "among many others to be found in Domesday Book or other good authorities, the great names of Ferrers, Stafford, Gifford, Mohun, Malet, Mandeville, Baliol, Salisbury, Speke, Tony, Vesci, Byron, Gernon, Scales, St. Valery, Montfort, Montgomery, Churchill, Lovet, Lincoln, Pauncefoot, De Salsay, De Rie, De Brioniis, De Romare, De Vipount, De Creon, De Grentemesnil, Montfichet, Tatsall, &c." Yet, of these thirty names, ten only; that is, Baliol (which I believe appears as Bailif: see p. 76), Speke (or Espec), St. Valery, Churchill (Corcelles), Lovet, Pauncefoot, De Salsay, De Creon, De Romare, and Tatsall, are in reality absent; for the Earl of Salisbury is represented (as it is obvious he would be) by his surname of D'Evreux, Stafford by De Toesni, and Lincoln by De Gaunt. Even the reprints published by Sir Bernard Burke in 1848 ('The Roll of Battle Abbey, Annotated') are very far from being blameless in this particular, for eleven names are left out in Holinshed's copy, and two in Duchesne's. I should, however, be the last person in the world to throw a stone at these sorely tried transcribers, for I can vouch for the difficulty of the task imposed upon them. No one who has not personally attempted it (and I have myself done so more than once) can conceive how tedious and laborious it is to copy the Roll; nor how persistently the rows of disconnected names, piled one upon another, seem to slip out of their places.

Leland's list, to which I now come, seems at first sight to be wholly different from the others, though the names are in truth almost all the same. This is simply owing to their arrangement, for they are here strung together in rude rhymes, most probably as an aid to the memory. There are four hundred and ninety-five names, comprised in two hundred and forty-seven lines, for each line consists of two names (in one solitary case there are three), generally beginning with the same initial letter; but, beyond this, no attempt is made to class them in alphabetical order. Now and then two successive lines commence with the same letter, and once we find as many as three; but these are merely the exceptions that prove the rule. Consequently, they are jumbled together in such utter confusion, that it seems hopeless to recognize any connection between them and the symmetrically arrayed columns of their compeers. Nevertheless, the connection is to be found. I took the trouble of sorting these lines, arranging them alphabetically (according to their first letter) in the order in which they occurred; and discovered that out of the four hundred and ninety-five names, one hundred and seventy-five followed each other as they did in Holinshed. By making some allowance for faulty spelling, and admitting names that are placed together in inverted order (probably to suit the metre) this number may be increased to two hundred and seventy-eight or more. Surely it would be idle to treat such a result as an accidental coincidence. Elsewhere the list, thus arranged, is printed at full length (see p. xxviii), in order that all may have an opportunity of judging for themselves; but I will here give, as a sample, the first part of the names commencing with the letter C.

Camois Camoys et Cameville
Chawent Chavent et Chauncy
Conderay Soucheville, Coudrey et Colleville
Champernoun Chaumberlayn et Chaumberoun
Columber Comyn et Columber
Creuquere Griketot et Grevequer
Corbett Corby et Gorbet
Chaworth Chaundoys et Chaward
Cleremaus Challouns et Challeys
Clarell Clerevalx et Clarell
Chaunduit Chapes et Chauduit

It will be seen that there are three additions on Leland's side; but, if we eliminate these (Soucheville is plainly an afterthought edged in, for this happens to be the only line that has three names), and admit, with a few other discrepancies of spelling, the counterchange of G for C—not uncommon in old writings—the analogy is almost complete. The single exception, Cribet, I believe stands for Criket, the abbreviation of Criquetot. Leland's is probably what we should call "a popular edition" in the present day; curtailed in length, and rendered more palatable, as well as more easy to repeat and remember, by its jangle of rhyme. He begins, as Holinshed does, with Aumarle and Aincourt, and restores to us at least forty names that are given neither by the latter or Duchesne. He enables us to note the exact place where Avenel, Byron, Vipont, &c, stood on the original Roll; and in many cases also helps us to recover the original spelling. Thus, for example, "Pygot et Percy" identifies the name given as Pery in Holinshed and Pecy in Duchesne.

The spelling is in fact the principal difficulty that we have to contend with in attempting to decipher the Roll; and no one has yet thought it worth their while to grapple with it fairly. Sir Egerton Brydges dismisses the list with a very cursory inspection; and Sir Bernard Burke, in his published 'Annotations,' takes notice of no more than two hundred and nine of Holinshed's six hundred and twenty-nine names, passing over in silence the additional one hundred and eleven found in Duchesne and Leland. Nor does his reprint aid us in our search for the correct orthography, but considerably adds to our impediments, as he makes eighty-six mistakes in copying Holinshed's list, and twelve in copying Duchesne's. Many of these are unimportant; but in some cases, such as Orival—given Ounell—the name of the great house of De Aureavalle becomes unrecognizable. Mallory is disguised as Mallony, Noers becomes Noell, Avverne Arwerne, Beteville Beteurville, Filioll Folioll, Taverner Tavernez, &c. There is another very evident error. The two names given by Holinshed as Mountmartin and Miners thus appear in Duchesne's copy:


The letter M has clearly here been lost by some typographical accident. Yet the names are at once joined together as Mountmartin Yners!

There can be no possible difference of opinion as to the fact that all the three copies which we possess of the Roll are more or less mis-spelt. Many of the names, as they stand, are unintelligible. No doubt this is chiefly owing to the negligence or misapprehension of the scribes, but we must not, on the other hand, lose sight of the latitude to be allowed to all ancient writers in that respect. Before entering upon this vexed question of spelling, we must lay aside all our modern notions (I will not call them prejudices) in regard to the observances, distinctions, and exigencies that surround it in the present day. We live in an age when people are punctilious and fastidious as to the way in which their names are spelt; when we should wound the susceptibilities of Mr. Smijth, Mr. Smythe,[8] or Mr. Smyth, if we inadvertently mistook them for Mr. Smith; when any one whose patronymic began with two little f's would be roused to just indignation by seeing it written with one large F. But it was far otherwise in mediaeval times. Men wrote their names—when they could write at all—in any way that occurred to them at the moment, for there was neither rule nor precedent to guide them. Mr. Henry Drummond, in his 'Noble British Families,' quotes eighteen different ways of spelling Nevill that he had met with in deeds and records; Nash, in his 'History of Worcestershire,' gives us twenty-three versions of Percy: and this uncertainty, if we are to judge by the example of Shakespeare, still continued in the sixteenth century. Again, al and au, beau and bel, mau and mal, are synonyms; and val and ville (at least in the Roll) are treated in a similar way. V and F, S and C, C and G, G and W, V and W, W and M, are also used indiscriminately to produce the same sound. Nor should we fail to remember how easy it is to confound one letter with another in the old black letter character. The u and n are there as undistinguishable as they are in the "running hand" of our own times.

Sir Francis Palgrave mentions "the strange tricks produced by the ambiguity of the form of the n and the u in ancient manuscripts. It is very remarkable that in the old times, themselves, the very persons holding the names, either from caprice or ignorance confounded them. The name of Septvans or Septvaus affords a curious example of the fact, that in the black letter days, the old scribes could not always be certain of their own writing."—(See Vauville, vol. iii., p. 239.) The distinctions between them in the printed lists, given, as they must be, by guesswork, are very generally wrong. Further, the w easily merges into m; the s, so unlike an l in our modern print, becomes its twin sister as the black letter f, and is several times given for it. I might easily multiply these instances of confusion. Yet, with all such considerations to aid me in forming conjectures and solving difficulties, there remain eleven names of which I can make absolutely nothing, and have had to abandon as impregnable.

The antiquity of these names can, on account of the admitted interpolations, only be accepted with great reserve. But Sir Egerton Brydges does them injustice when he stigmatizes the Roll as an imposture, because of "the insertion of families who did not come to England till a subsequent period, and of surnames which were not adopted for some ages after the Conquest: of which, the greater part of the list is composed. If the Roll of Battle Abbey had been genuine, it must have received confirmation from that authentic record of the reign of Henry II., the Liber Niger Scaccarii, published by Hearne, but no two registers can less agree." This is hard measure, for out of the seven hundred and forty names that I have here taken into account, by far the greater number actually receive this confirmation, and are to be found in the Liber Niger. Others may be recovered from the chartularies of the different religious houses. It is, however, in the pages of Domesday Book that we must chiefly look for clues to the interpretation of the list; and if the 'Recherches sur le Domesday, ou Liber Censualis d'Angleterre,' so admirably conceived and commenced by MM. Lechaud d'Anisy and de St. Marie, had ever been carried out to the end, we might seldom have sought in vain. The principal difficulty we encounter in dealing with the great Survey is, that by far the greater number of the persons entered are designated by no other than their Christian name, and can only be identified by means of patient and laborious investigation. Most of the great land-owners had the same sub-tenants in Normandy as in England, who can thus be traced through their suzerains; and these Norman antiquaries, thoroughly acquainted as they had made themselves with the contemporary families in the Duchy, knowing their kindred, their domiciles, their intermarriages, and the deeds and charters relating to their property, can generally decide to which of them each belonged. They likewise give us some valuable information as to the rules that then prevailed regarding the adoption of surnames (see Averenges). But the letter A alone was finished, and appeared as long ago as 1842; nor is there, as I understand, any prospect of the work being resumed. The Dives Roll, again, helps us to decipher some of these disfigured names; and Mr. Lower, in his 'English Surnames,' followed by the author of 'The Norman People,' have done us rare service in tracing out the corruptions and transformations that the Norman nomenclature has undergone in this country. A large proportion of the names on the Roll appear in this debased form: [9] and some even, through the ignorance or inattention of the monks, are given over again in their modern spelling, such as Limesay, repeated as Lindsay, Mucegros, as Musgrave, &c. But it is clear that the list must have been several times rewritten, as, from its alphabetical order, very few additions could have been managed without incurring this necessity.

The number of these interpolations would seem to have been grossly exaggerated. If, with Sir Egerton Brydges, we admit (as I think we are justified in doing) that all those families which appear in the Liber Niger or occur in the twelfth century may be fairly assumed to date from the Conquest in England, most of our seven hundred and forty names are at once ratified; and of the remainder but few are excluded from the benefit of a doubt. So far from being "principally composed" of impostors and intruders, the Roll contains not more than ten proved interpolations.

Of this great array of time-honoured names, very few are now borne by representatives in the male line. Some descendants survive under the name of their manors, for which, according to an early mediaeval practice still prevalent in Scotland, they exchanged their own; more still are probably lost to sight in poverty and obscurity, and have dropped all the links that connected them with their former degree. I fully believe that the class included in this latter category, though unknown and almost unsuspected, is a very considerable one, for nothing is more striking than the extent and variety of the ramifications belonging to each family that are brought to light by a careful inspection of its history. They are so numerous that, from want of time and space, I have, in most cases, not attempted to deal with them. Genealogists, as a rule, are solely occupied with making out the descent of a title or estate; and thus the erratic female baronies, conveyed by heiresses, are sedulously traced through a succession of often uninteresting families, while the disinherited younger branches of the parent stock are ignored. These must, of necessity, have frequently sunk into insignificance and passed out of notice, gradually falling, into the lower stratum of the social scale. I will quote a remarkable instance of this. "In 1872 a vessel was lying in the Thames, about to take its departure for Tasmania. It conveyed as passengers three hundred navvies, who had been engaged to proceed to the Colonies, to complete an intended railway. They were all on board, when a fatal collision at night sent the vessel and every human being on board to the bottom.

"The list of the drowned passengers appeared in the public journals. It included a large number of purely Norman names. Several names were there recognized as formerly baronial and historical; and one baronial name the writer there discovered, the existence of which in England in the present age he had never before ascertained."—The Norman People. The great Norman name of De Venoix, transformed into Veness, is very common among the farm-labourers in the neighbourhood of Battle Abbey; and many Vaseys or Veseys, humble representatives of the powerful De Vescis, may still be found lingering in the county of Durham. But the authenticated male descents remain few and far between.

I do not imagine that the present generation would invest much money in having their names added to the Battle Abbey Roll. In these days the monks would have driven but a sorry trade; and they were fortunate in living at a time when those who have gone before were more highly esteemed than they are now. The pride of ancestry has in a great measure passed away; for the fast-rising wave of democracy day by day obliterates the old landmarks and traditions that were once held dear. Far removed, indeed, are we from the period when the gentleman's right to bear arms was considered so high a privilege, that Henry V.

offered it as a boon to those who had fought by his side at Agincourt[10] Heraldic bearings may now be assumed by any one who chooses to pay the coachmaker to mint them on his carriage,[11] and names and even peerages are bandied about without reference to any right of blood. It is a humiliating reflection that any swindler or scoundrel may, without incurring a legal penalty, call himself by an honourable and "unblamed" name, adopt its coat of arms, and drag it about in the dirt in all parts of the world. More lamentable is the belief so rapidly taking root among us, that money stands in lieu of all else; that the highest social position, and the good opinion and respect of our fellow-men, will always wait upon riches, and belong to their fortunate possessor.[12] The transmitted splendour of a glorious or venerated name, the honours gained on the field or at the council board, weigh but lightly in the scale that is so easily turned by gold.

Some, however, I trust there are, to whom the great names of the past remain a living memory; who shape their course in this world under a deep sense of the responsibility of bearing them; and fill their appointed positions and do their appointed work

By the dead gaze of all their ancestors."

To them, I feel I owe an apology for this cursory and imperfect retrospect. The subject deserves to be treated by an abler hand than mine; and if developed to its full proportions, would embrace nearly the whole of the eight last centuries of the History of England.

A. A.
Aumarle Aumerle
Audeley Audeley
Adgillam Angilliam
Argentoune Argentoun
Arundell Arundell
Auenant Auenant
Abell Abel
Angers Avvgers
Angenoun Angenoun
Archere Archer
Asperuile Asperuile
Amouerduile Amonerduile
Arcy and Akeny Arey
Albeny Albeny
Aspermound Asperemound
B. B.
Bertram Bertram
Buttecourt Buttecourt
Brebus and Byseg Brash us
Bardolfe Bardolf
Basset and Bigot Basset
Bohun Bohun
Bailif Baylife
Bondeuile Bondeuile
Brabason Barbason
Bures Bures
Bounilaine Bonylayne
Brabaion Barbayon
Berners Berners
Braibuf Braybuf
Brande and Bronce Brand
Burgh Burgh
Bushy Busshy
Blondell Blundell
Breton Breton
Bluat and Baious Bayons
Browne Broune
Beke Beke
Banastre Banestre
Beauchampe Beauchamp
Bray and Bandy Bandy
Broleuy Broyleby
Burnell Burnel
Bellet Belot
Baudewin Baudewine
Burdon Burdon
Berteuilay Bertevyley
Barre Barte
Busseuile Busseuile
Blunt Blunt
Beaupere Beawper
Brette Bret
Barrett Barret
Barniuale Barneuale
Barry Barry
Bodin Bodyt
Beteuile Berteuile
Bertin Bertine
Bellewe Belew
Busshell Buschell
Beleuers Beleners
Buffard Buffard
Boteler Boteler
Boteuile Botuile
Brasard Brasard
Beelhelme Belhelme
Braunch Braunche
Belesuz Bolesur
Blundell Blundel
Burdet Burdet
Bagot Bigot
Boels Bools
Belefroun Belefroun
Barchampe Barchampe
C. C.
Camois Camos
Camuille Chanuille
Chawent Chawent
Chauncy Chancy
Conderay Couderay
Coluile Coluile
Chamberlaine Chamberlaine
Chamburnoun Chambernoune
Cribett Cribet
Corbine Corbine
Corbett Corbet
Chaundos Chaundos
Chaworth Chaworthe
Cleremaus Claremaus
Clarell Clarell
Chaunduit Chaunduyt
Chantelow Chantilowe
Cressy Cressy
Curtenay Courtenay
Conestable Constable
Cholmeley Cholmelay
Champney Champeney
Chawnos Chawnos
Champaine Champain
Carbonelle Carbonell
Charles Charles
Chereberge Chareberge
Chawnes Chawnes
Chaumont Chawmont
Cheine Cheyne
Curson Cursen
Couille Conell
Chaiters Chayters
Cheines Cheynes
Cateray Cateray
Cherecourt Cherecourt
Cammile Chaunuile
Clerenay Clereney
Curly Curly
Clifford Clyfford
D. D.
Denauille Deauuile
Dercy Dercy
Diue Dine
Dispencere Dispencer
Daniell Daniel
Denise and Druell Denyse
Deuaus Devaus
Dauers Dauers
Dodingsels Doningsels
Darell Darell
Delaber Delabere
Delapole De la Pole
Delalinde De la Lind
Delahill De la Hill
Delaware De la Wate
Delauache De la Watche
Dakeny Dakeny
Dauntre Dauntre
Desny Desuye
Dabernoune Dabernoune
Damry Damry
Daueros Daueros
Delauere De la Vere
Delee De Liele
Delaward De la Warde
Delaplanch De la Planch
Danway Danway
Dehense De Hewse
Disard Disard
Durant Durant
Drury Diury
E. E.
Estrange Estrange
Estuteuile Estutauille
Engaire Engayne
Esturney Esturney
F. F.
Foluille Foluile
Fitz Water Fitz Water
Fitz Marmaduke Fitz Marmadux
Filberd Fiberd
Fitz Roger Fitz Roger
Fitz Robert
Fauecourt Fanecourt
Fitz Philip Fitz Philip
Fitz Otes
Fitz William Fitz William
Fitz Roand
Fitz Pain Fitz Paine
Fitz Auger
Fitz Aleyn Fitz Alyne
Fitz Rauff Fitz Raulfe
Fitz Browne Fitz Browne
Fouke Foke
Freuil Freuile
Front de Boef
Facunberge Faconbrige
Frisell Frissell
Fitz Simon
Fitz Fouk
Filioll Filioll
Fitz Thomas Fitz Thomas
Fitz Morice Fitz Morice
Fitz Hugh Fitz Hugh
Fitz Henric
Fitz Waren Fitz Warren
Fitz Rainold
Flamuile Faunuile
Formay Formay
Fitz Eustach
Fitz Laurence
Formibaud Formiband
Frisound Frison
Finere and Fitz Robert Finer
Fitz Vrcy
Furniuale Furniuall
Fitz Geffrey
Fitz Herbert Fitzs Herbert
Fitz Peres
Fitz Rewes
Fitz Fitz
Fitz Iohn Fitz Iohn
G. G.
Graunson Graunson
Gracy Gracy
Gower Gouer
Gray Gray
Golofre Golofer
Graunt Grauns
Gurley Gurly
Gurdon Gurdon
Gamages Gamages
H. H.
Haunsard Hansard
Hastings Hastings
Hanlay Haulay
Husee Husie
Heme Heme
Hamelin Hamelyn
Harewell Harewell
Hardell Hardel
Hakett Hecket
Hamound Hamound
Harcord Harecord
I. I.
Iarden Iarden
Iay Iay
Ianuile Ianuile
Iasperuile Iasperuile
K. K.
Karre Karre
Karrowe Karron
Kiriell Kyriell
L. L.
Loueny Leuony
Latomer Latomere
Loueday Loueday
Louell Leuel
Lemare Lemare
Lucy Lucy
Lislay, or Liele
Longespes Longspes
Longechampe Lonschampe
Lascales Lastels
Loterell Loterel
Longeuale Longuaile
Loy Loy
Lane Laue
Le Despenser
M. M.
Marmilon Marmilon
Moribray Moribray
Moruile Moruile
Manlay Manley
Malebraunch Malebranche
Malemaine Malemaine
Mortimaine Mortmaine
Muse Muse
Marteine Marteine
Mountbother Mountbocher
Maleuile Maleuile
Mounteney Mountney
Maleherbe Maleherbe
Musegros Musgros
Musard Musard
Montravers Mautrauers
Merke Merke
Murres Murres
Mountagu Montagu
Manteuenant and Manfe
Morleian Maine
Mandut Mandute
Mainard Mainard
Mountmartin yners
Mainwaring Mainwaring
Maiell Mayel
Morton Morton
N. N.
Neuile Neuile
Newmarch Neumarche
Norbet Norbet
Norice Norece
Newborough Newborough
Neile Neele
Normauile Normanuile
O O.
Oteuell Olenel
Olibef Olibet
Olifant Olifaunt
Oisell Oysell
Olifard Oliford
Orioll Oryoll
P. P.
Pigot Pigot
Pery Pecy
Perepount Perecount
Pershale Pershale
Power Power
Painell Paynel
Perche and Pauey Peche
Peurell Peuerell
Perot Perot
Picard Picard
Pomeray Pimeray
Pounce Pounsey
Punchardoun Punchardon
Pinchard Pynchard
Placy Placy
Patefine Patine
Pampilioun Pampilion
Perere and Pekeny
Poterell Poterell
Peukeney Pekeney
Penecord Penicord
Q. Q.
Quinci Quincy
Quintiny Quintine
R. R.
Ros Rose
Ridell Ridle
Riuell Rynel
Rous Rous
Rushell Russel
Ronde Rond
Richemound Richmond
Rochford Rocheford
Raimond Reymond
S. S.
Souch Seuche
Sent Quintin Seint Quintine
Sent Omere Seint Omer
Sent Amond Seint Amand
Sent Legere Seint Leger
Someruile Soueruile
Sanford Sanford
Somerey Somery
Sent Iohn
Sent George Seint George
Sent Les Seint Les
Saluin Sauine
Seint Clo
Sent Albin Seint Albine
Sent Martin
Sent Barbe Seinte Barbe
Sent Vile
Sanduile Sandeuile
Sent Cheueroll
Sent More Seint More
Sent Scudemore Seint Scudemor
T. T.
Toget Toget
Tuchet Tuchet
Trousbut Trusbut
Trainell Traynel
Taket Taket
Trussel and Trison
Talbot Talbot
Tanny Tanny
Tibtote Tibtote
Turbeuile Turbeuill
Turuile Turuile
Tomy and Tauerner
Torell Torel
Totelles Totels
V. V.
Valence Valence
Vauasour Vauasour
Vendore Vender
Aubrie de Vere
Verland Verland
Veirny Verny
Vnket Vnket
Vancorde and Valenges
W. W.
Wake Wake
Wareine Waren
Wate Wate
Watelin Wateline
Wateuil Wateuile
Wely Woly
Wiuell Wyuell
[Alphabetically arranged.]
Aumarill et Deyncourt
Audel et Aungeloun
Argenteyn et Avenele
Sainct Amande et Adryelle
Avenel et S. Amary
Aimeris et Aveneris
Bertrem et Buttencourt
Biard et Biford
Bardolf et Basset
Bigot et Boown
Baillof et Boundeville
Briansoun et Baskerville
Burnel et Buttevillain
Bruys et Dispencer
Boys et Boteler
Brabasoun et Bevers
Braund et Baybof
Bruys et Burgh
Bavent et Bussy
Bretonn et Blundet
Baius et Bluett
Banestre et Bekard
Bealum et Beauchamp
Baudyn et Bray
Burdet et Boroun
Baudewyn et Beaumont
Blundet et Burdoun
Barray et Bretevile
Blounte et Boseville
Benny et Boyvile
Broth et Barbedor
Baret et Bourte
Byngard et Bernevale
Bonet et Barry
Brian et Bidin
Buscel et Bevery
Bernevile et Bretevile
Belew et Bertin
Broy et Bromevile
Bleyn et Breicourt
Busard et Belevile
Camoys et Cameville
Chavent et Chauncy
Chaumberlayn et Chaumberoun
Comyn et Columber
Corby et Gorbet
Chaundoys et Chaward
Challouns et Challeys
Clerevalx et Clarel
Chapes et Chaudut
Cauntelow et Coubray
Crescy et Courteny
Constable et Tally
Champeneys et Chanceus
Coursoun et Courtevile
Chartres et Chenil
Deyville et Darcy
Daubenay et Deverelle
Denyas et Druel
Delahay et Haunsard
Dodingle et Darell
De Lalaund et de l'Isle
De la Pole et Pinkeney
De Wake et De la War
De la Marche et De la Mare
Dakeny et Dautre
Diseney et Dabernoun
Damary et Deveroys
Daverenges et Duylly
De la Rivers et Revel
Destraunges et Delatoun
Dulee et De la Laund
De la Valet et Veylaund
Damot et Damay
Duraunt et Doreny
Disart et Doynell
De la Huse et Howell
Estraunge et Estoteville
Fererers et Foleville
Fiz Walter et Werdoun
Fenes et Felebert
Fitz Roger et Fitz Robert
Fovecourt et Feniers
Fitz Philip et Fliot
Fourneux et Fournivaus
Fitz Alayne et Gilebof
Fitz William et Watervile
Fitz Robert et Fitz Aleyne
Fitz Ralph et Rosel
Fitz Brian et Bracy
Fryville et Fressel
Fitz Rauf et Filiol
Fitz Thomas et Tibol
Fitz Morice et S. More
Fitz Hugh et Fitz Henry
Fitz Arviz et Esturmy
Fitz Raynald et Roscelin
Fitz Marmaduke et Mountrivel
Fitz Eustace et Eustacy
Fermbaud et Frisoun
Fichent et Trivet
Gurnay et Greilly
Graunson et Tracy
Gorgeise et Gower
Griketot et Grevequer
Gaunt et Garre
Genevile et Gifard
Gaugy et Gobaude
Gray et Graunson
Galofer et Gubion
Grymward et Geroun
Glancourt et Chaumont
Graundyn et Gerdoun
Hautein et Hauville
Hastings et Haulley
Hurell et Husee
Hercy et Heroun
Heryce et Harecourt
Hayward et Henour
Hameline et Hareville
Jardin et Jay
Kymarays et Kyriel
Kanceis et Revelers
Loveyne et Lascy
Lymesey et Latymer
Lungvilers et S. Ligiere
Loveday et Lovel
Lenias et Levecote
Lascels et Lovein
Longvil et Longespe
Loverak et Longchaump
Lifford et Osevile
Loring et Loterel
Lisours et Longvale
La Muile et Lownay
Liof et Limers
Mohaut et Mooun
Morley et Moundevile
Moubray et Morvile
Menevile et Mauley
Malebuche et Malemayn
Morteine et Mortimer
Muse et Martine
Mountburgh et Mounsorel
Maleville et Malet
Mounfey et Mounfichet
Maleberge et Marre
Mussegros et Musard
Maingun et Montravers
Merkingfel et Mourreis
Montagu et Mountfort
Mautalent et Maudict
Maunys et Meulos
Mortivaux et Monthensy
Mallop et Marny
Maihermer et Muschet
Menyle et Maufe
Maucovenant et Mounpinson
Maoun et Mainard
Malebys et Mounceus
Myriet et Morley
Mauliverer et Mouncy
Mauclerk et Maners
Musteys et Merlay
Mauches et Mascy
Movet et S. Martine
Male Kake et Mauncel
Mangysir et Mauveysin
Maulovel et Maurewarde
Neners et Nereville
Newmarch et Newbet
Neville et Newburgh
Nairmere et Fitz Neel
Otinel et S. Thomer
Onatule et Cheyni
Oysel et Olifard
Pygot et Percy
Power et Panel, alias Paignel
Peche et Peverelle
Perot et Pykarde
Poynce et Pavely
Paifrer et Plukenet
Peverel et Fitz Payne
Pikard et Pinkadoun
Perpounte et Fitz Peris
Pugoys et Paiteny
Perrers et Pavillioun
Percehay et Pereris
Quincy et S. Quintine
Querru et Coigners
Ros et Ridel
Ryvers et Ryvel
Rugetius et Fitz Rohaut
Ry et Rokell
Rysers et Reynevil
Rivers et Ripere
Soucheville, Coudray et Colleville
S. Cloyis et S. Clere
Sainct Amande et Adryelle
Someraye et Howarde
Saunzaver et Saunford
Sainct Tese et Sauvay
Souley et Soules
Sorel et Somery
S. John et S. Jory
S. Leo et Luscy
Saunzpour et Fitz Simon
Salvayn et Say
Sesee et Solers
Sovereng et Suylly
Surdevale et Sengryn
S. Barbe et Sageville
Tregos et Treylly
Tuchet et Trussell
Takel et Talbot
Tourbeville et Tipitot
Thays et Tony
Tuk et Tany
Thorny et Thornille
Tyriet et Turley
Tolimer et Treville
Tourys et Tay
Tingez et Gruyele
Tinel et Traville
Tolet et Tisoun
Tarteray et Chercourt
Vipount et Umfraville
Veer et Vinoun
Vuasteneys et Waville
Vescy et Verders
Valence et Vaus
Vavasor et Warroys
Verbois et Wacelay
Vallonis et Vernoun
Vendour et Veroun
Venables et Venour
Vilain et Valeris
Vernoun et Waterville
Warenne et Wauncy
Waville et Warley
Waloys et Levele
Wace et Wyvile
Warde et Werlay
Walangay et Fitzwarin
Wemerlay et Wamervile
Ours d'Abbetot
Roger d'Abernon
Ruaud l'Adoube
Norman d'Adreci
Engenouf de l'Aigle
Bernard d'Alencon
Guillaume Alis
Geoffroi Alselin
Hugue L'Ane
Richer d'Andeli
Guillaume d'Ansleville
Honfroi d'Ansleville
Fouque d'Appeville
Guillaume L'Archer
Arnoul d'Ardre
David d'Argentan
Guillaume d'Arques
Osberne d'Arques
Robert d'Armentieres
Roger Arundel
Robert d'Auberville
Roger d'Auberville
Seri d'Auberville
Neel d'Aubigny
Guillaume d'Audrieu
Goubert d'Aufay
Robert d'Aumale
Guillaume de l'Aune
Raoul d'Aunou
D'Auvrecher d'Angerville
Hugue d'Avranches
Rahier d'Avre
Renaud de Bailleul
Geoffroi Bainard
Raoul Baignard
Guineboud de Balon
Hamelin de Balon
Raoul de Bans
Raoul de Bapaumes
Robert de Barbes
Guillaume Basset
Raoul Basset
Robert Le Bastard
Eude, eveque de Bayeux
Hugue de Beauchamp
Guillaume de Beaufou
Richard de Beaumais
Henri de Beaumont
Goubert de Beauvais
Geoffroi du Bec
Guillaume Belet
Ours de Bercheres
Raoul de Bernai
Hugue de Bernieres
Herve Le Berrurier
Guillaume Bertran
Neel de Berville
Dreu de La Beuvriere
Richard de Bienfaite
Roger Bigot
Guillaume de Biville
Honfroi de Biville
Guimond de Blangi
Gilbert Le Blond
Guillaume Le Blond
Gilbert de Blosseville
Raoul Blouet
Robert Blouet
Hugue de Bois Hebert
Honfroi de Bohon
Roger Boissel
Hugue de Bolbec
Richard de Bondeville
Guillaume Bonvalet
Guillaume du Bosc
Roger de Bosc Normand
Guillaume de Bosc Roard
Roger de Bosc Roard
Raoul Botin
Guillaume de Bourneville
Hugue Bourdet
Robert Bourdet
Fouque Le Bourguignon
Guillaume de Brai
Hugue de Brebeuf
Auvrai Le Breton
Roger de Breteuil
Gilbert de Bretteville
Osberne du Breuil
De Briqueville
Renier de Brimou
Guillaume de Briouse
Robert de Brix
Raoul de La Bruiere
Robert de Buci
Gilbert de Budi
Roger de Bulli
Serlon de Burci
Erneis de Buron
Guillaume de Bursigni
Fouque de Caen
Maurin de Caen
Guillaume de Cahaignes
Guillaume de Cailly
Guillaume de Cairon
Geoffroi de Cambrai
De Canouville
Guillaume de Cardon
Guillaume de Carnet
Honfroi de Carteret
Mauger de Carteret
Roger de Carteret
Guillaume de Castillon
Guillaume de Ceauce
Eude, comte de Champagne
Robert de Chandos
Roger de Chandos
Raoul de Chartres
Anquetil de Cherbourg
Guillaume La Chevre
Gonfroi de Cioches
Sigar de Cioches
Fouque de Claville
De Clinchamps
Gilbert de Colleville
Guillaume de Colleville
Baudoin de Colombieres
Raoul de Colombieres
Renouf de Colombelles
Raoul de Conteville
Robert Corbet
Roger Corbet
Guillaume Corbon
Hugue de Corbon
Ansfroi de Cormeilles
Goscelin de Cormeilles
Aubri de Couci
Raoul de Courbepine
Robert de Courcelles
Richard de Courcy
Robert de Courcon
Gui de Craon
Mile Crespin
Renaud Croc
Robert Cruel
Honfroi de Culai
Eude Cul de Loup
De Cussy
Guillaume de Daumerai
Guillaume Le Despensier
Robert Le Despensier
Beuselin de Dives
Hugue de Dol
Fouque de Douai
Goscelin de Douai
Amauri de Dreux
Herman le Dreux
Guillaume de Durville
Hardouin d'Ecalles
Guillaume d'Ecouis
Richard Engagne
Auvrai d'Espagne
Herve d'Espagne
Guillaume Espec
Raoul L'Estourmi
Richard L'Estourmi
Guillaume d'Eu
Osberne d'Eu
Robert, comte d'Eu
Guillaume, comte d'Evreux
Roger d'Evreux
Guillaume de Falaise
Guillaume de Fecamp
Henri de Ferrieres
Robert fils de Geroud
Guillaume fils d'Osberne
Turstain fils de Rou
Toustain fils d'Unspac
Baudoin Le Flamand
Eude Le Flamand
Gerboud Le Flamand
Guinemard Le Flamand
Hugue Le Flamand
Josce Le Flamand
Renouf Flambard
Guillaume Folet
Etienne de Fontenai
Guillaume de La Foret
Neel Fossard
Guillaume de Fougeres
Raoul de Fougeres
Eude de Fourneaux
Raoul Framan
Richard Fresle
De Fribois
Robert Froment
Raoul de Gael
Gilbert de Gand
Gilbert Gibard
Berenger Giffard
Fouke Giffard
Osberne Giffard
Robert de Glanville
Guillaume Goulaffre
Hugue de Gournai
Neel de Gournai
Anquetil de Grai
Aubert Greslet
Gautier de Grancourt
Hugue de Grentemesnil
Turold de Grenteville
Robert Guernon
Toustain de Guernon
Geoffroi de La Guierche
Gautier Hachet
Robert de Harcourt
Raoul de Hauville
Herve d'Helion
Arnoul de Hesdin
Gautier Heuse
Hugue de Hodenc
Hugue de Hoto
Gautier d'Incourt
Honfroi de l'Ile
Raoul de l'Ile
Achard d'Ivri
Hugue d'Ivri
Roger d'Ivri
Gautier de Laci
Hugue de Laci
Ibert de Laci
Roger de Laci
Raoul de Languetot
Guillaume de Letre
Raoul de Limesi
Roger de Lisieux
Fouque de Lisors
Bigot de Loges
Robert de Lorz
Guillaume de Loucelles
Guillaume de Louvet
Hugue de Maci
Durand Malet
Gilbert Malet
Guillaume Malet
Robert Malet
Guillaume de Malleville
Gilbert Maminot
Hugue Maminot
Geoffroi de Mandeville
Hugue de Manneville
Toustain Mantel
Guillaume de La Mare
Hugue de La Mare
Geoffroi Le Marechal
Geoffroi Martel
Raoul de Marsi
De Mathan
Guillaume Maubenc
Gonfroi Mauduit
Guillaume Mauduit
Geoffroi Maurouard
Richard de Meri
Du Merle
Auvrai de Merleberge
Robert, comte de Meulan
Baudoin de Meules
Roger de Meules
Hugue de Mobec
Guillaume de Monceaux
Ansger de Montaigu
Dreu de Montaigu
Hubert de Mont Canisi
Geoffroi de Montbrai
Robert de Montbrai
De Montfiquet
Hugue de Montfort
Robert de Montfort
Hugue de Montgomeri
Roger de Montgomeri
Robert, comte de Mortaine
Mathieu de Mortagne
Raoul de Mortemer
Robert des Moutiers
Guillaume de Moyon
Roger de Moyaux
Gautier de Mucedent
Neel de Munneville
Robert Murdac
Hascouf Musard
Hugue Musard
Roger de Mussegros
Bernard du Neufmarche
Richard de Neuville
Raoul de Noron
Guillaume de Noyers
Roger d'Oistreham
Gautier d'Omontville
Roger d'Orbec
Raoul d'Ouilli
Robert d'Ouilli
Raoul Painel
Bernard Pancevolt
Guillaume Pantoul
Turould de Papelion
Foucher de Paris
Guillaume de Parthenay
Osberne Pastforeire
Guillaume Peche
Arnoul de Perci
Guillaume de Perci
Geoffroi, comte de la Perche
Guillaume Pevrel
Renouf Pevrel
Roger Picot
Anscoul de Picquigni
Guillaume de Picquigni
Geoffroi de Pierrepont
Renaud de Pierrepont
Robert de Pierrepont
Raoul Pinel
Raoul Pipin
Roger de Pistres
Guillaume Poignant
Richard Poignant
Guillaume de Poillei
Thierri Pointel
Guernon de Pois
Guillaume Le Poitevin
Roger Le Poitevin
Raoul de La Pommeraie
Robert de Pontchardon
Guillaume de Pont-de-l'Arche
Hubert de Port
Hugue de Port
Gui de Rainecourt
Enguerrand de Raimbeaucourt
Gui de Raimbeaucourt
Roger de Rames
Hugue de Rennes
Guillaume de Reviers
Richard de Reviers
Robert de Rhuddlan
Gautier de Risbou
Goscelin de La Riviere
Robert de Romenel
Vauquelin de Rosai
Anquetil de Ros
Ansgot de Ros
Geoffroi de Ros
Serlo de Ros
Alain Le Roux
Geoffroi de Runeville
Richard de Sacquenville
Richard de Saint Clair
Roger de Saint Germain
Renaud de Sainte Helene
Toustain de Sainte Helene
Robert de Saint Leger
Bernard de Saint Ouen
De Sainte Marie d'Agneaux
Hugue de Saint Quentin
Raoul de Saint Sanson
Gautier de Saint Valeri
Renouf de Saint Valeri
Osberne de Saussai
Raoul de Saussai
Raoul de Savigni
Eude Le Seneschal
Hamon Le Seneschal
Simon de Senlis
Ansger de Senarpont
Guillaume de Sept Meules
Hugue Silvestre
Roger de Sommeri
Richard de Sourdeval
Guillaume de Taillebois
Ive de Taillebois
Raoul de Taillebois
Geoffroi Talbot
Richard Talbot
Auvrai de Tanie
Guimond de Tessel
Robert Thaon
Raoul du Theil
Honfroi de Tilleul
De Tilly
Toustain Tinel
Gilbert Tison
Berenger de Toeni
Guillaume de Toeni
Ibert de Toeni
Juhel de Toeni
Raoul de Toeni
Robert de Toeni
Renaud de Torteval
De Touchet
Geoffroi de Tournai
Raoul de Tourlaville
De Tournebut
Raoul de Tourneville
Raoul Tranchard
Geoffroi de Trelli
Pierre de Valonges
Guillaume de Vatteville
Richard de Vatteville
Robert de Vatteville
Ansfroi de Vaubadon
Osmond de Vaubadon
Renouf de Vaubadon
Guillaume de Vauville
Aitard de Vaux
Robert de Vaux
Ive de Veci
Robert de Veci
Gilbert de Venables
De Venois
Guillaume de Ver
Bertran de Verdun
Gautier de Vernon
Huard de Vernon
Richard de Vernon
Hugue de Vesli
Robert de Vesli
Le Vicomte
Robert de Villon
Honfroi Vis-de-Loup
Raoul Vis-de-Loup
Robert de Vitot
Hugue de Viville
Osberne de Wanci
Guillaume de Warenne
Gilbert de Wissant
Bernard, fils de Herve, due d'Orleans De Folleville
Alain Fergant, comte de Bretagne De Gace
Neel, vicomte du Cotentin Gouhier
Odon, eveque de Bayeux Robert Grante
Herbert d'Aigneaux Robert Gruel
Eustache d'Ambleville Harenc (tige de la maison de Gauville)
Avenel des Biards Robert de la Haye
Martel de Bacqueville De la Haye-Malherbe
Guillain de Banville Herce
De Barville Houel
De Bay nee De Janville
Eude de Beaujeu De Malherbe
Toussaint du Bec De Mallebranche
De Breaute De Mauvoisin
De Brecey Payen du Montier
Hamon de Cayeu De Roumare
De Chambray De Rupierre
De Courtenay Russel, alias Rozel
De Coville De Tancarville
De Creuilly, issu de la race des dues de Raoul Tesson
Normandie Amaury de Thouars
Doynel De Tillieres
Etienne Erard De Tracy
D' Espinay D'Unfraville
D'Estouteville Guillain de Vieux-Pont

I have given these exactly as M. de Magny has himself noted them, only omitting the second notice of the Viscount of the Cotentin as "Neel de St. Sauveur." But two of them are not in reality additions; for Robert Gruel is obviously the same person given in the Dives Roll, more correctly, as Robert Cruel; Toussaint de Bec and Turstain fils de Rou, the standard-bearer at Hastings, are also identical; and I may add that I do not believe any real distinction can be drawn between Herce and Hericy.


"Dicitur a bello, bellum locus hic, quia bello
Angligenae victi, sunt hic in morte relicti;
Martyris in Christi festo cecidere Calixti:
Sexagemus erat sextus millesimus annus
Cum pereunt Angli, stella monstrante cometa."

Aumale :

in Leland's list Aumarill. This name, altered by habit of speech to Albemarle, was taken from the Norman fief of Aumale, afterwards raised to the rank of a Comte by William the Conqueror. The castle stood on the river Eu (now called the Bresle) at the point where it divides Normandy from Picardy, and had been built about the year 1000 by Guernifroi, Sire d'Aumale, who also founded the neighbouring Abbey of St. Martin d'Auchi. "Cil ki ert Sire de Aubemare" is included in the Roman de Rou among,

"Les Grauntz dela la Mer,
Que vindrent od le Conquerour
William Bastard de graunt vigour,"

and fought by his side at Hastings. This was Odo, the disinherited Count of Champagne, then, in right of his wife, Lord of Aumale, of whom the first clear and detailed account yet known has been recently compiled by Mr. Stapleton from the records of the church of St. Martin d'Auchi, commonly called of Aumale. (Collectanea topographica et genealogica, vol. vi. p. 265.) His father Stephen II., Count of Champagne and Brie, died, in 1047, leaving him a mere child, and "he was immediately dispossessed of by his uncle, Thibaut II.; legally, it would appear, according to the law of that period, which, if the heir of the lordship was not of sufficient age to receive investiture by the ceremony of girding witan the sword, authorized the nearest in blood of full age to claim the succession."—The Conqueror and his Companions, by J. R. Planche. He took refuge at the court of William of Normandy, who was, as William de Jumieges informs us, his kinsman; and in due time married the Duke's half-sister Adeliza. She was, though a young woman, already a widow for the second time. Her first husband was Enguerrand (Ingelram), son of Hugh II., Count of Ponthieu, and Sire d'Aumale, in right of his mother Bertha, the heiress of Guernifroi. By him she had a daughter named after herself, Adeliza, who inherited Aumale. Enguerrand was killed in an ambush at St. Aubin in 1053, and she remarried in the following year Lambert, Count of Lenz in Artois (the brother of Eustace II., Count of Boulogne), and had another daughter called Judith—the richly—dowered Countess Judith of Domesday. Lambert scarcely lived long enough to see the birth of his child, for he fell in battle at Lille, in 1055. She then bestowed her hand on Odo, and by him was the mother of Stephen, who appears to have held Aumale by joint-tenure with his elder half-sister Adeliza, and after her death became the first Comte d'Aumale or Earl of Albemarle.

Odo's name is not in Domesday: but we there find the "Comitissa d'Albemarle" holding a barony in Essex, and another in Suffolk, of the King. According to Sir Henry Ellis, this was his wife; but Mr. Planche asserts that his wife was dead before 1085, and that the Countess in question was his stepdaughter. Not long after this, he obtained the great fief that had been originally granted to Drogo de Brevere, "a Fleming of approved valour, who came over to England with William, and received for his services the Isle of Holderness, on which he built the strong castle of Skipsey, and other considerable estates in various counties, amongst them Bytham, in Lincolnshire. He is said to have married a kinswoman of the King—how related to him, or how named, is not stated. Whoever she was, Drogo killed her—whether by accident, or with malice prepense, does not appear in the indictment. His subsequent conduct, however, was that of a guilty man. He hastened to the King, and pretended that he was desirous to take his wife to Flanders; but, not having sufficient money at command for the purpose, craved assistance from his royal connection. The King, not doubting his story, gave or lent to him the sum required, with which Drogo wisely made the best of his way to the coast, and took ship for the Low Countries. The King, on learning the truth, sent orders for his arrest, but too late. Drogo was beyond his reach."—Planche. But Drogo's fief, at all events, was not; it was forthwith seized and appropriated, and the vast lordship of Holderness, comprising a large tract of Yorkshire, and erroneously styled an earldom by Orderic, was bestowed upon Odo. Not content with a part, Odo coveted the whole, and, complaining that Holderness was a barren country, bearing no other grain but oats, obtained from the King, Bytham, in Lincolnshire, that he might "feed his young son with wheaten bread."

On the death of the Conqueror, Odo, after some perplexity, elected to take part with his suzerain in England against his suzerain in Normandy; yet, within five years, he had thrown off his allegiance, and joined Robert de Moubray and some other disaffected nobles in an attempt to place his own son on the throne. The King received timely warning of the plot, and both he and Stephen were arrested and thrown into prison. Odo never saw the light of day again, but ended his life in the dungeon pit to which he was consigned. None knew with certainty when he died; but he is believed to have endured his captivity for thirteen miserable years.

Stephen was more fortunate. The King had sentenced him to have his eyes put out (one of Rufus's favourite punishments); but by means of the piteous prayers of his wife and family, and the payment of a large sum of money, he obtained his pardon and release. It was he who first bore the title of Earl of Albemarle. He accompanied Robert Courtheuse on his crusade, and twice rose in rebellion against Henry I.; the second time in 1129, when "of those that thus adventured, some lost their lives, some were imprisoned, and some disinherited, so that what became of this our Stephen, I can give no account."—Dugdale. By his wife, Hawise de Mortimer, he was the father of three sons and four daughters. Of the two younger sons, Stephen and Ingelram, we hear nothing; but his successor, William, styled Le Gros, second Earl of Albemarle, was one of the greatest potentates of his day, and commanded in chief at the famous victory of Northallerton in 1138. On the approach of the King of Scots, Archbishop Thurstan, who had the custody of the Borders, and was himself too infirm to take the field, issued his summons far and wide, and "caused a famous standard to be erected, and thereon the banners of St. Peter, St. John of Beverley, and St. Wilfrid of Ripon, adding thereto the Sacred Host, to the end that all who came to it might receive the more encouragement." Around it, on the height still known as Standard Hill, was gathered the flower of the northern baronage, with some of the great names of the midland shires, William Peverel, with "the power of Nottingham," and Robert Ferrers with the men of Derby. The Bishop of Durham and Walter Espec, the black-browed Baron of Helmsley, vigorously exhorted and harangued the rest before the action. It was fiercely contested; and though it began with an advantage gained by the men of Lothian over the English vanguard, this first check was quickly retrieved, the tide of victory turned, and the Scots "began to shrink back, first by partes, and after by heapes together." The King and his brave son, Henry of Huntingdon, "did what he could to stay them"; but the day was utterly and irretrievably lost, and their rout and disaster complete. About 10,000 men fell in this battle, and for his great services on this memorable occasion, William Le Gros received from the King the Earldom of Yorkshire. But he tarnished his fame by his subsequent defection at Lincoln, in 1141, for he "is said to have fled away from that fight, exposing the King to that loss he there underwent."—Dugdale.

He was the founder of several monasteries, and as a devout son of the Church, made a vow to go on pilgrimage to Jerusalem; but, as years went by, and he "waxed very fat and gross," the prospect of so long and toilsome a journey weighed more and more heavily on his spirits. A subtle and keen-eyed monk of Fountains, named Adam, who had presided at the building of his abbey of Vaudey, as well as of Woburn in Bedfordshire, and Kirkstead in Lincolnshire, "discerning that he was in no small trouble of mind about his vow," offered to obtain his absolution from it of the Pope, if he would undertake to build and endow another house for Cistercian monks. The Earl agreed, and the monk travelled to Rome, procured the required dispensation, and came back to claim the fulfilment of the condition. It was settled that Adam should himself choose the site of the proposed monastery, and he had ample range for his choice, as the Earl was at that time, by marriage and inheritance, the owner of the greater part of Yorkshire. He fixed upon a lovely and fruitful valley—a true monk's paradise—with broad lakes and flowing streams, embosomed in hanging woods; and, climbing what was then named Our Ladies Hill, fixed his staff in the ground, crying, "This place shall be called the King's Court, the Vineyard of Heaven, and the Gate of Life. Here shall be ordained a people worshipping Christ." The poor Earl was, however, more disturbed in mind than ever; for this happened to be his favourite retreat, obtained not long before by exchange from Sir John de Meaux, a place for which he had "an extraordinary love," and had already begun to enclose for a park. But there was no going back from his word, or gainsaying the monk's prophecy. The Abbey of Meaux was built in this Naboth's vineyard, and Adam became its first abbot.

Besides these two religious houses, he founded another at Thornton-upon-Humber, where he was buried. The chronicler of Meaux recounts how, "When crossing the seas, if the vessel was in danger of being wrecked, during darkness, he remained sleepless until midnight; resigning himself then to rest in the assurance that his convents at Aumarle and Thornton had risen to their devotions, and that likewise after cock-crow, when their orisons would be finished—whether sleeping or waking—he was careless of the danger, and calmly awaited the return of daylight, in reliance on the prayers which he knew were arising in the choirs of Vaudey and Meaux." Aumale had been founded by his father.

His wife, Cecily, was of the blood royal of Scotland, the eldest of the three daughters of William Fitz Duncan, Earl of Murray, by Alice de Romelli, Lady of Craven, and through the death of her three brothers,[13] the heiress of the great barony of Skipton. It had come to her from her mother, and it passed from her to her daughter, for she brought the Earl no male heir. At his death in 1179, Hawise, the eldest of her two girls, succeeded to the Earldom of Albemarle and a vast inheritance, which she successively conveyed to her three husbands. Like all the great heiresses of that period, she was in the custody of the Crown, and one of its sources of revenue; for the King only granted her in marriage on payment of a heavy fine, and never suffered her to remain long a widow. She was first bestowed on William de Mandeville, Earl of Essex; then on Geoffrey de Fors or Forz (usually Latinized as De Fortibus); and lastly on Baldwin de Bethune, a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion's. When Baldwin died in 1211, and she found herself for the fourth time at the disposal of the King, she gave the enormous sum of 5000 marks "to have possession of her dowries and inheritance, and not to be compelled to marry again."[14]

She had no children by the Earl of Essex; but by Geoffrey de Fortibus she had a son named William, who inherited her Earldom and great possessions; and by Baldwin another son who died young, and a daughter named after herself, who was the first wife of William Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke. Of her younger sister, Cecily, there are two different accounts. Some say that she died early, unmarried; others that she was the ancestress of John de Eston or Aston, who claimed the Earldom in the time of Edward I.

William de Fortibus was the next Earl of Albemarle, and Lord of Craven and Holderness; but the former had then become an empty title, for Philip Augustus, after utterly ruining the town of Aumale in 1196, had granted the entire domain to Renaud de Dammartin. "He was one of the barons present at Runnymede, and is the second whose signature is attached to the great Charter of Liberties, his arms being Bendy of 6, Argent and Gules.[15] He soon after fell off from his party, and attached himself to the King, being with him in the same year in that career of rapine and spoil which John pursued in the North of England. De Fortibus was well rewarded by the King, who gave him all the lands of Robert de Ros."—Poulson's Holderness. Unfortunately the predatory habits thus acquired were never lost; for in the following reign, "having by this course of life acquired much plunder, he could not refrain from that ravening practice," and when opposed, "flew into open rebellion." Henry III. threw down the walls of his castle of Bytham, and Pandolf, the legate, excommunicated him; but he contrived to make his peace with both, and continued plundering and fighting—sometimes for and sometimes against the King—till his death in 1241. He had vowed to go on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and was actually on his way thither when he died at sea while crossing the Mediterranean. He married Aveline, daughter, and at length co-heiress of Richard de Montfitchet, and their only son, William, was the last Earl of his race. He does not appear to have inherited his father's turbulence and lawlessness, but lived an uneventful life, and died at Amiens in 1259. He had two wives; the first, Christian de Sully, was the daughter and co-heir of Alan of Galloway, by Margaret of Scotland, and brought him no children; the second, Isabel, was the daughter of Baldwin de Reviers, Earl of Devon, and eventually sole heir to her brother, who died s. p. in I262. She was the mother of three sons and two daughters; John, Thomas, William, Avice, and Aveline; but all of them died young, except the last born, Aveline, who thus, at a very early age, was left the only remaining representative of the family. The whole accumulated inheritance of her father, mother, and grandmother, with the two great Earldoms of Devon and Albemarle, and the Sovereignty of the Isle of Wight, had centered on a delicate child of six years old, and were to be the appanage of her future husband. The King had at first granted her wardship (which comprehended her disposal in marriage) to Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, for "the whole term of fifteen years of her minority," but, on second thoughts, resumed it himself, and decided that so splendidly-dowered a bride should mate with none other than a Plantagenet. Aveline was accordingly married in 1269 with all due state and magnificence to his deformed second son, Edmund Crouchback, "in the presence of the King and Queen, and the greater part of the Nobility of England." She came of age in 1272, in which year her husband, "doing his fealty, had Livery of her lands." But she gave him no heirs, and in 1275, Edward I., "having a mind to all her castles and lands," came to an agreement with her to surrender them to him on certain conditions, and the payment of 20,000 marks. It is clear, however, that she could only give up the reversion of what belonged to her mother, who was still alive—in fact, Dugdale's account leaves it uncertain whether this agreement was not in reality made with the mother after her own death. Aveline was certainly dead before 1277, when John de Aston put in his claim as her "right heir," and a part of her estate went to the De Playzs by reason of their relationship with the Montfichets. The King, however, retained Holderness in his own hands, and by fair or foul means succeeded in obtaining the Isle of Wight (see Reviers).

Countess Aveline was buried with great pomp in Westminster Abbey. "Her monument stands at the head of that of Aymer de Valence; it is an altar tomb of touchstone, placed under a canopy twelve feet high, formed in imitation of those temporary structures or hearses, under which, in ancient times, the corpses of the Kings, Queens, and principal nobility were laid."—Poulson's

Aincourt :

from Aincourt, a fief in the Norman Vezin, in the deaconry of Magny. Walter d'Aincourt holds nearly sixty manors in Domesday, chiefly in Lincolnshire, where Blankney was the head of his barony, and "the Deyncourts flourished in a continual succession, from the coming-in of the Normans to the time of Henry VI."—Camden. All we know of Walter's lineage is derived from a leaden tablet inscribed to the memory of his son, William, which was found in 1670 in Lincoln Cathedral. This son, who had been brought up at the court of William Rufus, died young, and was taken from Westminster to Lincoln for his burial, sewn up in leather for the long journey[16]—tedious and toilsome enough in those days. The inscription states that his father was "cousin to Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln, who built this church," and that he himself was of royal lineage. "This must have been through his mother; but who she was has not been discovered; probably a relation of the King's, which would account for his Christian name of William. In the seal of Edmund, Baron d'Eyncourt, attached to the Baron's letter to the Pope (1301) a lion passant will be found in the four corners outside the shield, as if a memorial of this descent."—A. S. Ellis.

Walter was succeeded by another son, Ralph, who founded Thurgarton Priory in Nottinghamshire, and was the progenitor of a line of powerful barons, whose names are connected with all the principal events of the time. One fought for Stephen at Lincoln, where his son was taken prisoner; another (the husband of a great Lincolnshire heiress, Nichola de Haia) forfeited his barony under King John, by whom it was granted to Philip Mark, "then an eminent man in Nottinghamshire," but recovered it by the usual means of a fine; and a third served the two first Edwards in their French and Scottish wars. This was Edmund, Baron d'Eyncourt, first summoned to Parliament in 1293; who, seven years afterwards, as Edmundus de Eyncourt, Dominus de Thurgarton, subscribed the famous letter, asserting the supremacy of England over the realm of Scotland, that was sent to Pope Boniface VIII. by the barons assembled in Parliament at Lincoln. He was one of the nobles summoned to attend the coronation of Edward II. His two sons, John and William, both died before him. The date of John's death is not given; but he was, with his brother, at the siege of Carlaverock in 1300, and "mult bien fist son devoir." William was killed before Stirling Castle fourteen years later, on the eve of the battle of Bannockburn:

"Back to the host the Douglas rode,
And soon glad tidings are abroad,
That D'Eyncourt, by stout Randolph slain,
His followers fled with loosen'd rein."—Lord of the Isles.

John had left three sons; Edmund, who again died in his grandfather's lifetime, William, and John. Edmund's only child, Isabel, then became heir-general, and as such, entitled to the succession of the barony; but her great-grandfather, unwilling that it should be transferred by her marriage to another family, petitioned Edward II. for license to dispose of it as he might see fit. "This Edmund, considering that his name and arms, after his death, descending to her, would be utterly extinguished; and being cordially desirous that both his name and arms should remain to posterity; did, in consideration of his own laudable services performed to King Edward I. and Edward II., obtain a special license from King Edward II. for power to enfeoff what person soever he pleased, in all his Lordships and Lands, Knights' Fees, with Advowsons of Churches and Abbies; to have and to hold, to such person and his heirs for ever, of the said King, and his Heirs, by the services antiently due and of right accustomed."—Dugdale. He thereupon settled the whole of his possessions on his eldest surviving grandson, William; and died, then a very old man, in 1327.

To our minds, accustomed to the present rule of succession, there is something fantastic in the declaration of a man, who had two living grandsons, that his name must go down with him to the grave.

William, Lord d'Eyncourt (by a new creation in 1335), who was called upon to represent it, worthily maintained its old martial renown. He was a stout and tried soldier, whose sword, like his master's, was but seldom in its sheath; for he followed Edward III. in his French and Scottish campaigns, fought in the great victory of Nevill's Cross, and was present at the taking of Calais. When a French invasion was threatened in 1352, he was appointed to defend the Lincolnshire coast; and with Lord Grey of Codnor, a Commissioner of array for the counties of Derby and Notts. Seven years later, he was among those commissioned to remove the captive King of France from Hertford Castle to Somerton Castle in Somersetshire. He died about 1382, and his successor was again a grandson, William, the father of Ralph and John, who each inherited the barony. Both died early; Ralph, while still under age, in 1401, and John four years afterwards. Yet, young as he was, he left a widow and three children, the eldest of them, three years old. He had married Joan, the daughter and heir of Lord Grey of Rotherfield, and their only son William bore his title in addition to his own. This William, the last of the D'Eyncourts, proved as short-lived as his predecessors. In 1421, he "was retained by indenture to serve King Henry V. in his Warrs beyond sea, with ten men at armes, himself accounted; and thirty archers, all on horseback," but died the year following, "at that time not full twenty-one years of age." His wife, Elizabeth, sister of John Viscount Beaumont, had remained childless; and his two young sisters, Alice and Margaret, became his heirs. Alice, in whom were vested the two baronies of D'Eyncourt and Grey of Rotherfield, married, first, Ralph Boteler of Sudeley, who died s. p.; and secondly Lord Lovel of Tichmarsh. Margaret married Ralph Cromwell, but had no children. The whole inheritance thence fell to the share of Alice's descendants by her second marriage; but her grandson Francis, Viscount Beaumont, forfeited her baronies with his other honours by attainder in 1487.

Thus, within little more than one hundred years from the settlement made by the first Baron, the highly-prized name he had been so earnest to preserve and perpetuate, had altogether died out. "He was," writes Camden, "very solicitous to have it survive and be remembered. Yet this surname, for aught I can find, is now quite extinct, and would have been forgotten for ever, if the memory of it had not been preserved in books." It is, however, still borne by Wooburn-Deincourt, one of the Buckinghamshire manors held by Walter de Aincourt in 1086; and at least two attempts have been made to resuscitate it. Sir Francis Leke of Sutton, in Derbyshire, without any reason assigned (at least by Burke), chose as his title the ancient barony of Deincourt, and was subsequently created Earl of Scarsdale. Both titles expired with the fourth Earl in 1736. More recently in 1835, a Lincolnshire gentleman of the name of Tennyson added the name and arms of D'Eyncourt to his own, in compliance with a condition attached to the enjoyment of certain manors and estates, by a codicil to his father's will, "in order to commemorate his descent from the ancient and noble family of D'Eyncourt, Barons d'Eyncourt of Blankney, and his representation in blood, as co-heir of the Earls of Scarsdale, Barons d'Eyncourt of Sutton." His descent, through several different families, from Lady Anne Leke, daughter of the first Earl, is sufficiently clear; but for the more tortuous and involved pedigree, that derived him from Alice, the heiress of the D'Eyncourts, I must refer my readers to Sir Bernard Burke, as I avow myself unable to comprehend it.

Audley :

an undeniable interpolation. This name was assumed from the manor of Audley or Aldithley (Aldidelege, Domesday) in Staffordshire.—See Verdon.

Adgillam :

Augilliam in Duchesne's copy: Aungeloun in Leland's. According to the Recherches sur le Domesday, this family gave its name[17] to the parish of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Haie d'Aigullon, which was granted in 1213 by Philip de Vassy to Jordan, Bishop of Bayeux, on the foundation of his abbey of Mondaye. Robert d'Aigullon and his son witness a charter of Stephen, Count of Chartres, in 1100. "William de Aigullon, Sire de Trie, defended Pont Audemer against Henry I. in 1123 (Ordericus Vitalis). He was the son-in-law of Theobald Paganus de Montmorency, Seneschal of Gisors, and died in Palestine, 1147."—The Norman People.

"Rogerus Aculeus," a sub-tenant in the Exon Domesday, is believed to be the ancestor of the English house, which first became of note in the reign of Coeur de Lion. Dugdale commences the pedigree with Manser or Manasser de Aguillon, who obtained from the King a confirmation of his land, and died before 1194, when Godfrey de St. Martin paid £100 for license to marry Constance, his widow, "with her inheritance." His successor, William, was among the barons who took up arms against King John. He, too, married an heiress, the daughter of Bartholomew Cheney, and in her right held the manor of Addington in Surrey by serjeanty, or service of the kitchen; that is, he was to find a cook at each coronation to dress a dish of meat for the King, and serve it up at the King's table. Addington had been granted by the Conqueror to his cook Tezelin, as a reward for a successful dainty, no doubt the above-mentioned dish, thus described by Dugdale: "A certain mess which being made with Fat, is called Maupigernon, otherwise the Mess of Gyroun." It was a pottage, and consisted of almond milk, brawn of capons, sugar and spices, chicken par-boiled and chopped, &c. Camden, in his Britannia, gives it the strange name of Dillegrout. The dish was to be cooked "in an earthen pot in the kitchen of our Lord the King, on the day of his coronation," and served up after the first course of the great banquet in Westminster Hall. This was ushered in with the full splendour of feudal state by a solemn procession, headed by the Lord High Steward, Lord High Constable, and Earl Marshal of England, in their peer's robes and coronets, all three on horseback, and preceded and followed by the serjeants-of-arms with their maces. Next came the Treasurer and Comptroller of the Household, then the Sewer and Assistant-Sewer, and after them twenty-four gentlemen-at-arms bearing twenty-four dishes of meat, all walking two and two. The Lord of the manor of Addington, attended by two clerks of the kitchen in satin gowns, then appeared on the scene with his mess of maupygernon, and offered it to the King. This curious tenure still survives. When the manor passed, by the marriage of Isabel de Aguillon, to the Bardolfs, the dish was sometimes called by their name, and was evidently popular; for at the coronation of Edward III., Thomas Bardolf served up "three messes of maupygernon," one for the King, one for the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the third for whoever the King might be pleased to name. But, like other things, it fell into disuse and disfavour; and when Mr. Thomas Leigh, at that time lord of the manor, offered his dish to Charles II. at his coronation-banquet, we are told by Ashmole that the King "accepted the service but did not eat the pottage." The last time it was presented was to George III. by Mr. Spencer, for no Lord of Addington was forthcoming at the coronation of George IV., and thus the ancient dainty was omitted from the last Royal banquet that has been held in Westminster Hall. The manor had then been sold to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who did not claim the service. "The privilege or duty now belongs to the Primate, or, more correctly speaking, perhaps, to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners."

The son of William de Aguillon—another William—who was Sheriff of Sussex and Surrey, Governor of Guilford Castle, and for some time Castellan of Arundel, obtained license to castellate his manor-houses of Addington and Percingeres (Perching) in Sussex, and died in 1286, leaving no heir but his daughter Isabel, married to Hugh Lord Bardolf.

In Morant's History of Essex I find mention of a Robert de Agillun or Aguyllion, to whom Henry II. granted the government of the Hundred of Lexden. His heirs were four daughters; Isabel, mother of Adam de Cokefend; Ela, of Luke de Poynings; Margery, of Andrew de Saukvill, or Sackville; and Joanna, of Ralph Fitz Bernard.

There was a branch of this family settled in Cumberland. Walter d'Aguilon came there in the train of Earl Ranulph de Meschines, and gave his name to his dwelling-place, still called the manor of Aguilon, or Aglionby. His descendants remained till 1785, when Christopher Aglionby "died a bachelor in the flower of his age, the last of the male line of this ancient family."—Hutchinson's Cumberland.

Again, I find that one of the Hampshire barons summoned to serve against Llewellyn in 1264 was Robert de Aguylon. Apparently he left only a daughter. "Robert d'Agulon," writes Woodward, "bore Gules a fleur de lis Argent. After Joan d'Agulon became wife to John de Mohun, John or his son stuck into the maunch in his coat a hand holding the Agulon fleur de lis."

Argentoune :

from the town and castle of Argenton, Berry, held in 1080 by Geoffroi, Sire d'Argenton, whose descendants continued there for twelve generations. David d'Argenton (perhaps his brother) held lands de capite in Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire (Domesday). He is there styled David de Argentomago or Argentomo; but the name gradually lapsed into Argentein or Argentine. His manor of Wymondley in Cambridgeshire was held by grand serjeanty, "to serve the King on his coronation day with a silver cup"; and the English Argentines consequently substituted three covered silver cups to the torteauxes that had been borne by their ancestors in France. The notices of the first generations of his posterity are very scanty. Richard de Argentine founded Wymondley Priory; Peverel de Argentine witnessed a deed of Richard de Redvers, in favour of St. Mary's Quarr, in 1147; William de Argentine another granted by his successor Baldwin. Reginald (the son of another Reginald) was Sheriff of Cambridge and Huntingdon, 5, 6, 7, & 8 Richard I., and took part with the barons against John; but "made his own composition" with Henry III. on his accession, and got back the whole of his lands. His son Richard, Constable of Hertford, Sheriff of Essex and Herts in 1223, and one of the Stewards of the King's household, "being a Noble Knight and Valiant in Arms," went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and died in 1246. Contemporary with him was Reginald de Argentine, a Knight Templar, "who, in 21 Henry III., was Standard-bearer of the Christian Army in a great Battel against the Turks, near Antioch, in the Holy Land, and carried it till his Hands and Leggs being broke, he was there slain."

Sir Richard's son, Giles (or Egidius), "a knight also of great valour," was with Henry III. in the Welsh wars, when he was taken prisoner in a sharp fight near Montgomery; afterwards followed him to Gascony, and was named castellan of the royal castle of Windsor. Soon after this, however, he joined the rebellious barons, and was one of the Council of Nine elected to govern the realm after the King's defeat and capture at Lewes. He married the heiress of Sir R. de Aguillon, and was the father of Reginald, a baron by writ in 1297. Reginald's wife, Lora de Vere (a daughter of the Earl of Oxford), brought him an only son, Sir John, who, at his death in 1318, left a little boy, then only six months old, that was destined to be the last heir of this gallant race. Neither of these two Sir Johns were ever summoned to parliament. The last died in I382, leaving three daughters; Maud, married to Sir Ivo Fitz Warren; Joan, married to Sir Bartholomew Naunton; and Elizabeth, married to Sir Baldwin St. George. He had in addition a son born out of wedlock, to whom he gave his name, with the manor of Wymondley, Horseheath, Argentines, and the greater part of his Cambridgeshire estates. But this son's posterity only held them for a single generation; as Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of the next Sir John de Argentine, carried all his possessions to her husband, William Alington (son of the Sir William who was Treasurer of Normandy in the time of Henry V. and Henry VI.); and her descendant, Lord Alington, presented the first silver cup to James II. at his coronation as Lord of the manor of Wymondley. The Lords Alington in their turn became extinct in 1722.

A branch of the Argentines was seated in Yorkshire, where William, the son of Robert, held one knight's fee[18] of Percy early in the reign of Henry I. Walter de Argentoun was the first husband of Aaliza de Percy; and their son Roger left three co-heiresses; Agnes, Asmota, and Elizabeth. Several others of the name are mentioned; "but the entire question of the mutual relationship of these Argentines, and of their connection with the more famous family, of which Sir Giles was so conspicuous a member, is utterly obscure."

The chief glory of the house rests on this famous Sir Giles, a knight of Rhodes, who was slain on the fatal field of Bannockburn, where

"Twa hundre payr of spuris redd
War tane of knichtis that war deid."

He was probably a younger son of the elder Sir Giles, one of the governing council in the baronial war who had received a writ of military summons in 1243. He bore a high reputation as a soldier, having served with great renown in the Holy Land, where he encountered and overthrew two Saracen foemen single-handed ("Forsooth, a small matter, quoth he, for a Christian knight to slay two Paynim dogs"); and when summoned to join the great army that invaded Scotland in 1313, had only lately come from the wars of the Emperor Henry de Luzemburgh. Throughout the calamitous day of Bruce's triumph, when the pride and power of England were trodden in the dust, he remained in attendance on the King, and did all that mortal man might do to avert or retrieve the disaster. The unhappy Edward himself showed a spirit not unworthy of his great father or greater son. When he saw the wreck and ruin of his splendid array, and the best and noblest of his realm falling around him, he threw himself among the spears with all the courage of despair, in the vain effort to arrest the rout. He would listen to no counsel, and take no thought for his safety, till the Earl of Pembroke, seizing his bridle rein, peremptorily forced him away from the field, and hurried him along the road to Stirling. De Argentine kept close by his side, till he saw him out of danger; then, with the parting words, "God be with you, Sire; it is not my wont to fly," turned his horse's head, and rode back to meet a soldier's death in the battle-field. Once more he laid his trusty lance in rest; once more, rising in his stirrups, shouted the dreaded war-cry, "An Argentine!" then, charging the advancing foe, he unhorsed his first four assailants, and bore down upon the Lord of Colonsay, who was leading the pursuit. He was already wounded; his crest had been razed by a battle-axe, and a spear had pierced one of the joints of his harness. But his arm was none the less steady, and his aim true; the lance-thrust struck straight home, and Colonsay, reeling from his saddle, lay pinned to the ground as he fell. The stricken chieftain would not, however, die unavenged. By one mighty effort he swung his broadsword round, and, with a last furious stroke, dealt De Argentine his death-blow. Then, falling back, he died laughing—like the grim Norsemen of old—having paid his debt, and laid low his great adversary beside him.

The loss of De Argentine was mourned by friend and foe, and by none more heartily than by Bruce, who had been his comrade in the days gone by:

"'And, O farewell!' the victor cried,
'Of chivalry the flower and pride,
The arm in battle bold,
The courteous mien, the noble race,
The stainless faith, the manly face!
Bid Ninian's convent light their shrine
For late-wake of De Argentine.
O'er better knight on death-bier laid,
Torch never gleam'd nor Mass was said!'"

—The Lord of the Isles. Canto vi.

Arundell :

"Rogerius Arundel" holds a Somersetshire barony of twenty-eight manors in Domesday. No one precisely knows who he was; but the generally received opinion is that he was a kinsman of Roger de Montgomeri: Collinson, in his 'Somerset,' even asserts that he was the Earl's son, and according to another authority, "probably Castellan of Arundel," from whence he is credited with having derived his name. Like the town, he bore allusive arms; arondelles (swallows or martlets), which are also the bearing of the county of Sussex. Arondelle is the older form of the modern French hirondelle. Thus Remy Belleau writes in 1585:

"Ces arondelles qui vont
Et qui sont
Du printemps les messageres."

But it seems certain that Roger de Arundel did not take his name from any place in England, for in the 'Recherches sur le Domesday,' we find that the Arundels were a family of very ancient standing in Normandy, and flourished there for nearly two centuries after the Conquest. Eight or nine of the name are found in the Chartulary of Mont St. Michel, and the church of St. Nicolas d'Arundel, in the departement of the Arne, is also mentioned. William d'Arundel was Treasurer of the diocese of Lisieux about 1202; and Emma, his daughter, in a deed of gift dated 1259, speaks of the mill of Arundel, near the mouth of the river Guines. Robert de Fontaine (probably her husband) ceded to Henry, Bishop of Bayeux, his fisheries at Arundel. Their castle is believed to have stood near the mill, on the banks of the Guines; but all trace of its site is completely lost, and it is only remembered in the ritournelle of an old ballad still chanted by the young girls of the neighbouring villages as a dance measure. It is the complainte of a peasant, whose ass has been devoured by a wolf, and who thus laments the useful back that bore his flour-sacks:

"Echine, povre echine,
Plus ne portras farine
Au chateau d'Arundel."

The tradition of this descent was preserved till Leland's time by the Cornish Arundells, for he received from one of them the following account (giving the name of another of their Norman castles): "Humfre Arundale told me that he thought that he cam of the Arundales in Base Normandy that were Lordes of Culy Castelle, that now is descendid to one Mounseir de la Fontaine, a French man by Heire General.

"This Arundale gyvith no part of the Armes of great Arundale of Lanheran by S. Columbes.... and is caullid Arundale of Trerise by a difference from
Arundale of Lanheran."

But in later times it seems to have utterly disappeared. "Sir John Arundell, the last possessor of Lanherne, told me he could never understand there was any such local place in France as Arundell, though he lived long in that country, and made strict enquiry after it."—Gilbert's Cornwall.

Roger Arundel's son Wido, or Guy, held under him Pourton, Dorset (Domesday). His grandson was another Roger, and the barony passed through a female heir to Gerbert de Percy in 1165.—Hutching's Dorset. John Arundel is mentioned, temp. Henry I., and Ralph Arundel, 15 Stephen. It must have been the latter, who, according to Sir John Gilbert, about the middle of the twelfth century, made the match with the heiress of Trembleth that first transplanted the family into Cornwall. Their principal seat was at Lanherne, acquired, in the reign of Henry III., through an heiress of the Pincernas or Butlers: Trerice, the home of a younger branch, came to them, temp. Edward III. There were also Arundels of Tolverne and of Trevithic, as well as in Devonshire, where the name is kept by Morchard-Arundel, Hempston-Arundel, and Yewton-Arundel, "the land that hath had longest continuance in that name within this county." There is also a Somersetshire manor—Samford-Arundel, named from them. But their home was in Cornwall, where, says Carew, "the country people entitle them 'the Great Arundells,' and greatest for love, living, and respect in the country heretofore they were." The last of the old Lanherne stock, Sir John, died in 1701, having settled his estates on his daughter's son, Richard Billinge, with the condition that he should take the name and arms of Arundell. Richard had an only daughter and heir, who married Henry, seventh Lord Arundell of Wardour, and brought him the whole property, most of which was sold by their son, "thus severing the very ancient connexion of his family with the county of Cornwall."

Lord Arundell represented a younger branch that had been seated in Wiltshire since 1527. "The first of the Arundells who established himself in Wilts," says Sir Richard Hoare, "was Sir Thomas, second son of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, by the Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter of Thomas, second Marquess of Dorset, to whom his father, t8 Henry VIII., granted lands in Somerset and Dorset (amongst them Osmond, one of the manors granted by the Conqueror to Roger Arundel)." In 1547 he purchased of Sir Fulke Greville the Castle of Wardour, where the family have remained seated to the present day. His wife, Margaret Howard, was the sister of Henry VIII.'s fifth Queen; and, as the co-heir of her father, Lord Edmund, third son of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, "brought an ample estate to the family." But, like most of those that owned any connection with Royal blood, on whom a curious fatality seemed to rest, he died on the scaffold, executed in 1552 with Sir Michael Stanhope, Sir Ralph Vane, and Sir Miles Partridge, for complicity in the Duke of Somerset's real or supposed plot against John Dudley Duke of Northumberland. They had been staunch adherents of the Protector, and two of them were connected with him by family ties (Sir Michael was the brother, and Sir Thomas the half-brother of his Duchess): but all died protesting their innocence with their last breath, and Vane added that "his blood would make Northumberland's pillow uneasy."

Thomas, the grandson and namesake of this "famous knight," as he is styled on the monument in Tisbury Church, was the first Lord Arundell of Wardour.

Towards the end of the sixteenth century, this Thomas, then quite a young man, went over to Germany, entered the Imperial army as a volunteer, and served a campaign in Hungary against the Turks, "bearing himself manfully in the field." At the assault of the Water Tower at Gran, he took one of the enemy's standards with his own hand, and for this and other services was created a Count of the Holy Roman Empire by Rodolph II. in 1595. The Emperor, with whom he was high in favour, further made him several offers of employment, but young Arundell would not be detained abroad, and returned home the following year. He found his countrymen little disposed to acknowledge his new honours, and a warm dispute arose among the peers as to whether he should be allowed place and precedence, or any other privilege of rank. Queen Elizabeth on being appealed to, at once decided against him. She maintained there was a close tie of affection between the prince and subject, and that as chaste wives should have no glances but for their own spouses, so should faithful servants keep their eves at home, and not gaze upon foreign crowns: and that she, tor her part, did no care her sheep should wear a stranger's mark, nor dance after the whistle o every foreigner. She consequently wrote herself to the Emperor, announcing that she had forbidden her subjects to give either place or precedence to the new-made Count. King James, however, created him Baron of Wardour two years after his accession. The second lord was the husband of Lady Blanche Somerset daughter of the Earl of Worcester, the gallant lady who with a mere handful of followers, held Wardour Castle for the King during nine days against the rebel army under Hungerford and Ludlow.[19] She only consented to yield it at last on the promise of honourable terms, but they were not observed, and when Lord Arundell returned to find his house occupied by the enemy, he ordered a mine to be sprung under it—thus dislodging them by the destruction of his own castle, a fine building which had been decorated by his father at a great expense. But this was far from being the only sacrifice he made to the Royal cause, which indeed cost him the better part of his fortune. He commanded a regiment of horse raised at his sole charge, in the King's army: and died of a wound he received in the battle of Lansdown, where his thigh was broken by a brace of pistol bullets. Wardour Castle was never rebuilt till the middle of the last Century.

One of the Arundells of Trerice[20] commanded the Royal garrison of Pendennis Castle and though then nearly fourscore years old, and besieged both by sea and land held out bravely till 1646. Four of his sons were in the Royal army two of whom lost their lives in the service: and the elder, Richard, was created Baron Arundell of Trerice after the Restoration. This barony expired with the fourth lord in 1773.

Auenant :

This name is not territorial, though it erroneously became D'Avenant, or Davenant, in England. It is evidently one of the familiar sobriquets or nicknames[21] in which the Normans delighted; and in this instance, at least, a highly complimentary one. The French avenant—engaging, prepossessing—was at one time adopted into our own tongue. Hengist's daughter Rowena—the maiden of the "fair face and flattering tongue" is thus described:

"Of body she was right avenant,
Of fair color, with sweet semblaunt."

Sometimes it was given as a Christian name. "Avenant uxor Willielmi Wad." occurs in Norfolk in 1199.—(Rotuli Curiae Regis.)

Contemporary with her we find Godefrid and Richard Avenant in Normandy (mentioned in the Exchequer Rolls of 1198); and the name was of even earlier date in England. Osbert Avenant witnesses a charter of Hugh, Abbot of St. Edmund's (elected in 1157) to William Fitz Leo in Suffolk. "Petrus Auenaund" held of Earl Warren's fee in Gressinghall, Norfolk. "Avenant" paid a fine in Cornwall in 1213. The pedigree of the family given by Sir Richard Hoare begins with Sir John Davenant, living in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I., but neither to him, nor to nine generations of his descendants, is any place of habitation assigned. Yet, according to Collinson, Wood-Avenant (now Wood-Advent) in Somersetshire, was held by them soon after the time of Hen. III.; and they were very early settled in the parish of Sible-Hedingham in Essex, where in the fourteenth century Nicolas Davenant held part of a knight's fee of John, seventh Earl of Oxford. Their place (only sold in the last century) was named from them, Davenant's Land, and William, tenth in descent from Sir John, rebuilt the house in 1571, as appears by an inscription on the outer girder of the roof. His son John, citizen and merchant of London, was the father of, 1, Edward, of Whiddy Island, co. Cork; 2, John, Bishop of Salisbury, who died in 1641, and is buried in Salisbury Cathedral; 3, William, of Breedon-super-Mont, Leicester; 4, James, and 5, Ralph. Edward's grandson, John Davenant, was of St. Martin's in New Sarum and Landford in Wilts, where he took up his abode, and his son served as Sheriff of the county in 1686. But the next heir died childless, leaving his estate, encumbered with heavy mortgages, to his three sisters, Rebecca, Catherine, and Elizabeth, the wife of Richard Woodford.

Sir William Davenant, the Poet Laureate of Charles II., was, according to another pedigree given in Hoare's 'Wiltshire,' the great-nephew of the William Davenant who re-built Davenant's Land. His father[22] kept the Crown Tavern at Oxford, and was Mayor of the town in 1621. Born in 1605, he made his first appearance at Court as the page of the Duchess of Richmond at sixteen, and subsequently lived for six or seven years in the family of Fulk Greville, Lord Brooke. The loss of his patron forced him to have recourse to the stage as a bread-winner; and his plays and masks were acted with such success and applause that, on the death of Ben Jonson, the Queen procured for him the vacant laurel. But his lucky star was soon eclipsed by the coming storms of the Civil War. He was twice apprehended as "the King's friend"; escaped to France, returned to England to serve as Lieut.-Gen. of Ordnance under one of his former patrons, Lord Newcastle; was knighted for his gallantry at the siege of Gloucester; and finally, when the royal cause was lost, went back to Paris and professed the Roman Catholic faith. It was then he commenced his principal work, 'Gondibert'; but the two first books, published in England, attracted little notice, and he sought to mend his fortunes in America. He embarked for Virginia, but the vessel was captured by an English cruiser, and he was imprisoned in Cowes Castle till, in 1650, he was transferred to the Tower, and ordered to be tried by a High Commission Court. His life was spared—some say by the intervention of Milton—but he remained in prison for two whole years. On his release the poor poet opened a theatre in Rutland House, Chester-house-yard, and received the patent of a playhouse, under the title of the Duke's Company, when his friends came back to power at the Restoration. He died eight years afterwards, and was buried with great ceremony in Westminster Abbey.

He had married Frances, daughter of James Molins, and had numerous descendants. One of these. James Davenant, of Clearbrook in Herefordshire, married Ann, daughter of Sir Robert Corbet of Stoke in Shropshire, and in the end his heiress, for both her brothers died childless, and none of her sisters married. Corbet Davenant, her only child, took the name of Corbet in 1783, and received a baronetcy three years afterwards. But he left no posterity.

Abell :

"a name which has not a very genuine sound as a surname."—Sir Egerton Brydges. Nevertheless, N. Abel held lands from Lanfranc in Kent 1086 (Domesday); and "Joh' Abel et Consorti Sue" were among the Kentish gentry summoned by a writ of Edward I. in the first year of his reign "to be present at his and the Queen's coronation at Westminster on the Sunday next after the feast of St. Valentine the Martyr."—Hasted's Kent.—This was probably the same Sir John Abell of Hering Hill in Erith, afterwards knighted at the siege of Carlaverock, who was sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1298, 1299, 1300, and 1301; and left two sons; 1, John, one of the Barons of the Exchequer 5 Ed. II., and 2, Walter, the owner of Foot's Cray. His coat of arms, Argent, a saltire engrailed Gules, is given in the 'Parliamentary Roll'—"probably of knights eligible to be called to the council of the nation"—by Sir Francis Palgrave. "His descendant, John Abell, died possessed of Hering Hill, about the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign; but his son Samuel was the last of the family there."—Ibid. A branch remained in Buckinghamshire, where six of the Abells lie buried in East Claydon Church. One of them (who died in 1661) was High Sheriff of the county. They bore Argent a saltire engrailed Azure.—Lipscomb's Bucks. The Abells of Essex had entirely different arms, and were, according to Morant, "originally considerable clothiers. John Abell (who died in 1558) held the Manor of Cooke's Hall of the Queen as of her Honour of Clare." In 1666, one of his descendants, William Abell, was living at Fordham, in the same county.—Ibid.

Auuerne :

or, according to Leland's rendering, Aveneris, probably Avesnes, from a plan so named in Normandy, called in the Exchequer Rolls of 1180-98 "Avesnes in Vulcassino." Nicholas de Aveines and William Avennes are there entered; and "Bertinus de Avesnis, one feod lig." with "Galterus de Avesnis et frater eius," occur in Duchesne's list of Norman feudatories. In England Richard de Auene held two knight's fees in Hampshire of John de Port (Lib. Niger). Nigel de Havene, of the same county, is mentioned in 1202 (Rotulus Cancellarii). At the same date, Robert de Avesne held in Oxfordshire (Ibid.). A knight of this name had been with Coeur de Lion in the Holy Land. "On the Saturday evening, when the Christian soldiers were mustered after the battle" (of Arsoof) "the renowned knight, James d'Avennes, the friend and companion of King Richard, was amongst the missing warriors; and the next morning at sunrise the Templars and Hospitallers went out to search the field of battle in quest of him. They found his dead body, disfigured with blood and dirt, amid a heap of the slain, and placing it upon their lances, they brought it into the camp at Arsoof amid the tears and lamentations of their brethren. It was Sunday, the 8th of September, the day of the Nativity of the blessed Virgin Mary, and the army halted at Arsoof the whole of that day for the purpose of burying the dead. A solemn mass was said by the priests, and Richard Coeur de Lion, and Guy, King of Jerusalem, accompanied by the Grand Masters of the Temple and the Hospital, and the other chieftains of the army, attended the funeral of the brave James d'Avennes, which was celebrated with great solemnity amid the tears of the warriors of the Cross."—Addison's Knights Templars. I am sorry, however, to add that this gallant knight was not an Englishman, but the "Jacques D'Avesnes croise en 1189," who belonged to the great Flemish house of that name.

Nevertheless, it is evident that he had kinsfolk in this country; for his coat of arms, "Bande d'or et de gueules de six pieces," tallies almost exactly with that assigned by Robson to the English house of Avenes or Avesness: Bendy of six, Gules and Argent, or Argent and Gules. Unfortunately no clue to its domicile is afforded us. Perhaps John de Avennes, the third husband of Anne de Valence, eldest sister and co-heir of Aymer, last Earl of Pembroke, may have belonged to it. He was no doubt the same "John Daveines, pardoned, by consent of Parliament, for all felonies and trespasses committed up to 7 August, 1318."—Palgrave's 'Parl. Writs' The great heiress whom he had married brought him no children.

In some cases the name was certainly local. William and Walter de Avene of Wilts, entered in the Hundred Rolls about 1272, must have derived it from Avene in that county, a manor "mentioned in the Saxon chartulary of Wilton Abbey, in a grant of King Eadgar."—Sir Richard Hoare. The Avenes or Avones of Avonescourt in Gloucestershire, enfeoffed by the Berkeleys as early as the reign of Coeur de Lion "in processe of time drewe that sirname of Avone to them from the water or small ryver[23] running neere unto it. Their landes were in the time of kinge Edward the thirde the landes of John Walter, by maryage of the heire of Avone."—Lives of the Berkeleys. They were sometimes called Avery, and bore Gules three chevrons Argent. Another coat of the Avenes was Gules a chevron Argent. In Dorsetshire John de Aven gave evidence at an Inquisition held at Brockhampton 32 Ed. I.—Hutchin's Dorset.

Faringdon . Ward was originally the property of this family. William Faryngdon, goldsmith, in 1229, "purchased of Ralph le Feure all the aldermanrie, and the appurtenances, within the city of London and the suburbs of the same, between Ludgate and Newgate, and also within the same gates which Ankeritus de Auene held, during his life, by grant of Thomas Auerne. To have and to hold to the said Ralph and his heirs, yielding one clove, or slip of gilliflower, at the feast of Easter."—Stowe. This flower is then said to have been "of great rarity."

The Norman house still existed in the last century. D'Avesnes seigneur de Familly in the bailifry of Orbec, was represented at the great Assembly of the Nobles in 1789.

Aunwers :

see Davers.

Angers :

Ansger in Domesday, where several of the name are found. The principal land-owner among them, who is supposed to have been of Breton origin, held considerable estates in Devonshire under Baldwin de Meules. "A branch of Angers flourished at Carclew, from temp. Henry II. (when one married Margery de Serischall or Seriseaux) till temp. Henry IV."—Gilbert's Cornwall. Anger's Leigh in Somersetshire was held by the family from 1360 to 1427. John de Aunger served as knight of the shire for Leicester in three of Edward I.'s parliaments, and in the first held by Edward II. Josceline D'Aunger in 1169 witnessed the foundation charter of Lanercost Abbey, and Ralph de Angers in the thirteenth century held lands in Wilts. Ralph de Aungers was Sheriff of Notts, 49 and 50 Henry III. The name, transmuted to Hanger, appears in Gloucestershire, where Sir George Hanger of Driffield was High Sheriff in 1695; and "hath a large handsome house, and pleasant gardens near the church, and a large estate."—Atkyn's Gloucestershire. Gabriel Hanger, a cadet of this house, was created Baron Coleraine of Coleraine, co. Londonderry, in 1762, and the title was successively borne by his three sons: but as none of them ever married, it expired with the last in 1824. Another Irish peerage had been granted in 1621 to Sir Francis Aungier, appointed Master of the Rolls in 1609, and descended, as Sir Bernard Burke informs us, from a Cambridgeshire family. He had settled in Ireland, having married a sister of the Earl of Kildare's, and took the title of Baron Aungier of Longford. His grandson Francis, who filled several offices of trust in the latter end of the same century, being Keeper of the Great Seal, Master of the Ordnance, and Constable of Carrickfergus, received a Viscounty in 1675, and an Earldom two years afterwards—both with remainder to his brother Ambrose, as his wife, the widowed Countess of Gowran (one of the co-heiresses of the Earl of Donegal), had proved childless. But Ambrose, the second Earl of Longford, also d. s. p. within four years—in 1704; and the title, thus early extinct, was re-granted in 1785 to the daughter and heir of his great-nephew Francis Cuff, and by her conveyed to the Pakenhams.

Angenoun :

or rather, as Leland gives it, Aungewyne, for Angevinus or L'Angevin. This was a Norman family, whose habitat is not ascertained. In 1202 Robert l'Angevin, with the consent of his elder brother, Henri de Burnodivilla, granted to the monks of Aunay his lands at Montortaire; and some traces of the family are to be found down to the seventeenth century. Osmond and Guy l'Angevin (probably brothers) both appear in Domesday: the former held the manor of Witham in Essex; the latter under the Count de Boulogne in Norfolk. From one or other of these descended William l'Angevin or Angevin, settled at Churchfield in Northamptonshire, who died in 1199, Another William (perhaps his son) in 1250 held, in addition, Waplode in Lincolnshire, and was father of a third William, who left an only child, Margaret, still a minor when her mother died in 1276. She married Sir Hugh de Gorham, who possessed Churchfield and Waplode in her right. In Warwickshire "William Angevin antiently enfeoffed by Robert de Tayden" (probably the Angevin of Churchfield), "father of Nigel, gave the total of what he had at Hodnell to the monks of Combe, excepting two yard land reserved for his own use afterwards bestowed upon them by Nigel his son."—Dugdale. This was in the time of Henry II.

In Norfolk the descendants of Guy l'Angevin, who was Lord of Bereford under Earl Eustace, continued till 1417. His grandson Sir Robert, "wrote himself sometimes de Massingham and sometimes de Thorpe, having lordships in these towns, and held seven fees, with those in Anmere, &c, about the year 1200 of the honour of Bologne."—Blomfield's Norfolk. From that time forward, however, they were invariably styled Thorpe of Ashwell Thorpe: Sir Hugh de Thorpe, Sir Robert's son, was a benefactor to Castle Acre Priory; and in the next generation Sir John de Thorpe sealed with a cheque Or and Gules, a fesse in a bordure Argent. The last of the name, Sir Edmund, was slain, at the siege of Lovers Castle, Normandy, in 1417, and was brought home to be buried at Ashwellthorpe, where he and his lady lie "in a stately tomb of white alabaster, under a canopy of wood." He left two daughters and co-heirs; Joan, first married to Sir Robert Echingham, and then to Sir John Clifton; and Isabel, the wife of Philip Tilney. The arms of Thorpe were then entirely different; for they bore Azure three crescents Argent.

Archere :

"Willelmus Arcarius" held a barony in the hundred of Sunburne, in Hampshire. (Domesday.) This family took its name from the office it held under the Dukes of Normandy before the Conquest. Its derivation is rather uncertain, but a family of L'Archer, still flourishing in Brittany, bears the same three arrows that were borne by the English Archers, differenced in tincture. The latter claim as their ancestor Fulbert l'Archer, the father of Robert, to whom the Conqueror entrusted the charge of his son, afterwards Henry I. But Robert the tutor was the son of William (see Fitz William) and not of Fulbert, who is neither found in Domesday, nor in any list now extant of the Conqueror's companions. According to the habit of those times, Robert only took the name of Archer after his father's death, and was the undoubted progenitor of the Barons Archer.—Recherches sur le Domesday.

On his accession to the throne, Henry I. proved his gratitude to his former tutor by considerable grants of land; and Robert l'Archer added to these by marrying an heiress. His wife Sebit, the daughter of Henry de Villiers, sewer of the Earl of Warwick, brought him Umberslade in Warwickshire, which he transmitted to nineteen generations of his descendants in the male line. It was a regular and monotonous succession, unbroken by forfeiture or attainders, and unmarked by any violent transitions of fortune. His grandson was champion to Thomas Earl of Warwick, who by special grant conferred on him and his heirs, liberty to hunt and hawk in his demesne, paying twelve broad arrows and a couple of capons yearly at Whitsuntide as an acknowledgment. Thomas Archer served under John of Gaunt in the French wars; and was taken prisoner in 1373 while on a foraging expedition at Ouchy-le-Chateau near Soissons. His successor, again, was summoned in 1419, "as one that did bear ancient arms from his ancestors," to serve the King in person for the defence of the realm. Sir Simon Archer, sheriff of Warwickshire in 1627, a man of letters well versed in antiquarian lore, aided Sir William Dugdale in compiling his history of the county. Thomas, his son, was a colonel in the service of the parliament, and raised a troop of horse at his own expense; but, on discovering the ulterior designs of his leaders, threw up his commission and left England; remaining abroad till the Restoration. His grandson was created Lord Archer of Umberslade in 1747; but this title expired in 1778 with Andrew, second lord, who left three daughters and coheiresses; 1. Sarah, first Countess of Plymouth and then Countess Amherst; 2. Elizabeth, married to Christopher Musgrave, a cadet of the house of Eden Hall; and 3. Maria, married to Henry Howard of Corby. All, except Maria, left children.

Sir Bernard Burke claims a descent from this house, for an Irish family of the name, "settled at a very remote period, in Kilkenny," and now resident at Mount John, Wicklow. The Cornish Archers (one of whom represented Helston in parliament, temp. Henry VI.), bear totally different arms.

Another family, the Sherburnes of Stonyhurst in Lancashire, claimed descent from "a grandson of Geoffrey L'Arbalestrier (or Galfridus Balistrarius) named Robert de Shyrburne, to whom, temp. Richard I., John Earl of Morton, gave six carucates of land in Haconsall and Preesall. Robert had the manor of Hameldon by gift of his grandfather, and survived to 45 Hen. II."—Bain's Lancashire. His grandson and namesake was Seneschal of Wiswall and Blackburnshire, having married the co-heiress of Wiswall; and his great-grandson attended Edward I. to the siege of Calais. Sir Nicholas Sherborne, who was created a baronet in 1685, was the last of the family. His son only lived to be nine years old, and his daughter, who was the wife of Thomas, eighth Duke of Norfolk, had no children[24] On her death in 1754, the estate reverted to the son of her aunt Elizabeth, Humphrey Weld of Lulworth Castle; and in 1794 Stonyhurst was leased to the Jesuit Fathers that had been expelled from Liege by the proscriptions of the French Revolution, and became a great Roman Catholic college. "The venerable house, which stands on an eminence, commanding extensive views of Calderbottom and Ribblesdale, yet screened from the north by the vast bulk of Longridge, was probably begun by Sir Richard Sherburne, who died 1594, and finished by his son, as the arms of both, with their cyphers and the date 1596, appear on the drawing-room chimney-piece. The domestic chapel was, according to the custom of our old mansions, above the gateway, till within memory, when a spacious and handsome oratory was fitted up, which, together with the size and general disposition of the apartments, rendered the whole easily convertible to the purpose to which it has been munificently devoted by the owner—a large Catholic seminary."—Whitaker.

Stoke-Archer, in Gloucestershire, takes its name from a family that held it by serjeancy, and ended with Geoffrey le Archer in 1350. His daughter and eventual heiress, Joan, had two husbands; the second, who married her when she was "the elderly and wealthy widow of Sir Thomas de Berkeley," was Sir William Whittington of Pauntley, the father of the famous Dick Whittington, who became Lord Mayor of London.

Anuay: either for Aunou or Alnet (De Alneto). The "Sire de Alnei" was one of the five knights who, at the battle of Hastings, "challenged Harold the King to come forth, and said to the English, 'Stay! stay! where is your King? he that perjured himself to William? He is a dead man, if we find him.'" This was, according to Wace's commentator, "Fulk d'Aunou, one of the numerous family of Baudry-le-Teuton, by a daughter of Richard de Bienfaite; and the place in question is probably Aunou-le-Faucon, arrondissement of Argentan. There was also in earlier times a Fulk de Aneio, or Aneto; who was of the Vernon family (the son of Osmond de Centumvillis, and one of Gunnor's sisters), and derived his name from Anet, a little south of Ivry. The two Fulks and their families seem to have been sometimes confounded." The confusion became all the greater because, though in France the two houses remained distinct as D'Aunou and D'Anet, in England the two names (as in the case of Cheney) were merged into one as Daunay. To add to the complication, a third family named Alno was settled in Somersetshire, derived from William d'Alno, who in 1086 held of Robert Gernon in Suffolk. He belonged to the house of Bricqueville, who possessed the castle of Aune or Alno in the Cotentin, and probably took its Latinized name for his own. Singularly enough, it is the only one of the three that is found in Domesday, though we are told that Fulk d'Aunon had furnished a contingent of forty vessels to William's fleet for the invasion of England. His posterity flourished in Normandy up to 1586; but there is little trace of it to be found in England.

The other Fulk had a son named Paganus who founded a great English house. "In 1115 Berenger de Annay (son of Paganus) witnessed a charter of Stephen, Count of Albemarle (Mon. II. 999:) and Gonthier his brother had custody of Bayeux in 1106 (Ord. Vitalis.) William de Alneto, son or grandson of Berenger, held fiefs in Devon 1165 (Lib. Niger)."—The Norman People. Norton-Dauney and Slancomb Dauney still recall their name in that county, where they had very considerable possessions, but their seat was at Sheviock, or Shunock, in Cornwall. Leland speaks of it as "some time the ancient Daunye's inheritance, by whose daughter and heir the same (together with other fair possessions) descended to the Earls of Devon. In the church there lie two knights of this name, and one of their ladies by her husband's side, having their pictures embossed on their tombs on the side walls, and their arms once painted round about, but now by the malice, not of men, but of time, defaced. They are held to be father and son; and that the son was slain in our wars with France, and was thence brought home to be here interr'd.

"There runneth also a tale amongst the parishioners, how one of the Daunye's ancestors undertook to build the church, and his wife the barn adjoining; and that, casting up their accounts upon finishing of their works, the barn was found to have cost three half-pence more than the church; and so it might well fall out, for it is a great barn and a little church."

Nicholas Dawney, "a person of great note and considerable estate" in the Western counties, in 1327 "was one of those great men who had summons to be at Newcastle-on-Tyne with horse and arms, to march against Robert de Brus; but this summons does not purport to have been a call to parliament ad tractandum. After this period he is represented to have peregrinated to the Holy Land, where he greatly distinguished himself against the infidels, and on his return brought with him a very rich and curious medal, which for a long time was, if it is not at this day, in the possession of the family."—Banks. This token (a ring, not a medal), is said to be of much earlier date, and the gift of Coeur de Lion to one of the Dawneys that had distinguished himself in the Crusade. "It is a somewhat massive silver ring, containing a talismanic gem, denominated a toad-stone, which is still used as a charm in the East."—Gills Easingwold. On the same occasion they received a grant of their crest, a demi-Saracen in armour, with a ring in the dexter hand, and a lion's paw in the left.

"Were we to rely on village authority, the lion's paw is nothing but a miller's-pick;" for, according to Yorkshire tradition, it records one of those "wonderful exploits which," says Camden, "are very proper entertainment for tattling gossips in a winter night." Once upon a time, Sessay Wood was the haunt of a cannibal giant, who fed upon babies and ravaged all the district round. No one was ever found bold enough to tackle him, till one fortunate morning Dawney espied him lying asleep in the precincts of the Old Mill, and seizing a miller's pick that lay at hand, drove it into his skull. "For this the King then reigning decreed that the giant-slayer should always keep hold of the Miller's Pick, by which token all men might know that to him and his heirs had been given the royalty of Sessay, to have, and to hold, thenceforward and forever."—Ibid. It is hardly necessary to point out that the Dawneys only acquired Sessay by marriage in the reign of Henry VII., when the age of giants and giant-slayers had long passed away. The tradition may refer to their predecessors the Darells.

Sir Nicholas Dawney died about 1331, leaving several sons. John, the eldest, inherited his lands, and passed them to an only daughter Emmeline, who was the wife of Sir Edmund Courtenay, and the mother of Edward, third Earl of Devon. Her uncle Thomas was, it is believed, the ancestor of the Viscounts Downe.

This Sir Thomas had married a Yorkshire heiress, and was seated at Estrick, in that county, in 1387. From him descended Sir Guy Dawnay of Cowick, who first obtained Sessay by his wife Joan, sister of the last Sir Thomas Darell, who died in 1505. Five of his descendants have served as High Sheriffs of Yorkshire; and in 1642, Sir Christopher Dawnay, a zealous loyalist, received a baronetcy from Charles I. He died without an heir; and was succeeded by his brother Sir John, created in 1680 Viscount Downe of Ireland, who sat in King James's Irish parliament of 1689. The fifth Viscount, in 1796, obtained an English peerage as Lord Dawnay of Cowick.

Asperuile :

Baudoin and Hugues de Espervill are mentioned in Duchesne's Feoda Normanniae as holding under the bailiwick of St. Audemer. In England, Oliver de Asprevile witnesses Richard Earl of Cornwall's charter to the monks of Lammana in Cornwall (a cell of Glastonbury Abbey). This was in the time of Henry III. He is mentioned in the Rotuli Hundredorum as holding land at Dodington in Northamptonshire. "In the thirtieth year of Henry III., a grant was made to Oliver de Asprevile of thirty-five acres and a half of land in Dodington and Morehay, to be held of the Crown by the payment of sixpence yearly at Michaelmas, for all services. He was succeeded in them at his death, in the forty-sixth year of the same reign, by John de Asprevile, his son."—Bridge's Northamptonshire. Margerie de Aspreville held "one yardland of our Lord the King in capite in Aylesbury in the county of Bucks, by the serjeanty of keeping all the distresses made for the King's debt by the summons of the Exchequer."—Pla. Cor. in Com. Bucks, 14 Ed. I.

Abbeuile :

This name has been commonly accepted as standing for Appeville, taken from one of the three communes that bear it in Normandy. Walter d'Appeville in 1086 held the manor of Folkestone under William de Arcis. "There was," says Mr. Planche, "more than one Norman family of note in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries" so named. On the other hand, we find "Wiestace de Abevile" mentioned in the Roman du Rou, and classed among the greatest Norman nobles at the battle of Hastings. "There is," says Wace's commentator, "a commune so named in the arrondissement of Lisieux, but M. Le Prevost thinks it more probable that Abbeville in Ponthieu is intended. Is it clear that Wace did not mean—however incorrect the geography—Eustace of Boulogne? It would be singular that he should not at all mention so important a person; yet he does not, unless he is intended here." Mr. Planche admits "the fact that both the Counts of Ponthieu and the Counts of Boulogne were occasionally called 'de Abbeville.'" No such name is entered in Domesday, where the Count's great possessions are recorded under the head of Eustachius Comes. "Eustacy," on Leland's Roll, may possibly stand for Eustace de Boulogne, though it is only in very exceptional cases that the Christian, rather than the surname, is given. I prefer to adopt Taylor's reading of "Wiestace de Abevile."

It would be impossible to give an account of the battle of Hastings that did not include the name of this powerful French noble. His figure stands out in bold relief through all the vicissitudes of the fateful seven hours' struggle that decided the future destiny of England. It was he who rode by William's side in the thickest of the melee, and when the Duke's second horse was killed under him, re-mounted him upon his own. It was he who, with Walter Giffard and the Lords of Ponthieu and Montfort, cut down the wounded King, as, faithful to his post, he stood by his standard, "in grievous pain, defending himself to the last." One struck him on the front of the helmet; another stabbed him in the breast, piercing his shield; a third ran him through the body till his bowels gushed out; and the fourth aimed at his leg, "striking him on the thick of the thigh," as shown in the Bayeux Tapestry. His death sealed the doom of his army. The jealously-guarded Dragon Standard, at whose foot he and his two brothers had shed their life-blood, was captured and carried off; and the news, spreading over the battle-field in the fast-gathering twilight, sounded the death-knell of their last hope. The Saxons broke their ranks and took to flight, plunging into the trackless thickets and fens of the surrounding forest, and the Norman horsemen spurred after them in furious pursuit. But their headlong course was suddenly arrested by the treacherous gully of the Malfosse, and men and horses together rolled down its precipitous banks, to flounder helplessly in the swamp below. "At no time during the day's battle," says Wace, "did so many Normans die as perished in that fosse. So said they who saw the dead." The fugitives made a stand on the opposite side, hurling down stones and javelins at the Normans struggling in the fosse, and "rolling one over the other with their faces to the earth, unable to rise." So severe was the check, that "Count Eustace, deeming that a new English force had come to the rescue, turned with fifty knights and counselled William to sound a retreat. He whispered in the ear of the Duke that if he pressed on, it would be to certain death. The words were hardly out of his mouth, when a blow, dealt in the darkness, struck the Count between the shoulder blades, and he was borne off with blood flowing from his mouth and nostrils. But William pressed on."—Freeman.

Count Eustace was the eldest son of Eustace "with the Eye," Count of Boulogne, by his wife Mahaut, daughter of Lambert the Bearded, Count of Louvain, and was a sovereign prince in his own county, owing no superior save his lord the King of France. His house had been founded by Angilbert, a Frank noble, who married Bertha, daughter of the Emperor Charlemagne, and before 790 was created Duke of the maritime territory, afterwards styled Ponthieu. (Art. de Verifier les Dates, xii., 318). In 1050 he had married Godgifu or Goda, the sister of Edward the Confessor; and the following year came over with a great train to visit his brother-in-law. As he was passing through Dover on his way home, one of his followers quarrelled with a townsman about his quarters, and killed him on the spot. The whole town flew to arms, and the Count and his retainers had to fight for their lives against desperate odds, only escaping at last with the loss of upwards of twenty men. The King took their part, and called upon the Earl of Kent to punish the men of Dover, but Godwin, jealous of the favour shown to the foreigners, refused to interfere unless both parties were brought to trial, demanding that Eustace and his men-at-arms should be delivered up to him. This dispute, prolonged and embittered by much exasperating altercation, lead to the banishment of Earl Godwin and his family. By a strange irony of fate, when the men of Kent rose against the stern rule of Bishop Odo in 1067, it was their ancient foeman Count Eustace that they summoned to their aid; and he brought over a French force that made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Dover Castle. For this he was, according to ancient form, arraigned for high treason before the King and his Witan; but contrived to make his peace, and continued high in William's favour till his death. His English wife, who had given him no children, died about 1054; and two years later, in passing through Lower Lorraine, on his return from escorting Pope Victor II. to Rome, he was entertained by Duke Godfrey at Bouillon, and fell in love with his daughter Ida. She became his second wife,[25] with the Castle of Bouillon for her dowry, and bore him three sons, Eustace, Godfrey, and Baldwin. Godfrey, who took his name from his mother's inheritance, and earned for it an imperishable renown, was the first Christian King of Jerusalem; but neither he nor his brother Baldwin, who succeeded to his throne, left an heir. The eldest son, Eustace III., Count of Boulogne, inherited his father's possessions about 1081 (in a charter quoted by Sir Henry Ellis, Countess Ida is spoken of as a widow in 1082), and held them at the date of Domesday; but two years after was implicated in the rebellion against William Rufus. His wife was a Scottish princess. Mary, the daughter of Malcolm Canmore and the sainted Margaret, and their only child, Maud, was married to King Stephen.

Though the direct line ended with him, it is certain that the lineage continued in England. William of Poictiers mentions a nephew of Eustace II. who was taken prisoner at Dover in 1067, and is conjectured by Freeman to have been the son of his brother Lambert, described as Lord of Sens. Another brother, Gosfrid, was Bishop of Paris; and a charter of Pharamus de Boulogne (Mon. Ang. I. 583) speaks of a fourth, also Godfrid or Geoffrey, whose son William was the father of Pharamus. Eustace and Simon de Boulogne, brothers of Pharamus, are mentioned in the same deed, by which we learn that Pharamus held lands in England of the Honour of Boulogne, which then consisted of 112 knight's fees. In the Liber Niger we find Herebert de Buliun holding half a knight's fee of Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk; and William de Bolein holding one fee in York and one in Lincoln. The learned authors of the Recherches sur le Domesday, while admitting that a younger branch of the house of the Counts of Boulogne existed in England, where the name became Bouleyn or Boleyn, suggest that it may possibly have been an illegitimate one.

It seems more than likely that Anne Boleyn may be traced back to this stock. "Queen Anne Boleyn was the great granddaughter of Sir Geffrey Boleyn, Lord Mayor of London, temp. Henry VI., who accumulated a large fortune. The family had formerly been of great consequence. Sir Thomas Boleyn, of Blickling, in Norfolk, grandfather to Sir Geffrey, lived circa 1400, and was lineally descended from John de Bologne of Sail, living 1283, whose father Simon purchased lands in Norfolk by fine in 1252. The father of the latter married the sister and heir of Robert Malet (Blomfield), and possessed estates at Walpole, etc."—The Norman People. One of this house married, about the end of the thirteenth century, the heiress of the great house of Hardres or Ardres. Her ancestor, Ernulph de Ardres, was one of the knights banneret of Eustace de Boulogne, and probably his kinsman, holding large estates under him in 1086, both in Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire.

The sudden rise of the Boleyns, consequent upon Anne's advancement, preceded their collapse and disgrace. Her reign was a very short one. On the last day of May, 1533, she had been brought from the Tower in solemn procession, escorted by all the dignitaries of the realm in their robes of state to be crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey. The streets through which she passed were "radiant with masses of colour," every house draped in scarlet and crimson, or hung with arras, velvet, tissue, or cloth of gold. "Every fountain and conduit within the walls ran all day with wine, the bells of every steeple were ringing, children lay in wait with songs, and ladies with posies."—Froude. She came, "borne along upon the waves of this sea of glory, the observed of all observers, in a white chariot, drawn by two palfreys in white damask housings that swept the ground, a golden canopy held above her, making music with its silver bells." She was "dressed in white tissue robes, her fair hair flowing loose upon her shoulders, her temples circled with a light coronet of gold and diamonds," and thus, supreme in loveliness as in all else, she had passed on "in a blazing trail of splendour" to the goal of her ambition. She had won all she sought for in this world. But remark the reverse of this flattering picture. In less than three years from that time, at the beginning of another month of May, 1536, she was led back to the Tower to die; and as if to complete the bitter misery of the change, she was taken "to her own lodgings in which she lay at her coronation."[26]—Ibid. Within two days of her own execution the head of her only brother, Lord Rochford, had fallen upon the block; and the ambitious old father, who had striven and plotted to place his daughter on the throne, lived to lament the utter downfall and extinction of his house. One daughter only remained; Mary, married to William Carey, whose son was created Lord Hunsdon in 1559, and one infant grandchild, destined to a long and glorious reign as Queen Elizabeth. He had been created Viscount Rochford in 1525, and Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde in 1529, but both titles expired at his death in 1538.

Andeuile :

or Ansleville. This, according to the Recherches sur le Domesday, was a noble and puissant Norman family, that either gave its name, or received it, from a parish in the Val-de-Saire, that has been at different times called Ansleville, Ansneville, Asneville, Aundevyle (in England), and is now Anneville. It is, or was, still represented by M. Paul d'Anneville at Valogues. The first mentioned of this house, Samson d'Asneville, was sent (before 1050) by Duke William to free the people of Guernsey from some Biscayan pirates, of whom they had made complaint. Samson destroyed the pirates' forts, and drove them from the island, and for this service received a grant of the fourth part of Guernsey, to be held by the service of squire of the body to the Duke and his successors. At the time of the Conquest another Sire d'Asneville (probably his brother) was governor of Val-de-Saire. William and Humphrey d'Asneville are both subtenants in Domesday; William held under Earl Roger in Hampshire; Humphrey of Eudo Dapifer at Hertford. They are supposed to have been both the sons of Samson; and in that case the extreme parsimony of the King towards them is difficult to explain, unless, indeed, we accept the conjecture that their father came to England with them, and was the Equarius quidam regis (Bedfordshire, f. 218) or the "Samson" (Staffordshire, f. 247b), inscribed as holding directly of the King. The Annevilles may be traced in Hampshire, Bedfordshire, Somersetshire, &c, to the end of the reign of Henry II. At that time Alured d'Anneville was assassinated in the latter county. In the reign of King John, we find Jordan d'Anneville, whose wife, Beatrice de Lacy, granted ten acres of land at Elmedon to the Knights Templars. A branch remained in Guernsey, pronounced to be one of the oldest families in the island by some commissioners that Queen Elizabeth had appointed to enquire into the nature of the feudal tenures there.—Recherches sur le Domesday.

In the parish of Waltham, Kent, "is the hamlet and green of Hanville, so called after the family of Handville or Handfield, whose habitation was close to it. Several of them lie buried in this church; they afterwards removed to Ullcombe, Ashford, and Canterbury; at the former place, a descendant of them still remains" (in 1800). "They bore for their arms Argent, a lion rampant within an orb of nine crosses formee Sable. There is a pedigree of them in Vistn. co. Kent, anno 1619."—Hasted. The arms of the French D'Annevilles were entirely different. D'Anneville, Sieur de Chifrevast, Tamerville, and Le Vast, had D'hermine a la fasce de gueules; and the Sieur de Merville D'hermine au sautoir de gueules.

Amoudreuile :

(so spelt in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1198): for Amondeville, derived from Amondeville, near Caen. In Lincolnshire, for some unaccountable reason, the head of the family always bore the mysterious alias of Humfines. The first who came to England, Roger de Amondeville, "called also Humfines," was Seneschal to Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln (one of the compilers of Domesday), and by him endowed with four Lincolnshire manors, Kingerby, the principal seat of his successors, Auresby, Ellesham, and Croxton. He married a daughter of Sir Gerard Salvin, of Thorpe-Salvin in Yorkshire, and left, besides Jolland, his heir, John, and Robert. Jolland's wife, Beatrix Paynell, brought him six sons; 1. Walter, with whom at some time before 1166, she founded a Priory at Ellesham; 2. William; 3. Ralph; 4. Adam; 5. Elias: and 6. Jordan. William and Adam both received grants, the former of the manor of Soredington, the latter of Scodelthorpe, from Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln; while Ralph obtained from the Earl of Albemarle the Yorkshire manor of Carlton. The Amondevilles had already an estate in that county; for Whitaker tells us that they "were probably the first grantees of Preston-in-Craven under Robert de Poitou." All the four elder brothers died s. p., leaving the inheritance to Elias, who, as Helias de Mundeville, witnesses a deed of William le Gros about 1154, and also appears as a benefactor of Salley Abbey. His son Jolland married a niece of his suzerain the Earl of Albemarle, and was the father of the last heir, Peter, who left two daughters and co-heiresses. Ermentrude, the eldest, married William Dive, who had with her Kingerby, &c.; and Amabel married John Hawton, and brought him Soredington.

But it is quite evident that the name had not died out, either in Yorkshire or Lincolnshire; though the objectionable form of Humfines occurs no more; for Walter de Amundeville was for seven years Viscount of Lincoln in the early part of Henry III.'s reign; and Whitaker speaks of a Nigel de Amundeville who succeeded Elias in Craven, and was most likely his younger son. "Ralph de Amundeville, before 1340, was one of the principal benefactors of Swine Priory, on condition the convent would receive his daughter as a nun."—Poulson's Holderness.

In the county Durham, John de Amundeville, who may have been Roger's son, was seated at Coatham-Amundeville, now a village on the banks of the river Skerne, towards the latter end of the eleventh century. He was its earliest recorded lord, and among the first Norman settlers in the North of England. His name appears on several deeds in the time of Bishop William de Carilepho (1080-99): and Robert, probably his son, witnesses a charter of Bishop Galfrid Rufus (1133-40). Hugh de Hamonda-Villa was one of guardians of the Bishopric during the vacancy of the See on the death of that prelate. Thomas de Amundeville, about 1189-1209, witnesses a charter of Matthew de Lumley to Finchale Priory, and founded a chauntry at Coatham-Amundeville for the soul's rest of his parents, Richard and Clarice. His son John, who succeeded, sold the property; and we next meet with the family in Weardale. "Robert de Amondeville demorant a Wotton in Werdale," stands fifth on the list of the "Chivallers demorantes en le Franchise de Duresme demy Tyne et Teys, q. furent a Baner a la Bataille de Lewes" in 1264.—Hutchinson's Durham. There is now no such place as Wotton in the county; but it was the ancient name of Witton-le-Wear, which about eighty years afterwards became the stronghold of the Lords Eure. How it passed into their possession does not appear; nor can I find any further mention of the Amundevilles in the North.

Another branch existed in Warwickshire and Northamptonshire. Henry de Newburgh, the first Norman Earl of Warwick, enfeoffed Ralph de Amundeville at Lighthorne and Berkeswell, where he was seated in the time of Henry I. In 1122 he witnessed his suzerain's foundation charter of the collegiate church of Warwick. Nigel his son confirmed to the canons of St. Sepulchre, t. Henry II., some land he had bequeathed to them, and likewise "had his seat at Berkeswell, as I guess; for it appears that he had then a Park at this place, and that Oliva his wife had the whole Lordship in dower."—Dugdale. His son and successor, Richard, "had many publique and eminent employments in this Countie;" and the next heir, a second Richard, was of no less account. In 1256 he attended the Earl of Cornwall to Germany; and in 1262, was in the Welsh expedition under Prince Edward. "Whether he did cordially adhere to the rebellious Barons shortly after, I will not take upon me to say; though plain it is that he was in Kenilworth Castle when the Royal army besieged it, and being reputed one of the Baron's partie, had safe conduct with Henry de Hastings and others, to march out upon the render thereof: yet so far he had favour by the Jurie, upon the seizure of his lands, as that they said upon their oaths, that he was there with young Simon de Montfort per districtionem et contra voluntatem suam: so that I do not find that he compounded for his estate. But I suppose that this Richard had no issue; for in 6 Ed. I. he past unto William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, the inheritance of Berkeswell and Lighthorne, reserving only an estate for life to himself and Maud his wife, and the longer liver of them."—Ibid. His will bears date 27 Ed. I. Way-Amundeville retains his name in Dorset, where his father had received from Ralph Basset the manor of Up-Melcumbe. Thorp-Mundeville was their seat in Northamptonshire, where the last Sir Richard had a grant of free warren in 1253. Hutchins, in his History of Dorset, speaks of younger branches seated at Oakenhill, Stornefield, and Cransford in Suffolk.

Lord Byron, in one of his ballads, introduces an Amundeville as the Lord of his haunted Abbey, over which the vengeful Black Friar held ghostly sway;

"And whether for good, or whether for ill,
It is not mine to say;
But still with the house of Amundeville
He abideth night and day;
By the marriage bed of their lords 'tis said,
He flits on the bridal eve,
And 'tis held as faith, to their bed of death
He comes—but not to grieve."

The Lincolnshire Amundevilles certainly had property in Nottinghamshire, where they owned Winthorpe; but Newstead as certainly never belonged to them, and Byron simply adopted an harmonious and "mouth-filling" name that he had met with on his own pedigree. His ancestor, "Little Sir John with the great Beard," to whom the Abbey was first granted, was the son of Jane Bussy of Hougham in Lincolnshire, descended from one of the heiresses of Amundeville.

Arcy :

from Arci or Areci, Normandy. Norman de Areci held thirty-three lordships in the county of Lincoln by the immediate gift of the Conqueror, (Domesday) and chose Nocton, one of them, as the head of his barony. His posterity retained it as their seat for "divers after ages," and his son Robert founded an Augustine priory there. In the fifth year of King John, Thomas D'Arcy "was retained to serve the king with three knights for one whole year, in consideration of which King John remitted to him a debt of 225 marks, which he then owed the Jews:" and his grandson Philip, though he had married the co-heiress of Roger Bertram of Mitford, was so deeply in debt that in 1255 he was obliged to obtain "certain letters hortatory" to all his tenants by military Service, promising them the especial thanks of the Crown if they would "yield Unto him such reasonable aid" as might extricate him from his pecuniary difficulties. There were several successive confiscations of the estates for different rebellions, but in every case they were restored after the lapse of a very few years. Norman D'Arcy, who fought with the defeated barons at Evesham, and obtained pardon and restitution by the memorable Dictum de Kenilworth, was the father of two sons who were both summoned to parliament as barons; Philip, the firstborn, in 1299, and John, the second, in 1322. Philip's line failed with his grandson, the third lord, and his barony fell into abeyance between his two daughters; but the younger brother, John Lord D'Arcy, was the founder of all the existing families that bear his name. He was a man of considerable ability, actively engaged in the service of the three Edwards, who entrusted him with some of the highest offices of the State, and prominent in their French and Scottish wars. He was sheriff of the counties of Nottingham, Derby, Lancaster, and York: for some time governor of Norham Castle: then of York Castle: accredited Ambassador to France and Spain by Edward III.: Constable of the Tower: and governed Ireland as Lord Justice for the greater part of his life. His second wife, Joan de Burgh, was an Irishwoman, and his son by her was the ancestor of the various branches of the D'Arcys still settled in the counties of Meath, Westmeath, and Galway.[27] By his first marriage to a Northumbrian heiress, Emmeline de Heron, he had three other sons, from the second of whom the Darcys of Essex, Barons Darcy of Chiche, are supposed to have derived. The elder, who maintained his father's fame at the battle of Cressy, succeeded him as second Lord D'Arcy, and was followed by four other barons, till this second title again fell into abeyance on the death of Philip, sixth Lord, in 1418. Though he died a minor, he left two daughters behind him, and it was by right of descent from the younger, Marjory, the wife of Sir John Conyers, of Hornby, that the seventh Duke of Leeds took the name of D'Arcy.

This last Lord D'Arcy had, however, a younger brother named John, who, though he did not inherit his barony, of course took his place as the male representative of the house, and was seated in Yorkshire. His great grandson, Sir Thomas D'Arcy, was distinguished both as a soldier and as a politician. He first won his spurs in the French wars against Louis XII.: and during the reign of Henry VII. had at different times the custody of nearly all the strong places in the North of England, and was entrusted with the defence of the Border as Warden of the East and North Marches towards Scotland, and Captain of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Henry VIII., on his accession, summoned him to parliament as Baron D'Arcy of D'Arcy, made him a member of his Privy Council, a Knight of the Garter; and twice sent him with a contingent of English archers, to fight the Moors in aid of Ferdinand of Arragon. But as years went on, and Lord D'Arcy had grown to be an old man, he found his master entering upon courses in which, as a dutiful son of the Church, he found it more and more difficult to follow him. He consented, indeed, to be among the lords who exhibited the articles against Cardinal Wolsey, and signed the famous letter to Clement VII.; but five years later he obtained a license to absent himself from parliament "in regard of his age and debility of body," and thus avoided voting on the impending question of the dissolution of the monasteries. When the measure had passed, and the lesser houses were destroyed, the whole North was aflame for the old religion, and there was "one loud storm of bells and blaze of beacons from the Trent to the Cheviot Hills." The Yorkshiremen trooped in thousands to join the rising under Robert Aske, bearing as their badge the Five Wounds of Our Lord, and for colours, the crosses of the churches carried by the priests. The King at once wrote to D'Arcy who, "from his credit with the crown, his rank and his position, was at this moment the feudal sovereign of the East Riding."—Froude. But he faltered in his allegiance, for his heart was with the cause of the insurgents. Though he would not at first join the movement, yet he did not take the field nor order any muster of men to oppose it; and he ended by shutting himself up in Pomfret Castle, with about a dozen of his servants, but neither stores nor provisions. It was evident that he had no intention of holding the place; and when Aske appeared before the gates, and threatened to take it by storm, Lord D'Arcy, after a brief parley, surrendered on the following day, and was sworn to the common oath: "To enter into the Pilgrimage of Grace, for the love of God, the preservation of the King's Person, and Issue; the purifying of the nobility, expulsing all villain-blood, and evil-counsellors; for no particular profit to themselves, nor to do displeasure to any, nor to slay nor murther any for envy; but to put away all fears, and to take afore them the Cross of Christ, His Faith, the restitution of the Church, and the suppression of Hereticks, and their Opinions."

For this he was arraigned for high treason, and executed on Tower Hill in June 1537. He must then have been nearly eighty years of age, but his spirit and energy remained unbroken. While he was under examination of the Privy Council, and pressed with questions, "he turned, with the prophetic insight of dying men, to the Lord Privy Seal:—'Cromwell,' he said, 'it is thou that art the very special and chief causer of all this rebellion and mischief, and dost daily earnestly travel to bring us to our ends, and to strike off our heads. I trust that ere thou die, though thou wouldest procure all the noblemen's heads within the realm to be stricken off, yet shall there one head remain that shall strike off thy head.'"—Fronde.

His son George was restored in blood, with the dignity of Baron D'Arcy of Aston, soon after the accession of Edward VI.; but this fresh title was borne only by his son and great-grandson. The latter, though four times married, had only one son who died young: and again a junior branch (derived from the second son of the attainted Lord D'Arcy) became the head of the family. One of these D'Arcys, named Thomas, who died in 1605, was the husband of Elizabeth Conyers, the heiress of Hornby; and their son, Sir Conyers D'Arcy, set forth in a petition to Charles I., dated 1640, "that being the principal male branch then remaining of this ancient and noble family, and likewise son and heir of Elizabeth, da. and coheir of John Lord Conyers, lineal heir to Margery da. and coheir to Philip Lord D'Arcy, one of the barons of this realm in the time of King Henry IV., he prayed that His Majesty should be pleased to declare, restore, and confirm the dignity of Lord D'Arcy to him and his heirs male." The King granted him accordingly a patent of peerage in 1641. His son was further advanced to an earldom in 1682, and took the title of Earl of Holderness. There were four earls of this creation; of whom the last died in 1778, leaving his daughter Lady Amelia D'Arcy his sole heir. She thus became, in her own right, Baroness Conyers (the only one of his titles that, passing through females, did not become extinct), and married first Francis Godolphin Marquess of Carmarthen, afterwards the fifth Duke of Leeds, by whom she had a son, George, sixth duke, who inherited her barony. (See Conyers.) She was divorced from Lord Carmarthen in 1779, and had for her second husband John Byron, the father of the poet.

The descent of the Darcys of Chiche in Essex has never been clearly traced, for we hear nothing of them till the time of the wars of York and Lancaster, when Robert Darcy, a lawyer's clerk, achieved his fortune by marrying a rich widow. His grandson was esquire of the body to Henry VI. and Edward IV.:—impartially serving both the Red and White Rose; his great grandson filled the same office to Henry VII., and in the next generation we find Sir Thomas Darcy vice-chamberlain of the household, Captain of the Guard, one of the principal knights of the Privy Chamber, and at last Baron Darcy of Chiche by letters patent in 1551. Edward VI. also gave him the Garter. His grandson, Thomas was created Viscount Colchester in 1621, and Earl of Rivers five years later, with remainder in both cases to Sir Thomas Savage of Rocksavage, who had married his eldest daughter Elizabeth. There were three other daughters, and there had been a son, but he died without issue during his father's lifetime. Lord Rivers himself survived till 1639.

A younger line of these Essex Darcys, seated at Tolleshunt and Tiptree, in that county, obtained a baronetcy in 1660, and considerably outlasted the elder one, for it only became extinct with the fourth baronet, Sir George Darcy, who died a minor, leaving three sisters to divide the property.

Akeny :

De Acquigny, from Acquigny, near Louviers, Normandy. "Le Seigneur d'Acquigny appears in Tailleur's Chronicles of Normandy." Herveius de Acquigny occurs 1058 (Morice, Histoire Bret. Preuves, i. 439). Roger de Akeny, thirteenth century, held fiefs from the Honour of Peveril of London (Testa de Nevill). This family was numerous, and of great importance in England, as the records show."—The Norman People. In the time of Henry III. Ralph de Akeny gave some lands in Norfolk to the "P' or de Petra": and about 1272 Roger Dakeney held a fourth part of Northwold, in the same county, of Earl Warren; and Domina Johanna de Dakeneye was of Suffolk. Baldwin de Akeny, Lord of Holkham, and his son Thomas, also appear in Kent, where Dom. John de Akeny was a land, owner in Wittlesford Hundred.—Rot. Hundredorum. "Several generations of Dakeny, from Edward I. to 1390, were lords of a sixth part of the barony of Cainho, in Bedfordshire."—Glover's Derby. Robert Dakeny, one of the Lords of Clophill and Kannho, also held Lathbury and Little Filgrave in Buckinghamshire. He was knight of the shire for Bedford in 1316; and one of the Commissioners for raising foot-soldiers. Roger Dakeny, of Bucks, is also mentioned.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Chancy records a family of Dakins, that lasted for some generations, in Hertfordshire, that is believed to have been the same.

The name is said to survive under various disguises, more or less uncouth, such as Dakins, Dakeyne, Ducking, Dawkin, Dakyn, Deakinne, &c. "A family of Dakeyne was settled at Biggin Grange, in Derbyshire; and one of its members married Katherine, daughter of Patric Schange or Strange of Edinburgh, a favourite Maid of Honour to Mary Queen of Scots, and reputed to have attended her to the scaffold. This may be queried, since she was married before that event, in fact her son John was born in the same year. Her luckless mistress left her four hundred francs by her draft will made at Sheffield, but as this sum does not appear in her last testament it was probably given to Katherine on her marriage. The descendants of her eldest son John are the families of Deakin, or Dakeyne, late of Bagthorp Hall, co. Notts. The motto "Strike, Dakyns, the Devil's in the Hempe," was granted to General Arthur Dakyns of Linton (East Riding) in 1563, and if generals then commanded on the water as well as on the land, it may allude to some most gallant hacking at the enemy's hempen cords. It certainly is a maritime motto, for the crest Presents an arm brandishing a battle-axe out of a naval crown."—Longstaffe's Darlington. It is a pity that the heralds who gave the motto failed to explain its meaning, or, at all events, that the explanation is lost. It is difficult for the most ardent imagination to conceive a cable possessed by the devil, though perhaps a rope's end vigorously administered might suggest the idea to the sufferer.

There is an allusion to the Dakeynes of Ashover and Darley Dale in Derbyshire, "people of much note," in a curious "Elegy upon the Death of all the greatest Gentry in Darley-Dalle, who loved Hunting and Hawking, and several other games."

"None of my ancient friends I could espy;
In Asher parish I could find not one,
Old Crich, and Dakin, and ould Hobskinson,
They are departed and gone hence away."

"In 1547 the Earl Marshal issued a warrant for the apprehension of one William Dakyns, a notable dealer in arms and maker of pedigrees' for which fault about twenty years past he lost one of his ears.'"—Sir Bernard Burke. He had compiled spurious pedigrees for nearly one hundred families in Essex, Hertford, and Cambridge.

Albeny :

from Aubigny, near Periers, in the Cotentin; now divided into the two parishes of St. Martin and St. Christophe d'Aubigny. Nigel de Aubigny or de Albini—destined to be the founder of one of the most illustrious houses in England—is the only one of this name entered in Domesday. He held a great barony in the counties of Buckingham, Leicester, Bedford, and Warwick; and belonged to a family that had been attached to the household of the Conqueror's father, Duke Robert. He was the grandson of William d'Aubigny, who had married a sister of the traitor Grimault du Plessis; and the son of Roger Pincerna, by his wife, Amicia de Moubrai. Nigel was the youngest of their children; and early involved in the rebellion of the Norman barons against their Duke, through his brother William, who was actively engaged in it. Both were forced to take refuge in Brittany, and William never obtained his pardon; but Nigel's brilliant valour in the Angevin war regained him the Duke's favour, and he rose high in his good graces. Wace speaks of him as "Boteiller d'Aubigny," but in reality this title never belonged to him. He was Bow-bearer to William Rufus, and unshaken in his allegiance to him and his successor. It was Henry I. who first "girt him with the sword of knighthood; and he spared not to adventure his life in his quarrel in the most perilous encounters." No better or braver soldier was to be found in the kingdom: none more renowned for his feats of arms. At the battle of Tinchebrai he encountered Robert Curthose, hand to hand, slew his horse, and brought him prisoner to the King. For this service he received the forfeited estates of Robert Front-de-Boeuf: and it is computed that he then held one hundred and twenty manors in England, and as many more in Normandy,[28] including the great domain—once Earl Mowbray's—that had come to him with his wife. Her hand, according to Dugdale, was the guerdon he received for taking by assault a castle that Henry was then besieging in Normandy, and which he was the first to enter, and deliver into the King's hand. Sir Francis Palgrave thus gives the history of this strange marriage. "Robert de Mowbray, having rebelled against William Rufus, was let down into the pit of Windsor Castle, in which his robust constitution increased his punishment, by giving him strength to linger during thirty-four wretched years. Matilda de Aquila did not sorrow very long for her husband. According to a principle of jurisprudence still prevailing in France, and adopted from the Roman law, perpetual imprisonment is equivalent to civil death: the Pope therefore declared the marriage dissolved. Another husband soon appeared, Nigel de Albini, the King's Bow-bearer, who, obtaining Earl Mowbray's wife and Earl Mowbray's lands, transmitted Earl Mowbray's name to his posterity. Nigel lived with Matilda as long as she could promote his interest: but when her brother, Gilbert de Aquila, died, even as she had divorced her first husband, so did the second divorce her. As she had done, so was she done by. Nigel kept the lands, but repudiated the lady. Matilda died in disgrace and poverty; and Nigel, by Henry Beauclerk's special intervention, married the great heiress, Gundreda the Fair, daughter of Gerard de Gournay; and his son Roger, assuming the name of Mowbray, though without a drop of Mowbray blood in his veins, became the founder of the new Mowbray family."

Sir Francis altogether ignores the fact that Nigel's mother was Amicia de Moubrai (v. Recherches sur le Domesday), and that he must have obtained his divorce on the ground of consanguinity. No doubt one reason for discarding the childless Matilda, was his desire to have an heir, and this was fulfilled by Gundreda the Fair, who was the mother of two sons: 1. Roger, and 2. Henry. By the King's express command, Roger took the name of Mowbray, and was the founder of that princely house (see Mowbray). Henry had the barony of Cainho, and his descendants, who bore the name of De Albini Cainho, continued till 1223, when Robert de Albini died, leaving no heirs but his sisters. One of them conveyed Cainho to the St. Amands.

Nigel de Albini reached a very great age, and died in 1138, having lived under four different Kings of England. In his last days he became a monk of Bec, the Abbey where his ancestors had been buried, and he himself was laid to rest.

His elder brother William had, as I have already said, never found favour in the Conqueror's eyes, nor been pardoned for his early rebellion. During his reign, De Albini never durst venture into his dominions; and it is even doubtful whether he came to England as early as the time of Rufus. But he assuredly stood high in the good graces of Henry Beauclerk, who granted him forty-two knight's fees in Norfolk; and among them the barony of Buckenham, "to hold in grand serjeantry by the butlery," whence he obtained his father's title of Pincerna, and is styled Pincerna Henrici Regis Anglorum. This feudal dignity has descended to his representatives, the Dukes of Norfolk, who officiate as Butlers of England at every coronation, receiving for their service a cup of pure gold. He was the founder of Wymondham Abbey; and at the funeral of his wife, Maud Bigot, "with great lamentations gave to the monks," with other rich gifts, "part of the wood of the Cross whereon our Lord was Crucified: part of the Manger whereon He was laid at His birth; and part of the Sepulchre of the Blessed Virgin;" his three sons, William, Nigel, and Oliver, witnessing his donation. He himself was buried in front of the high altar, where the monks continued, for many generations, to pray for the soul of "William the King's Butler."

The eldest son, William of the Strong Hand, seemed, like the happy prince in a fairy tale, destined from his cradle to wear Fortune's favours, and revel in every good gift she has to bestow. Success waited on his steps, as a bondwoman; and no feat seemed beyond the reach of his romantic valour. Two Queens were in love with him; and the one he married brought him a principality in one of the fairest parts of England; with the famous castle that, alone in the kingdom, is privileged to confer an Earldom on its possessor.

I will leave Dugdale to narrate the picturesque legend associated with his name. "It hapned that the Queen of France, being then a Widow, and a very beautiful woman, became much in love with a Knight of that Countray, who was a comely person, and in the flower of his youth: and because she thought that no man excelled him in valor, she caused a Tournament to be proclaimed throughout her Dominions; promising to reward those who should exercise themselves therein, according to their respective demerits: and concluding that if the person whom she so well affected, should act his part better than others in those Military Exercises, she might marry him without any dishonour to herself.

"Hereupon divers gallant men, from forrain parts hasting to Paris; amongst others, came this our William de Albini bravely accoutred: and in the Tournament excelled all others; overcoming many, and wounding one mortally with his Lance: which, being observed by the Queen, shee became exceedingly enamoured of him, and forthwith invited him to a costly Banquet, and afterwards bestowing certain Jewels upon him, offered him Marriage. But having plighted his troth to the Queen of England, then a Widow, refused her. Whereat she grew so much discontented, that she consulted with her Maids, how she might take away his life: and in pursuance of that designe, inticed him into a Garden where there was a secret Cave, and in it a fierce Lion, unto which she descended by divers steps, under colour of shewing him the Beast. And when she told him of his fierceness, he answered that it was a womanish and not manly quality to be affraid thereof. But having him there, by the advantage of a folding dore, thrust him into the Lion. Being therefore in this danger, he rolled his Mantle about his Arm; and putting his hand into the mouth of the beast, pulled out his Tongue by the root; which done he followed the Queen to her Palace, and gave it to one of her Maids to present to her.

"Returning thereupon to England, with the fame of this glorious exploit, he was forthwith advanced to the Earldome of Arundel, and for his arms the Lion given him."

It would, however, appear that the great honour of Arundel—comprising ninety-seven knight's fees—was the dowry of Adeliza de Louvain, the widow of Henry I.; and that he acquired it only when, "not long after that, the Queen of England accepted him for her husband." He became Earl of Arundel by tenure—the only Earldom so held in England; and was also styled Earl of Chichester; "yet it was," says Dugdale, "of the county of Sussex that he was really Earl, by the Tertium Denarium of the pleas of Sussex, granted to him: which was the usual way of investing such great men (in ancient times) with the possession of an Earldom." Nor was the lion granted to him alone, for Nigel de Albini transmitted it to his descendants, the Mowbrays: the elder brother bearing a golden, and the younger a silver lion. The arms of their kinsmen in the Cotentin were totally different; for a seal of Bertrand d'Aubigny (who lived about the end of the twelfth century) shows the homelier bearing of three pots, two and one.

The new Earl was "a stout and expert soldier," and having been one of those who solicited the Empress Maud to come to England, he received her on her landing at his port of Arundel, and nearly lost his life in her quarrel, "being unhorsed in the midst of the water," during a sharp skirmish, and almost drowned. His timely interference, however, it was that checked further bloodshed in 1172, when, at the siege of Wallingford Castle, he declared, "If it be considered that there are in each army, not only kinsmen and nephews; but brothers against one another: If we joyn battle, it cannot be avoided, but many will be guilty of little less than parricide: Let therefore this pernicious fury of a Civil Warr he set aside; and fit persons chosen to compose all differences." This led to a truce and eventual agreement. He was afterwards constantly employed by Henry II. He died in 1176, leaving by his wife, Queen Adeliza, four sons and three daughters; but the line failed with his two great grandsons. Both died without posterity; Hugh, the fifth and last Earl, "in the prime of his youth" in 1243; and his four sisters divided his great inheritance. Mabel de Tateshall, the eldest, had Buckenham Castle; Isabel FitzAlan, the second, the castle and honour of Arundel (thus conveying the Earldom to her descendants[29]), Nichola de Someri, the third, had Barwe in Leicestershire; and Cecily de Montalt, the fourth, the Castle of Rising in Norfolk.

The widow of the young Earl Hugh was also richly dowered. She was the daughter of Earl Warrenne: a lady of haughty spirit and ready tongue, who "not speeding in a suit" she had made to the King, plainly told him, "That he was by God Almighty constituted to govern: but that he did neither govern himself nor his subjects as he ought to do." The King was at first amused, and asked, "What is that you say? Have the Peers framed a Charter, and made you their Advocate to speak for them, by reason of your Eloquence?" But when she burst forth—"What are become of those Liberties of England, so often solemnly recorded, so often confirmed, nay so often purchased? I, though a Woman, and all the free-born people, do appeal to the Tribunal of God against you! and Heaven and earth shall bear witness how injuriously you have dealt with us!" and rated him soundly, "the King," says Dugdale, was "much astonished, knowing his own guilt." It was obviously the last favour she ever asked of Henry III.

Aybeuare. Here, I believe, r should be l, giving us Aybevale or Aubevel (Brompton) from Auberville, near Caen. Four of this name are found in Domesday, disguised under the various spellings of Otburvilla, Oburvilla, Odburvile, Otburgvile, and Odburcuilla. Roger de Auberville held a barony in Essex and Suffolk: William de Auberville, Lord of Berlai, one in Herts: Robert de Auberville another in Somerset, where he held the office of Chief Forester; and Seri or Seric de Auberville was a mesne-lord in Cambridgeshire.

Dugdale ignores all but the two first-named Barons, who are said (though not by him) to have been brothers; and gives his attention to Roger's descendants only. Of these there were in all five generations. His son and successor Hugh—the "Hugh de Albertivilla" of Kent, entered in the Pipe Roll of 1130, was the father of Sir William de Auberville, whom he left a minor at his death in 1139, and for whose wardships Turgis de Abrincis paid "one hundred marks of silver, one mark in gold, and a Courser." Sir William was seated at Westenhanger in East Kent, where he founded the Premonstratensian Priory of East Langdon in 1192; and he was likewise a benefactor of Christ Church. His wife Maud was the eldest of the three daughters among whom the great Justiciary, Ralph de Glanville, divided his estate before departing with Coeur de Lion for the Holy Land; and she had for her share the manor and advowson of Balham. The next heir, Hugh, died in 1212, again leaving a son under age, whose guardianship was a far more costly prize than his grandfather's had been; for it was first purchased by William de Ainesford for one thousand two hundred marks; and the following year transferred to William Briwer for one thousand more. With this last William de Auberville the line expired. He left as his heiress his daughter Joan, married first (in 1247) to Sir Henry de Sandwich of Dent-de-Lion in the Isle of Thanet; and secondly, to Nicholas de Criol, Warden of the Cinque Ports, and Sheriff of Kent. There is no mention of any children by her first husband; but by the second she had a son who bore his father's name.

Banks gives the coat of the Aubervilles as Argent, three bars, in chief an Escutcheon Gules; but it was certainly not that of the Sir William who founded Langdon; for, "as appears by his seal appendant to a deed in the Surrenden library, he bore Parted per dancettee, two annulets in chief, and one in base."—Hasted's Kent.

It is obvious that the other Aubervilles must have left some descendants, for "Radulfo de Ouvervilla" witnesses a deed of Ralph Gernon, Earl of Chester (1121-53); and Richard de Haubervyle occurs about 1272 (Rot Hundred). But I have met with no account of them. "William de Obervill, Lord of Pittencrieff, granted in 1291 to the Abbot and convent of Dunfermline a charter enabling them to work some coal pits and quarries on his estate. This is one of the earliest notices of coal in Scotland."—Chalmers' Dunfermline. John de Obervill—perhaps William's father—is mentioned in 1231.—Ibid.

Amay :

Amatus, or Ame. This name is found 1180-90 in the Magn. Rotul. Scaccarii Normanniae. In the thirteenth century Richard Amy held from Henry de la Pomeray in Cornwall (Testa di Nevill). His descendants were to be found there till the middle of last century. Mr. Amy, Sheriff of the county in 1714, inherited Botreaux Castle from his uncle Sir John Cotton, and was the father of Cotton Amy, the last heir male, who left only two daughters.—Gilbert's Cornwall. One of them was insane; the other, Grace, married Jonathan Phillipps, of Camelford, a Captain in the Cornish Militia, and had several children, who all died early.

Simon and John Ame occur in Essex in the time of Edward I. (Rotul. Hundred.)

Aspermound :

from the Castle and county of Aspramont. "The Spearmans of Preston, in the parish of Tynemouth, claim to be a branch from those of Dunnington, near Newport, in Shropshire, who themselves assert their descent—not from the Peers of Charlemagne, who 'jousted in Aspramont or Montalban'—but from the ancient Lords or Counts of Aspramont, a certain Castle and County betwixt the Maes and the Moselle, on the confines of Lorrain and Bar. The reader may, perhaps, be reminded of Don Raphael's principality, 'des certaines Vallees qui sont entre les Suisses, le Milanois, et la Savoye.' Aspramont, however, is no imaginary Castle: it was sacked by the French, and the Count wounded, in 1551 (De Thou.). In 1740 the Castle was besieged and taken by the Marquis de Minas. A Count of Aspramont, in the service of the Imperialists, was made prisoner, and died of his wounds in Italy, in 1743; and the name appears in the last Army List of Royal France. But, whatever may become of this descent from Aspramont, which as it is not easy to prove, it is also impossible to refute: the Spearmans, whencesoever they sprang, came into Northumberland, as gentlemen, in the time of Henry VII.; and have ever since maintained their rank as such, together with considerable landed property in various branches of the family in both Countries. "Au reste, il y a longtemps que nous sommes nes bons gentilshommes—ainsi tenons-nous en la."—Surtees' Durham.

"Dominus de Asperomonte," is among the Barons of Champagne entered in Duchesne's Nomina militum ferentium bannerias: and it is quite possible that "Le Sire d'Asperemont, son of the Count d'Asperemont" may, as the family tradition avers, have come over to England with the Conqueror. "The corruption of the name," says Hutchinson, "has been attributed by some of the family to an atchievement in the holy wars under Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward I.:" but the transition is no greater than from Espec to Speke, which is an unquestioned derivation. The Spearmans do not, however, bear the silver cross of the House of Aspramont (Argent on a field Gules), but a chevron between three broken spears, of course alluding to the adventure or feat of arms in the Crusade. Nor is the name to be found in any of the public records that I have searched; such as the Hundred Rolls, the Pipe Rolls, the Parliamentary Writs, the Monasticon Anglicanum, &c.; and though Eyton, in his History of Shropshire, mentions a Stephen de Spearman and his wife Emma in 1267, he furnishes us with no clue to their descent. I opine, with Surtees, that it can neither be proved nor disproved.

A cadet of the Shropshire family came into the North with the army that suppressed the Pilgrimage of Grace, and was at the battle of Solway Moss in 1542. He settled at Preston, near Tynemouth, and his descendants are also to be found at Hetton-le-Hole, Thornley, and Bishop-Middleton in the co. of Durham. One of them acquired Eachwick in Northumberland by marriage in 1748; but his line ended in the following generation.

This last Spearman of Eachwick was a somewhat celebrated local antiquary, said to be the original of "Monkbarns" in Scott's Antiquary. He died in 1823, leaving his estate to an old unmarried sister for her life, and then to his steward, John Hunter, an old and faithful servant, determining, as he had no children of his own, "to follow the example of Abraham, and to consider his Eleazar heir to all his house."

Amerenges :

for Averenges or Avranches. This house can be distinctly traced back to the father of the first Duke of Normandy, Rognavald, Earl of More. Besides his two legitimate sons, he had, by a favourite slave whom he espoused more danico, a third, named Hrollager, who settled with them in Neustria. Hrollager's three grandsons each became the founder of an illustrious Norman stock. From the eldest, Anslac de Bastembourg, came the Bertrams, Sires de Briquebec, and the younger house of Montfort-sur-Rille; from the second William, the barons of Bec-Crespin; and from the third, Ansfrid the Dane who was Viscount of Exmes, or Hiesmes, before 978, the house of Avranches. He was the first Viscount of Hiesmes that is on record, and his descendants inherited this dignity, as well as his surname of Le Gotz or Gois. Toustain Le Gois, his grandson, was Chamberlain to Duke Robert the Magnificent, Stood high in his favour, and went with him to the Holy Land; but having rebelled against his successor, forfeited the whole of his possessions, which were granted to the new Duke's mother, Arletta. Toustain's son Richard, however, who had never swerved from his allegiance, obtained his pardon, and set matters straight by a judicious alliance. He married Emma, or Emmeline, de Conteville, Arletta's daughter, who brought him back all the lands that his father had lost; and acquired numerous other estates, notably in the Avranchin, from whence he took his name. In Duke William's charter to the Abbey of St. Evroult (about 1064), he signs himself Richard d'Avranches, being at that time Seigneur or Viscount of the Avranchin. Wace mentions him at the battle of Hastings:

"D'Avrancin i fu Richarz:"

but most commentators agree that this was a mistake, and that (though he was certainly still living sixteen years after the battle), it was his son Hugh Lupus, and not himself, that came over with the Conqueror. The French authorities, however (Recherches sur le Domesday), are of a different opinion, because, according to the invariable custom of the time in Normandy, Hugh could not have borne the territorial name of Avranches till after his father's death. There is also a passage quoted by Dugdale from the cartulary of Whitby, which declares that Hugh Earl of Chester, and his brother-in-arms, William de Percy, came into England with King William the year after the Conquest, 1067.

Hugh Lupus or Le Loup, so styled from the wolf's head that he bore on his banner, D'azur a la teste de loup arrachee d'argent,[30] was a skilful and daring leader, and whether he served at Hastings or not, at all events greatly aided his uncle in his subsequent campaigns against the Welsh. The first guerdon he received was the lordship of Whitby in Yorkshire (of which he afterwards disposed in favour of his friend William de Percy;) but a far more splendid recompense awaited him. When Gherbod the Fleming, on whom the Conqueror had conferred the Earldom of Chester, obtained leave to re-visit his own country 111 1071, and there, falling into his enemies' hands, was "cut off from all the blessings of life" in a dungeon, King William made his nephew Hugh Earl Palatine in his stead, "to hold the county as freely by the sword, as the King himself held England by the crown."[31] He had royal jurisdiction, with the state and court of a sovereign prince, and a parliament of eight barons, nominated by himself. His special mission was to check the incursions of the Welsh, and in 1096 he joined Hugh de Montgomerie, Earl of Shrewsbury, in invading and ravaging the Isle of Anglesey. He stood loyally by William Rufus during the rebellion that shook his throne, and is charged with having mutilated and blinded his own brother-in-law, William Count d'Eu, one of the insurgents whom he had taken prisoner. His possessions were simply enormous. Beside the entire county of Chester ("excepting what then belonged to the Bishop, which was not much"), he held one hundred and twenty-four manors in different parts of the country, and the magnificence of his household is vaunted by Gaimar:

"Quiens homs estoit li quens Huons!
L'empereur de Lumbardie
Ne menoit pas tiele compagnie
Come il fesoit de gent privee."

"He was," says Ordericus, "not abundantly liberal but profusely prodigal, and carried not so much a family as an army still along with him; he took no account either of his receipts or his disbursements, and daily wasted his estate." Dugdale speaks of him more kindly. "In his youth and flourishing age," he tells us, "he was a great lover of worldly pleasures and secular pomp; profuse in giving, and much delighted with enterludes, jesters, horses, dogs, and other like vanities; having a large attendance of such persons of all sorts, as were disposed to those sports. But he had also in his family, both clerks and soldiers who were men of great honor, the venerable Anselme (Abbot of Bec, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury) being his Confessor; nay, so devout he grew before his death, that, sickness hanging long upon him, he caused himself to be shorn a monk in the Abbey of St. Werburge, where, within three days after, he died;" in July, 1101. This was the Abbey he had himself founded at Chester, and in which he lies buried. He had governed Cheshire for exactly thirty years "with great honour and renown."

His wife was Ermyntrude, daughter of Hugh, Count of Clermont, by whom he had three sons; Philip (probably the eldest), who died before him; Robert, a monk of St. Evroult, and afterwards Abbot of St. Edmund's-bury; and Richard, a boy of only seven years old at the time of his death, who succeeded as Earl of Chester. There were also several illegitimate children (amongst whom Dugdale includes Abbot Robert), one, named Ottiwell, who was tutor to the sons of Henry the First, and another, Geva, the wife of Geoffrey Ridel.

The young Earl grew up, and was married to a kinswoman of Royal blood, Maud, second daughter of the Count de Blois or Champagne, who afterwards reigned as King Stephen, and of Maud, Countess of Boulogne. But in the first promise and springtime of their life, he and his youthful Countess perished in the famous wreck of the "Blanche Nef," when the King's two sons and the flower of the English nobility were lost at sea; and with him were drowned his bastard brother Ottiwell, his sister Geva, and her husband. Though barely twenty-five when he met his early doom, the young Earl had already done good service to Henry I., to whom he loyally adhered from the time he was of age to bear arms. He died childless, the last of the illustrious house of Avranches, and his cousin Ranulph de Meschines became the next Earl of Chester.

A family that bore the same name, but different arms, had, however, been settled in Kent, from the time of the Conquest, and are derived by the author of the 'Norman People,' from a younger brother of Hugh Lupus. But the Norman genealogists declare this family (which existed in France as well as in England) to be entirely distinct; and are positive that the great Earl had only four sisters: 1. Judith, married to Richer de L'Aigle (Aquila.): 2. Elisende, Countess of Eu: 3. Isabella, married to a son of Gilbert, Earl of Corbeil; and 4. Matilda, married to Randolf de Briquessart, Viscount of Bayeux, who was the mother of his eventual heir, Ranulph de Meschines. Had there been a younger brother, he or his children would naturally have succeeded to the Earldom, rather than his sister's son.

This Kentish family held the great barony of Folkestone, brought in dower by the grand-daughter of William de Arques, its first Norman Lord, Maud de Monneville, who was given in marriage to Riwallon or Ruallon d'Avranches, by Henry I. Their son William is said to have founded the church upon its present site, about 1138. The line had ended with another William, fourth of the name, before 1235. His sister Maud, styled "the great heiress of Folkestone," conveyed the barony to Hamon de Crevecoeur, another puissant Kentish lord. An offset of this family, under the name of Evering (a corruption of Avranches), probably lingered in the county to the end of the seventeenth century. They held of the Honour of Folkestone the manor of Evering, sometimes called Avranches, to which they had given their name; and bore the three chevrons of their Seigneurs on a different field. "Sir William de Avranches was one of the knights who held each a portion of land for the defence of Dover Castle, being bound by their tenure to provide men-at-arms to keep watch and ward within it, at certain appointed times, and to defend each of them a certain tower in the castle; that defended by Sir William, being styled Avranches Tower."—Hasted's Kent.

Bertram :

"Robert Bertram ki estoit tort" (crooked), Lord of Briquebec, near Valognes, is mentioned by Wace: his younger brother William is also generally considered to have been present at Hastings, and appears on the Dives Roll. The Norman barony of Briquebec, consisting of forty knights' fees, is said to have taken its name from Brico, a Norwegian Viking, who was the ancestor of this family. "Aslac or Anslac, his son, filled a great part in Norman history. His brother Amfrid, the Dane, was ancestor of the Earls of Chester, and the barons of Bec-Crespin."—The Norman People. "A younger branch, from whom came the Mitfords, formed establishments, though not of much account, in England: it probably descended from the above-mentioned William, or from another William de Bertram, who stands in Domesday as a small holder in Hampshire."—Taylor. One of these Williams became Baron of Mitford and Bothall, in Northumberland, probably after the forfeiture of Robert Mowbray. He either founded or gave lands to the Augustinian priory of Brinkbourne, and married a daughter of Guy de Baliol, by whom he had two sons: Roger Bertram, baron of Mitford; and Richard Bertram, ancestor of the barons of Bothall.

The elder line, seated in its picturesque Border fortress on the Wansbeck, survived till 1311. A lineal descendant and namesake of the first Roger joined the rising of the Barons against King John, and, in retaliation, had his castle seized, and his town of Mitford destroyed with fire and sword by the savage Flemish hordes who then devastated Northumberland as the auxiliaries of the King. While still in. the custody of the Crown, the castle was besieged by Alexander of Scotland; it was afterwards granted to Philip de Ulcotes, and in the following reign restored to its rightful owner. The next Roger Bertram was one of the Northern barons summoned to march into Scotland to the rescue of the young King of Scots, Henry III.'s son-in-law, in 1258. Six years afterwards, unwarned by the sad experiences of his father, he was arrayed among the insurgents in the Baron's War, taken prisoner at Northampton, and his castle and barony again forfeited—this time for ever. He seems, indeed, to have speedily made his peace with the King, for in 1264 he was summoned to parliament as Baron Bertram—but Mitford knew him no more. He was succeeded by his son, who had no child except a daughter who died early, and on whose death the barony fell into abeyance between the Fitzwilliams, Darcys, and Penulburys, as the representatives of his three sisters.

Mitford Castle passed through various hands. In 1316 it harboured a freebooter "who," says Leland, "robby'd a Cardinal cominge out of Scotland," and was himself there captured by Ralph Lord Greystock, and carried to London for execution. Two years later, when it was taken and destroyed by the King of Scots, who left it in ruins, it was, with the entire barony of Mitford, the property of Adomar de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. It eventually came by different co-heiresses to Lord Brough, who, in 1557, granted it to a descendant of the original owners, Cuthbert Mitford. His ancestor, Richard, was a younger brother of the first Lord Bertram, and bore the name of De Mitford as that of the paternal barony. "The manor of Molesden was purchased by this branch 1369,[32] and in allusion to it, they adopted three moles in their arms, the descent from the Bertrams being probably then forgotten through lapse of time, and so entirely has this been the case, that this, the legitimate male representative of one of the most illustrious Norman families, is now traced to imaginary Anglo-Saxon ancestors."—The Norman People. The castle and manor of Mitford came afterwards to the Crown, and were re-granted by Charles II. to Robert Mitford. From him are derived the present family; one of whom, a younger brother, was appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland and created Baron Redesdale in 1802.

The junior line of Bertrams held their barony of Bothall from the King in capite by the service of three knight's fees. Their castle also stood on the brink of a rock washed by the brawling stream of the Wansbeck, surrounded by beautiful woods sloping down the banks, and in many places overhanging the water. Most of what yet remains of it is of a much later date than their time. Robert Bertram, Sheriff of Northumberland and Governor of Newcastle-on-Tyne in the reign of Edward III, who first obtained licence to castellate his manor-house of Bothall, proved the last of the family; and his daughter Helen carried the barony to the Ogles, and was the grandmother of the first Lord Ogle.

One of these Lords of Bothall was the Hermit of Warkworth, whose pathetic story, long handed down by tradition, has been preserved and elaborated in Bishop Percy's ballad. He loved his neighbour, Isabel de Widdrington, and was loved in return: but, like a true daughter of

"These northern counties here,
Whose word is snaffle, spur and spear,"

she chose to put his mettle to the test before giving him her hand. She sent him a helmet as her love-token, with a message desiring him to try its temper "wherever blows fell sharpest;" and Bertram, obedient to her behest, rode with his brother-in-arms Lord Percy on a raid into Scotland, where he was wounded nearly to the death in a desperate fray. The tidings were brought to Isabel, who, struck with horror and remorse, at once set out to go to him; but on her way was seized by some prowling moss-troopers, and carried off to one of their secret fastnesses beyond the Border. Thus, when, "at the dewfall of the night," her rescued knight was carried home on the shields of his followers, he found his lady gone, and all traces of her lost. He made a vow never to rest till he had found her, and his brother promised to help him in the quest. As soon as his strength permitted, they went forth together in a "humble disguise:" and the better to conduct their search, agreed to separate, the brother going Northwards, and Bertram himself to the West. For many weary days and weeks he wandered "over moss and moor" in vain; till at length, when he had well-nigh lost heart, a compassionate pilgrim directed him to a distant peel-tower, in which a lady's voice had been heard lamenting. Bertram found the place, and recognised the voice; but watched the tower for two successive nights without obtaining a glimpse of his Isabel. On the third night, however, that he lay crouched in his hiding place, he saw her descend a ladder of ropes thrown from an upper window, assisted by a man muffled up in a cloak, who bore her across the little stream, and led her away, clinging fondly to his arm. Bertram, maddened at the sight, rushed after them with his naked sword, and attacked his rival, who defended himself manfully; but after a stubborn conflict Bertram succeeded in bringing him to the ground, and stabbed him to the heart with the words, "Die, traitor!" Then, when she heard his voice, the wretched Isabel for the first time knew who he was, and sprang forward to arrest the blow, shrieking "It is thy brother!" She was too late, for the deed was done, and in the struggle to throw herself between them, she slipped against Bertram's sword, and fell pierced by his brother's side.

For that night's bloody tragedy, the unhappy Bertram did penance to the end of his days. He renounced every tie that bound him to the world. His sword and spear were hung up in his hall; his inheritance passed on to others, and his goods given to the poor; while he himself, clad in monastic garb, took refuge in the rocky recesses of Coquetdale, near Warkworth Castle. No more ideal retreat could be devised for an anchorite than this lovely sequestered glen, where the hurrying Coquet stays its "troubled current" beneath precipitous cliffs, clothed with trees that spring from every chink and crevice of the stone; and from an overhanging grove of stately oaks above, a runlet of the purest water comes rippling down. Here his dwelling-place, scooped out of the living rock, remains almost as perfect as when he left it. It can only be reached from the river, by a long flight of steps. Over the entrance linger the traces of the original inscription, Sunt mihi lachrymae meae cibo inlerdiu et noctu. The first cell is a miniature chapel, complete in all its details, with a raised altar at the East end; and on a recessed altar tomb beside it the effigy of a woman, "very delicately designed," but now broken and time-worn, lying with her head towards the East, and her arms slightly raised, showing that her hands have been folded in prayer. At her feet, in a niche cut in the stone, the figure of the Hermit kneels in eternal penitence, his head resting on his hand. Beyond this, reached through a doorway, bearing on a shield the Crucifixion and the emblems of the Passion, is a still smaller oratory, used by the Hermit as a sleeping place; with a similar altar at the farther end, and near it, a narrow ledge hewn out of the rock for his couch. Neither by night nor by day3 did he ever lose sight of the beloved effigy in the adjoining chapel; for at the altar a window is contrived through which he could see it as he knelt at his devotions; and when lying on his bed, a niche cut slant wise through the partition wall still enabled him to rest his faithful eyes upon it. No one knows for how many sorrowful years he lived here "in penance and contrition," nor when Death came to his release.[33] His early friend Lord Percy honoured his memory by maintaining a chantry priest to sing mass in the chapel, and inhabit the Hermitage, whose allowance was continued down to the suppression of the monasteries. "The patent is extant which was granted to the last hermit in 1532 by the sixth Earl of Northumberland."—Hutchinson.

Buttecourt, for Botetourt. John de Botetourt is first mentioned in 1281, when he was made Governor of the Castle of St. Briavel in Gloucestershire, and Warden of the Forest of Dean by Edward I.; and two years later, when he had summons to serve in Gascony, he was Admiral of the King's fleet. He was in most of the Scottish wars, and appears on the Roll of Carlaverock.

"Cil ke a tout bien faire a cuer lie,
Au sautoir noir engreelie
Jaune baniere ot e penon,
Johans Boutetourte ot a noun."

The year after Edward II.'s accession he was summoned to parliament as a baron: and "being with the King at Bolein," says Dugdale "(that being the time when he married Queen Isabel) he joyned with the rest of the Nobles, then there, in signing an Instrument dated ult. Jan. under their Hands and Seals; whereby they mutually obliged themselves, to serve him faithfully, and to support his Honour." It was in accordance with the true spirit of this obligation, that four years afterwards, he was among the first to declare himself against Edward's unworthy favourites, and a confederate of Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in taking prisoner Piers Gaveston. At that time he was Constable of Framlingham Castle in Suffolk, and in 1315 is again spoken of as Admiral of the Fleet. He died in 1324. By his wife Maude, who, as the daughter of one of the co-heiresses of William de Beauchamp, Baron of Bedford, had brought him a great estate, he had four sons. The elder followed his father's example by marrying another wealthy heiress, Joane de Someri, sister of the last Baron of Dudley, but died before him, and a grandson succeeded. This second Lord Botetourt 16 Ed. III. attended the King to France in the train of the Earl of Warwick, and was constantly engaged in the subsequent French wars. He was twice married, and had, besides six daughters, an only son and heir; but he survived both this son and a grandson, and his granddaughter, Joyce Burnell, inherited the barony. She left no children, and at her death it fell into abeyance between her aunts. Singularly enough, it was the youngest of all, Katherine, married to Maurice de Berkeley, in favour of whose descendants it was revived after the lapse of three centuries and a half. Norborne Berkeley was summoned as Lord Botetourt in 1764, but died s. p. in 1776. His only sister Elizabeth married Charles, fourth Duke of Beaufort, and their son, the fifth Duke, obtained a fresh patent of the barony in 1803.

A knight of this family was honoured by a special interposition of Our Lady of Walsingham on his behalf. Every monastery was then an inviolable sanctuary: no criminal, who had found refuge within its precincts, could be touched under pain of sacrilege; and crosses were even set up at a certain distance on the roads leading to an abbey or priory, to mark the boundaries within which no capture could be effected, except by payment of a fine to the monks. The shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham was in such high esteem as a place of pilgrimage, that in those days, when it was generally believed that the Milky Way "was appointed by Providence to point out the particular place and residence of the Virgin, beyond all other places," it came to be called in the country the Walsingham Way, and was so known in Norfolk up to the latter end of the last century. On the north side of the close of the priory was a very low and narrow wicket door, through which it was difficult for any one to pass even on foot, being "not past an elne high, and three-quarters in breadth. And a certain Norfolk knight, Sir Raaf Boutetourt, armed cap-a-pee and on horseback, being in days of old, 1314, pursued by a cruel enemy, and in the utmost danger of being taken, made full speed for this gate; and invoking this Lady for his deliverance, he immediately found himself and his horse within the close and sanctuary of this priory, in a safe asylum, and so fool'd his enemy." A memorial of this miracle, engraved on a plate of copper, was seen by Erasmus, nailed to the gate of the Priory.—See Bloomfield's Norfolk.

These Norfolk Botetourts had settled on some lands granted by Hugh de Gourney in the time of Henry III.; and 3 Ed. I. Sir Guy de Botetourt "held Uphall manor of Lord Bardolf as part of the honour of Gournay." Sir John de Botetourt was Admiral of the Norfolk coast in the same reign, and in "high favour" with the King. The line failed 40 Ed. III. with another John.

Brebus :

more correctly given by Duchesne as Broehus: one of the numerous forms of Braose. This great family, which originated at Braose (now Brieuze), near Falaise, has had its name spelt in so many different ways—Bryus, Briouse, Brewhouse, Brewis, &c, that it is scarcely wonderful it should often have been confounded with that of Bruis or Bruce. Lower, for one, believed the names to be identical. "The men of Brius" are mentioned by Wace, and it is a disputed point among his commentators whether he alludes to Brix, or to Brieuze. William de Braose was one of the most powerful barons in the Conqueror's following, and received proportionally splendid grants; chiefly in Sussex, where he held as his barony the whole Rape of Bramber, and built Bramber Castle. It is not known when he died, but his only son Philip had succeeded in the reign of William Rufus. Philip's son married a great heiress, Berta, second daughter of Milo, Earl of Hereford, who brought him the three Welsh baronies of Brecknock, Ower Went, and Gower; and in 1157 he gave to Henry II. one thousand marks of silver for his share of the Honour of Barnstaple in Devonshire, which he inherited from his maternal grandfather, Juhel de Toteines. The other part belonged to Oliver de Tracy, from whom he soon after obtained the reversion by purchase. Thus, in the next generation, William ¦de Braose "succeeding to all that great estate of his father and mother," ranked with the mightiest nobles of the kingdom, and was foremost among the fierce Marcher lords in the revolting cruelty of his jurisdiction.[34] "Of this William," says Dugdale, "it is reported that, harboring some evil purposes towards the Welch, under colour of friendship, he did, about this time invite Sitsylt ap Dysnwald and Geffrey his Son, with a great number of the most Worshipful men of Gwent-land, to a feast at the Castle of Bergavenny, which Castle he had received of them by composition, and that, they doubting no harm, being come thither, he brought in a Company of Armed men upon them, and murthered them all; and having so done, went forthwith to Sitsylt's House (not far from thence), slew Cadwaladar, his Son, before his Mother's face, and destroyed the House." In 1204, he bought of King John, for 5000 marks, the "Honour of Limerick," or the entire province of Munster in Ireland, with the sole exception of the city and the church lands. According to one account, the purchase money was never paid, and it was for this debt that the King proceeded against him, when, five years later, a sudden and violent breach took place between them. Others impute the fault of the quarrel to his wife. When the kingdom was interdicted by the Pope, the King, "fearing more mischief, sent Souldiers to all the great men of England, especially to those of whom he stood in any doubt, requiring Hostages from them, to the end he might the better reduce them to his Obedience, in case they should be absolved from their due Allegiance by his Holiness." But when the messengers came to the castle of De Braose "they found a Rub," for this undaunted lady, Maud de St. Valery by name, boldly told them that no son of hers should ever be trusted in the hands of a King who had basely murdered his own nephew. Her husband rebuked her for speaking so rashly, and—though he, too, refused to grant a hostage—offered to give full satisfaction if he had "in aught offended the King." But Maud's passionate words bore bitter fruit. The King's bailiff for Wales was sent with an armed force to seize De Braose, and take possession of his lands and castles; and finding resistance hopeless, he fled with his family to his Irish kingdom of Limerick. Even then he was not long in safety; for the King raised an army to go to Ireland; and Maud, with her eldest son, again crossed the sea, and sought an asylum in Scotland. Unfortunately, they entrusted themselves to the hospitality of the Lord of Galloway. He delivered up his guests into their enemy's hand, and they were forthwith consigned to a dreadful doom—the slow torture of the oubliette. "This year, viz. An. 1210," writes Matthew of Westminster, "the Noble Lady Maud, Wife of William de Braose, with William, their Son and Heir, were miserably famished at Windsore, by the command of King John; and William, her Husband, escaping from Scorham (Shoreham), put himself into the habit of a Beggar, and privately getting beyond Sea, died soon after at Paris; where he had burial in the Abby of S. Victor, on the Eve of S. Lawrence." Matthew Paris puts his death two years later. All his possessions were forfeited to the Crown; but the greater part were given back to the family; for his two younger sons successively held them "by fine and agreement." One of these, Giles, Bishop of Hereford, was a priest: the other, Reginald, left an only son, William de Braose, who was treacherously seized by Llewellyn Prince of Wales at an Easter feast, and put to death in 1230. Some say he was hanged on the same gallows as the wife of Llewellyn, "with whom he was suspected of undue familiarity." His four daughters were great heiresses.

The miserable elder brother, who was starved to death in Windsor Castle, had left behind him a son John, surnamed Tadody, who had been secretly nursed by a faithful Welshwoman in Gowerland, and was apparently reinstated in his grandfather's Baronies of Bramber, Knepp, and Gower, on the death of his cousin William. He was himself killed two years afterwards by a fall from his horse. The direct line ended with his grandson, another William de Braose, one of the companions in arms of Edward I.—a gallant and well-tried soldier, who had summons to parliament as Baron Braose of Gower in 1299. "He was," says Thomas of Walsingham, "a person who had a large patrimony, but a great unthrift;" and in 14 Ed. II. found it in his heart to put up for sale his noble territory of Gower—the great feudal principality where his family had borne rule for more than a century and a half. Two neighbouring land-holders, the Earl of Hereford, and the Mortimers (uncle and nephew) were eager to purchase; and the former contracted with him for it, and obtained the Royal license, while his son-in-law, John de Mowbray, who had "accounted himself secure enough thereon" as the husband of his heir apparent Aliva, vehemently protested against the whole transaction.[35] But a third person (then all powerful with the King) Hugh Le Despencer the Chamberlain, stepped in and took forcible possession on his own account, having "fixed his eye upon it in regard to his estates in these parts," and found it "lay convenient to them also." The discontent caused by these arbitrary proceedings brought on a revolt; for the noblemen who had dealt for Gowerland "addressed themselves unto Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, with no small complaints of the injury: which, in short," adds Dugdale, "occasioned that unhappy Insurrection, that at length terminated in the loss of the Lives and Estates of many brave Men; and in particular of that Noble Earl of Lancaster."

Mowbray himself laid down his life in the cause, for, after having followed the confederates in all their varied fortunes, he was at length taken prisoner with the Earl, while attempting to force the passage of the river at Borough-bridge, and executed for high treason at York on the same day in 1322.

Lord Braose died in the same year, leaving no son to succeed him, and his barony fell into abeyance between his two daughters, Aliva de Mowbray and Joan de Bohun. Ten years afterwards, his nephew Sir Thomas had summons to Parliament, having served long and honourably in the wars of Edward III., first in the retinue of John de Warren, Earl of Surrey, and then with Richard, Earl of Arundel. His wife was Beatrix de Mortimer, widow of Edward Plantagenet, eldest son of Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk; and by her he had two sons, who were successively Barons Braose. The last lost both his children in their minority, and his cousin Elizabeth, the wife of Sir William Heron, came to be his heir. Another cousin, Sir John de Braose, died s. p.

Byseg :

Here the last letter is clearly an error.[36] It should be t, which gives us Byset or Bisset, a baronial name well known both in England and Normandy, and though not written in Domesday, to be met with as early as the reign of Henry I. William Biset, in 1130, held lands in Notts and Derby (Rot. Pip.). Manser or Manasser Bisset, Lord of Kidderminster in Worcestershire, was Sewer to King Stephen, and in 1165 held a fee at Chaucy in the bailifry of Coutances (Duchesne, Feod. Norm.). He was "one of the Witnesses to the Accord made betwixt that King and Henry Duke of Normandy, touching the Succession of the said Henry to the Crown of this Realm." He was, says Camden, "a most noble personage in his time," and founded a priory for secular priests at Bradley in Wiltshire, which he amply endowed; his son Henry confirming his grants. Henry had no heir, and was succeeded by another Henry, his nephew, and then by John Biset, Chief Forester of England under Henry III., mentioned "at the great Tournament held at Northampton in 1241, occasioned by Peter de Savoy, Earl of Richmond, against Earl Roger Bigod." He died not long after, leaving three daughters and co-heiresses; Margaret married to Richard de Rivers, Ela, and Isabel. One of the latter was the ill-fated "maiden infected with the leprosie, who founded a house for maidens that were lepers, and endowed the same with her own Patrimonie and Livetide, like as her father before time had thereabout erected a Priorie."—Camden. From her the place acquired its present name of Maiden Bradley. "She gave," says Leland, "her part here in pios usus, and the Personage of Kidderminster remains impropriate to Maiden Bradley. The other two Partis came to the Lorde Arbergavenny, and in that family it yet remainith." Combe-Biset, in Wiltshire, and the parish of Preston-Bisset in Berkshire, preserve the name of their most ancient lords.

If the history of the Bisets in England is brief and colourless, in Scotland and Ireland, on the other hand, it is full of incident and adventure. They had very early crossed the Border; for a William Byset appears at the court of William the Lion King, "a man of great courage and activity, who was settled in Lovat with commission from the King, and was known in 1170 as Lord of Lovat."—Wardlaw. His son Sir John, in 1230, founded the castle and priory of Beauly in Inverness-shire: the latter for monks of the Order of Vallis Caulium; and left three daughters; Mary, from whom the Frasers of Lovat are derived; Cecily, married to a Fenton; and Elizabeth, the wife of Sir Andrew de Bosco. The family had, however, still representatives in the male line, descended from a younger brother, and seated in the south of Scotland. Of these was Sir Walter Byset, who at a great tournament held in 1242 at Haddington, was worsted and unhorsed by his antagonist, the gallant young Earl of Atholl. There had been a smouldering feud of old standing between the families, which blazed out aflame after this unhappy encounter; and Atholl was found murdered in his own house, that had been set on fire by the assassins to conceal the deed. There could be little doubt as to their identity. "Suspicion at once fell upon Walter, who was an officer in the Queen's household, especially as he had prevailed upon the Queen to spend four days at his castle, on her journey south from Moray, at the very time when the murder was perpetrated." He was banished the realm, and compelled to take a vow that he would join the Crusade, and never set foot again in his native land. On this condition he was permitted to dispose of his lands and goods. But instead of going to the Holy Land, he and his nephew John landed on the coast of Antrim, where they obtained grants of land from the Earl of Ulster. In 1279, the son and heir of John held the seven lordships of the Glynnes in capite from Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster; and Robert Byset, in 1365, founded a monastery at their principal seat, Glenarm. The family became very numerous in the North of Ireland (where the name was sometimes spelt "Misset"), and kept up a close connection with Scotland. "It was in Sir Hugh Bisset's Island of Rathlin that the heroic Bruce took refuge in 1305, and where he formed the resolution of reconquering Scotland; and it was at Glendun, in Sir Hugh's manor of Glenarm, that Edward Bruce landed with the victors of Bannockburn. Upon the news of that invasion, Parliamentary summonses were issued to no less than five magnates named De Byset, John, Herbert, William, and two Hughs. One of these latter was the traitor baron, who, like Hugh de Lacy, Walter de Say, and Michael of Kylkcoran, also summoned as peers on the same occasion, adhered to the Scots. His hereditaments in Rathlin and Glenarm were forfeited 13 Ed. II., and given away by the King. Hugh, son of Walter Byset, obtained a general pardon from Edward III. excepting any share in the murder of the Earl of Ulster (Rot. Pat. p. 53). Sir Hugh Byset was regularly summoned to parliament by Ed. III. and Richard II.; and in 1400 Richard Savage, as Seneschal of Ulster, and guardian of the Cross lands there, obtained the wardship and marriages of Elizabeth and Marjorie, heiresses of Sir Hugh (Ibid, p. 146). Marjorie married John Mor MacDonnell, second son of John, Lord of the Isles. This marriage gave the Macdonnells that feudal title to Irish lands which they afterwards fought manfully to maintain, and which was at last fully recognised in the Patent of the Earldom of Antrim."—Ulster Archaeologia, vol. ii. p. 155.

In Scotland, the Bissets seem to have recovered their position within little more than a generation. "William de Byset, Constable of Stirling Castle, and Sheriff of Stirling, was one of the barons, convened at Berwick in 1291, who were chosen to act as arbitrators between the competitors for the Crown of Scotland—Bruce and Baliol. His grandson, Sir Thomas Biset, married Isobel MacDuff, heiress of Malcolm Earl of Fife, and widow of Walter Stewart, second son of Robert II.; and in consequence received from David II., in 1362, a grant of the Earldom of Fife to him and his heirs male by her; failing which it was to revert to the Crown, which accordingly it did on his death, in 1366, without male issue by her."—Notes and Queries, 5th S. vi.

A collateral branch, derived from Patrick Bisset of Lessendrum (who lived about 1490) survived in the male line till the present century, and the name is still found in Scotland.

Bardolfe :

"Hue Bardoue" is mentioned by Wace at the siege of Arques; "a great name," adds Taylor, "both in Norman and English history." "The exact nature and measure of Hugh's greatness does not appear; but his capture is spoken of as one of the most important events of the fight at St. Aubin. I know of no record of his earlier exploits or his later fate; but the name of Bardulf occurs repeatedly in the later records both of the Norman and English Exchequer, and one at least of his descendants seems to have been as little amenable to lawful authority as his ancestor."[37]—Freeman. He was at that time "one of the Norman traitors who were in arms with the King of France against their lawful Duke."—Ibid.

Yet, in the sole account I have been able to find of "Hugues surnomme Bardoul" (contained in Anselme's History of the French Nobility) he is described as the vassal of the King of France, and no allusion is made either to a Norman fief, or to descendants resident in England. He was the grandson of Renart, Seigneur of Broyes, near Sesanne, in the Pays de Brie, of Beaufort in the county of Ronay in Champagne, and of Periviers in the diocese of Orleans, who lived in the reign of Hugh Capet, and, dying at Rome, was buried at the gates of St. Peter's. Hugh's name first appears as a witness to one of King Robert's charters in 1028. He fortified his castle of Periviers against Henry I. of France; but, after a two years' leaguer, was compelled by famine to surrender, deprived of all his honours, and banished the realm. His disgrace was, however, short lived; for not long after he was reinstated, and accompanied the King in an expedition against the Duke of Normandy, in which he was taken prisoner. He founded a priory at his castle of Beaufort as a cell to the Abbey of Moustier-en-Der: and was succeeded by his son Bartholomew "chevalier tres fameux," and the father of another Hugh Bardoul, who went with Stephen Count of Blois to the Holy Land in 1102. Trie-le-Bardoul took his name; but it appears never to have been borne by his descendants. They were simply styled Sires de Broyes, and bore three broies (hemp-brakes) as their coat of arms.

There existed none the less a Bardol fee in the Norman Pays de Caux, identified by Mr. Stapleton with the church of Bernonville near Gisors, which Thomas Bardol, with Rose Alselyn his wife, bestowed on the Abbey of Bec-Herlouin. He was the son of William Bardol, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk for five consecutive years under Henry II., with whom Dugdale's pedigree begins. No doubt William must have been a landowner in either or both of these counties; but it is upon Thomas's brilliant marriage that the first foundation of their future importance rests. Rose had brought him twenty-five knight's fees, which had descended to her from Goisfrid d'Alselin, one of the Barons of Domesday, whose name became in English speech Hauselyn; having been "disfigured by English genealogists, who converted its first syllable, Al, into Hau."—Recherches sur le Domesday. In like manner, Bardol or Bardul, grew into Bardolf or Bardolph.

Thomas and Rose had two sons: 1. Dodo, or Doon; 2. Thomas, castellan of Verneuil in 1179 and 1180; "and perhaps two others, for Dodo witnesses Richard de la Haie's grant to Blanchelande Abbey with Hugh Bardolf and Hamelinus Bardolf. In 1168 Hugh held two knight's fees, and Doon I. of Richard de la Haie's fief in Lincoln."—A. S. Ellis. Dugdale, however, who gives a long account of this Sir Hugh, believes him to have been Thomas's younger brother rather than his son.

He was, in either case, of far greater account than his elder brother. No man in the country was better trusted or oftener employed. He was one of the Lieutenants left in charge of the Kingdom in 1186 during Henry II.'s absence in Normandy; three years later appointed a Justiciar of the realm when Coeur de Lion departed for the Holy Land: and among the sureties of the treaty made at Messina in 1190 between the King and Tancred of Sicily. So great was Richard's esteem for him "that in the third year of his Reign, when he was in the Holy Land, and suspected his Chancellor here, to whom he had chiefly committed the Charge of Governing in his absence, he wrote his letter to this Hugh Bardolf and three others, requiring them, in case the Chancellor did not do as he ought, that they should take upon them the rule of all things."—Dugdale. During the contest between the Chancellor and the Earl of Mortaine, when the Earl's castle of Windsor "was besieged by all the Nobility of England, this Hugh, being then the King's Justice and Sheriff of Yorkshire, joyn'd with the Archbishop of York and William de Stuteville, who having raised a great Power, fortified Doncaster, but would not take part in the siege of Tickhill Castle, belonging to the Earl of Moreton, in regard of his special Obligations to him."—Ibid. It is this Sir Hugh who is traditionally named as the champion that slew the great Dragon of Walmsley; but, setting aside this more dubious feat, his services as Sheriff are sufficiently note-worthy. The list of his shrievalties is a curiosity. He was Viscount of Cornwall in 1185 and 1186, of Wilts for half the latter year, and the whole of 1187; of Dorset and Somerset in 1189; of Warwick and Leicester in 1190 and 1191; of York in 1192 and 1193; of Northumberland, Westmoreland, and York in 1194; of no less than six counties, Northumberland, Westmoreland, Lancaster, York, Warwick and Leicester in 1195; of Westmoreland in 1196, 1198, and 1199; part of 1199 also of Derby, Notts, Devon, and Cornwall; and again of Notts and Derby in 1203—the year of his death. He had received from Henry II. Fulk Paynell's forfeited Honour of Baenton, which he exchanged for the manor and hundred of Hoo in Kent about 1196, but left no children to inherit it. It passed to his brother Robert; but Robert, too, died s. p.: and the inheritance was divided among his nieces, one of whom, Isold, was the ancestress of the Lords Grey of Codnor. Dugdale does not give their father's name.

But to revert to the elder line. Doon Bardolfe, the son and heir of Thomas Bardolfe and his wealthy wife, himself married an even greater heiress, Beatrice de Warrenne, dowered with the Barony of Wermegay, which, "with other great manors, made up twenty-nine knight's fees belonging to his court at Shelford." This was the head of his Honour, and some of his descendants lie buried in Shelford Priory; but they had also Folkingham Castle in Lincolnshire;[38] and a seat at Pudel-Bardolf, Piddle Bardolf, Piddle Barlyfeston, or Bardolf's Weston—all different names for the same manor—in Dorsetshire. Doon had died before 1205, and his widow, after paying the great sum of three thousand one hundred marks for livery of his lands and license to remain unmarried, in 1209 "became the wife of the King's favourite, Hubert de Burgh; but, before 1214 she had, after the birth of male issue that did not survive, sunk into the grave. Upon this pretext, as tenant by the courtesy of England, Hubert de Burgh obtained from King John a grant for life of the Honour of Wermegay."—T. Stapleton. It was therefore only after the great Earl's death in 1243 that it came to her son William.

William, who remained the staunch liegeman of Henry III. during the Baronial War, and was taken prisoner with him at Lewes, was the grandfather of the first Lord Bardolf, Hugh, summoned to parliament in 1299. He had served Edward I. gallantly for three years in Gascony, and then for as many more in Scotland, dying after his last campaign in 1303, when he had followed the King's own banner across the Tweed. He was among the leaders of the first squadron at Carlaverock.

"Hue Bardoul, de grant maniere,
Riches horns e preus e cortois,
En asur quint-fullez trois
Portoit de fin or esmere."

He had married Isabel, the heiress of Robert Aguillon, and left a son and heir of twenty-two, through whom the title was transmitted to three more generations of stalwart soldiers. The third Lord, a Knight Banneret, who served Edward III. in the field all his life, was, with Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, and John Lord Morley, selected for the defence of the Norfolk coast when a French invasion was expected in 1352. His wife Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Roger d'Amorie, by "that great Woman" (as Dugdale terms her) Elizabeth de Burgh, the foundress of Clare Hall, Cambridge, brought him a fair inheritance in Dorsetshire. Their son, again, fought in France; and in 1373 was in the train of John of Gaunt "with XL Men-at-Armes and XL Archers, all on Horsebacke." The last of the line, William, is the wary "Lord Bardolf" of Shakespeare's Henry IV. that depreciates the rash and headstrong tactics of Hotspur—

Who liv'd himself with hope,
Eating the air on promise of supply,
Flattering himself with project of a power
Much smaller than the smallest of his thoughts:
And so, with great imagination,
Proper to madmen, led his powers to death,
And, winking, leap'd into destruction.

He was then, as Hotspur had been, in arms against the Crown: for he had joined the Yorkist rising of 1405 under the Earl of Northumberland, the Earl Marshal Nottingham, and Archbishop Scrope; but, driven from the field by the King's superior force, retreated across the Border with Northumberland, while Scrope and Nottingham, betrayed by the Earl of Westmoreland, were left to perish on the scaffold at York. Three years later, having meanwhile collected aid in Scotland, Wales, France, and Flanders, Northumberland and Bardolf "in a dismal hour," re-appeared in the North with a great following, recovered the Earl's forfeited castles and seignories, and, marching into Yorkshire, raised the standard of revolt at Thirsk. Many Yorkshiremen flocked in to join it, ready to give their blood for the old cause of the White Rose, that had struck such deep roots in the North. But the loyal Sheriff, Sir Ralph Rokeby, gathered together all the men-at-arms he could muster in the county, and encountered them at Bramham Moor, near Hazelwood, "where," says Holinshed, "they chose their ground meet to fight upon. The Sheriff was as ready to give battle as the Earl to receive it, and so with a standard of St. George spread, set fiercely upon the Earl, who, under a standard of his own arms, encountered his adversaries with great manhood. There was a sore encounter and cruel conflict betwixt the parties, but in the end the victory fell to the Sheriff. The Earl of Northumberland was slain in the field, and the Lord Bardolf was taken, but sore wounded, so that he shortly after died of the hurts." The dread sentence of a traitor was executed upon him even after death; for his lifeless body was quartered, and the quarters set up on the gates of London, York, Lenne, and Shrewsbury, his head being exposed on one of the gates of Lincoln, till his widow Avicia could obtain the King's leave to take down the ghastly trophies, and bury them. By this Avicia (the daughter of Lord Cromwell) he left two young daughters, Anne and Joan, the one then nineteen, the other eighteen years of age, who under other circumstances would have been his heirs. But by his attainder all that he possessed had escheated to the Crown and been disposed of by the King; and the husbands of the despoiled sisters, Sir William Clifford and Sir William Phelip, could only succeed in securing the reversion of a small part of his great estate. Sir William, an excellent soldier, who was Treasurer of the Household to Henry V. and created Lord Bardolf by Henry VI., left an only daughter married to John Viscount Beaumont.

The name, as far as I know, only survives in the town of Stow-Bardolph, in Norfolk, and Stoke-Bardolph, in Nottinghamshire.

Basset :

"from its ancestor Bathet or Baset, Duke of the Normans of the Loire, 895, 905 (Bouquet, vii. 360; viii. 317). He acquired Ouilly Basset, and Normanville in 912, and had issue Norman, father of Osmond, Viscount of Vernon, whose elder son, Hugh Basset, was Baron of Chateau Basset, which barony passed by his widow to the house of Montmorency, circa 990. His brother, Fulco de Alneto, was the father of Osmond Basset, who accompanied the Conqueror."—The Norman People. The names given on the Dives Roll, are, however, "Raoul et Guillaume Basset:" and the former, afterwards the celebrated Justiciary, was the reputed son of Thurstin, a Norman who held five hides of land at Drayton in Staffordshire, 1086. (Domesday.) Ordericus says of him, that Henry I., at the very beginning of his reign, "De ignobili stirpe illustravit ac de pulvere (ut ita dicam), extulit; dataque multiplici facilitate super consules et illustres oppidanos exaltavit." "He had the high office of Justice of England under Henry I., with a power so great, that he sat in what court he pleased, and wherever else he thought fit, for the administration of justice. And to his wisdom, it is asserted, we owe the first design and institution of the law of frank-pledge, besides other excellent laws. From this it seems evident, that he shared largely in his sovereign's favour, and that he had great abilities, which, with so wise a prince, were the likeliest means to procure it.

"Yet it may probably admit of some doubt, whether Ordericus be not a little mistaken, when he represents him of an ignoble race; the more especially so, when it is related of Richard his son, that abounding in wealth, he built a strong castle upon his inheritance in Normandy; which makes it the more likely, that Ralph, his father, was descended from some ancient house in that country; for if he were raised from a low estate to the high rank he enjoyed, it does not appear very feasible that he should have any inheritance worth erecting a castle upon."—Banks.

This great Justiciary, who, like most of his contemporaries, was very liberal to the Church, called for a monk's habit when lying on his death bed at Northampton in 1120; and on being asked of what Order, replied that he had always held the monks of Abingdon in special veneration, and desired that his body might be buried in their Abbey. He left five sons; Richard; Thurstin, of Colston-Basset, Notts, by some called the eldest; Thomas, ancestor of the Bassets of Haddington; Nicholas, who in 1147 founded Bruern Abbey in Oxfordshire; and Gilbert. Richard succeeded his father as Justiciary, and continued in office through the whole of Stephen's reign His wife Maud was the sole heiress of Geoffrey Ridel, by Geva, daughter of Hugh Lupus, and brought him so great an estate, that her eldest son Richard, and Richard's son Geoffrey, both of them bore her name in lieu of their own. She had two other sons, Ralph, of Drayton-Basset in Staffordshire, ancestor of the Lords Basset of Drayton; and William, of Sapcote in Leicestershire, ancestor of the Lords Basset of Sapcote.

Geoffrey's heir was a son named Richard; but he had another son of his own name, who was the first-born, and obtained the principality of Blaye in France—the celebrated Geoffroi Le Troubadour, styled the Pilgrim of Love, whose story reads like a fairy tale. "Il alla chercher la mort," says St. Palaye, quoting Petrarch, "a force de voiles et de rames." It appears that he entertained many pilgrims and knights returning from the East in his castle of Blaye, and all alike sang the praises of the fair Melisande, Countess of Tripoli. She was, they averred, a pearl among women, Queen of Beauty and mistress of all hearts, peerless in grace as in wit; and the poet listened to their descriptions till his imagination was fired, and he conceived a romantic passion for this unknown princess. As the snow-laden fir-tree of Heine's idyll pined in the bleak North for the Eastern palm, brooding in its burning wilderness of sand, so the Norman knight languished for his remote Southern ideal. Her name was ever on his lips, and he celebrated it in verse and song, proclaiming her far and wide as the lady of his dreams, till at length he resolved to undertake a pilgrimage to her shrine. He embarked at Cette, and sailed for Tripoli: but while on board ship was seized with a mortal malady, and landed at his destination a dying man. The fair Melisande, on her part, had dreamt of a lover who was to seek her from beyond sea, till she daily expected and watched for his coming; and when Geoffrey was brought on shore, she recognized him at a glance as her promised knight. He, too, knew her at once, though their eyes then met for the first and last time, and pouring out his whole soul in a rapture of love and grief, died, as he had prayed to die, at her feet.

The Countess was deeply moved. She caused him to be laid "in a rich and honourable tomb of porphyry inscribed with some verses in the Arabic tongue," and mourned him to her dying day. Nostradamus says that she was never seen to smile again; others again assert that she took the veil, and buried her sorrows in the cloister.[39]

It is, however, with his brother Richard, who resumed his paternal name of Basset, and was seated at Welden in Northamptonshire, that we have here to do. Fifth in descent from him was another Richard, who was summoned to parliament in 1299, and served two campaigns in the wars of Scotland,[40] first in the retinue of Adomar de Valence in 1305, and again in 1314, when he fell at the battle of Stirling. Little or nothing is recorded of the four Barons Basset that succeeded him; the last died s. p. in 1408.

We now turn to the junior branches. "Touching the Bassets of Drayton," says Dugdale "(who, for so long as they continued, had successively the Christian name of Ralph), there is nothing very memorable until King Henry the Third's time, that Ralph Basset had summons to attend the King at Chester;, to oppose the incursions of the Welch." He was one of the chief supporters of Simon de Montfort in the baronial war, was summoned to his parliament in 1264, and died fighting by his side at Evesham. It is said that Montfort, when he saw the great army, led by Prince Edward, that was drawn up against him, "concluded that he should miscarry in that battle, and therefore advised this Ralph Basset, and Hugh de Spenser, to get away, and reserve themselves for better times, but they answered, 'If he perished they should not desire to live.'"

His three successors were all noted soldiers. The next heir recovered his lands through his mother, Margaret de Someri, who, on account of the "laudable services" of her father, had been allowed to retain them for life, but gave them up to him on taking the veil. This second Lord Basset served in France under the Earl of Lancaster, and was also with him in the Scottish war, but never attained the military renown of his son and great grandson. The former went six times to Scotland on the King's service in the reigns of the three Edwards; was Constable of Stafford in 1317; Constable of Northampton in 1320; sent with John de Someri, on the forfeiture of the Earl of Lancaster in 1321, to seize Kenilworth Castle, receiving as his guerdon one of the Earl's Northamptonshire manors; and in the same year was appointed Seneschal of Aquitaine. He was an uncompromising ruler. When the inhabitants of a French town within his province exasperated him by their lawlessness and insolence, he forthwith "raised a power, pulled down all the Houses, and slew those who refused to submit." The King of France vainly called him to account, and demanded his surrender. Edward II. declared "that he would not endure that, for so just an act, so brave a Souldier should have any molestation." On his return home he was appointed Constable of Dover and Warden of the Cinque Ports; then Governor of the Channel Islands; and in 1334 was Justice of North Wales. He died in 1343, having survived his son; and was succeeded by a grandson whose services were even more conspicuous than his own. No soldier even of Edward III.'s soldier court was more indefatigable in the field than the last Lord Basset. For twenty-two years—from 29 Ed. III. to I Ric. II.—he was almost continuously engaged in the French wars (chiefly in the retinue of the Black Prince), with the one short interval of a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1360. When returning home in 1378, he "underwent great peril at Sea by Tempest"; yet the next year he once more crossed the Channel with Thomas of Woodstock, on an expedition to succour the Duke of Brittany (whose sister he had married); and in 1380 "he was again in France, and in the retinue of that Earl. Wherein he served with 200 men at Armes and 200 Archers, himself with nine Knights being part of the number; where he rode with his Banner displaid." Lastly, in 1385, he went with John of Gaunt and "a great power" into Spain. The year after this, when the growing discontent of the Duke of Gloucester and other great nobles at the favour shown to the Duke of Ireland was threatening to become dangerous, the King sent for the Lord Mayor "to try whether the citizens would stick to him against his uncle and those of that party." The Lord Mayor gave him no encouragement; and "this Lord Basset, standing by, then told the King that his life and estate had been ever ready at his service, and if he should be now drawn into the field, they should be so still;" but added, "that he would not adventure a broken head for the Duke of Ireland."

He died in 1390, the last of his house; for his wife, Joan of Brittany, had proved childless. His only sister Isabel, who was married to Sir Thomas Shirley, was illegitimate; and his cousin Thomas, Earl of Stafford, was found to be his next heir. But another cousin, Alice, the wife of Sir William Chaworth, then came to the front, and Colston-Basset was hotly contested between them.

William, the youngest of the three grandsons of Henry I.'s Justiciary, and the ancestor of the Bassets of Sapcote, served as Sheriff of Warwick and Leicestershire for eight consecutive years in the reign of Henry II., and was afterwards one of the Justices Itinerant of Yorkshire. His son Simon married an Avenal, one of the co-heiresses of Haddon; and his grandson Ralph, who with his kinsman and namesake, fell at Evesham with Simon de Montfort, was summoned to the Baron's parliament in 1264. This summons was never repeated to the next heir, Simon; but Simon's son Ralph was a baron by writ in 1370. This Ralph had previously received a writ of military summons, and had spent the best part of his life in the wars of France and Gascony. His services extended over a period of thirty-three years of Edward III.'s reign, but in 1382 he fell under the King's displeasure for having, at the defeat near Douches, left the field before his commander, the Duke of Lancaster. He was "much reproved" and never employed again. Three years before, he had been pronounced heir to Robert Colville (through his grandmother Elizabeth Colville), and thus acquired Castle Bytham, Beningfield in Northamptonshire, &c. He died in 1778, and his barony fell into abeyance between his two daughters, Alice, the wife of Sir Laurence Dutton, and Elizabeth, Lady Guy of Codnor, who were his sole heirs.

The family of this name still existing in Cornwall cannot be traced back to any of the five sons of the first Justiciary; and Prince conjectures them to be derived from a brother of his named Osmund. They do not bear the arms of the Bassets of Welden and Drayton; but their coat, Or three bars wavy Gules, though differing in tinctures, bears a close resemblance to that of the Bassets of Sapcote, Argent, two bars undee Sable. Their immediate ancestor was William Basset, through whose marriage with Cecily, the only child of Alan de Dunstanville (see Dunstanville), their ancient manor of Tehidy first came into the family. In the time of Henry VIII. Sir John Basset married the heiress of Beaumont, who brought him Umberleigh and Heanton Court, "a sweet and pleasant seat," says Prince, "furnished with all variety of entertainment which the earth and sea and air can afford"; but now dismantled and disparked. Second in descent from him was another John, whose wife, Frances Plantagenet, was the daughter and co-heir of Arthur, Viscount Lisle, a natural son of Edward IV. and Lady Elizabeth Lucy; and whose grandson Sir Robert, on the strength of this left-handed alliance with the House of York, actually laid claim to the Crown of England. This was in the beginning of the reign of James I. He had to fly to France to save his head, and was only permitted to return home on payment of a heavy fine, that mulcted him of thirty of his manors. His last male descendant died in 1802, and with him ended the elder line, seated at Heanton Court; but a younger branch remains, traced from George Basset, to whom his nephew Sir Arthur granted Tehidy in 1558, "with the castelet or pile of Bassets on Carnbray Hill." Of him came Sir Francis,[41] created a baronet in 1779, Lord de Dunstanville in 1796, and in the following year, by special favour, Lord Basset, With remainder to his only child, Elizabeth. She succeeded to the title, but died unmarried in 1855; and his great nephew, John Basset, then inherited the estates, and became the head of the family.

Besides those already mentioned, many manors in different counties are still called by this name. I find Houghton-Basset and Langwith-Basset in Derbyshire (they had two parks at Langwith in 1330); Winterborne-Basset and Berwick-Basset, Wilts; Thorp-Basset, Yorkshire; Charney-Basset and Letcombe-Basset in Berkshire; Burton-Basset, Warwickshire; Dunton-Basset, Leicestershire; Stoke-Basset, Oxon, &c.

Bigot :

"The Bigots[42] or Wygots appear, from various circumstances too long to be detailed, to be descended from Wigot de St. Denis, one of the greatest nobles of Normandy, who made grants to Cerisy Abbey in 1042, and in 1050 subscribed a charter of Duke William at the head of the Norman barons. He was married to a sister of Turstin Goz, father of Richard d'Avranches (whose son was Hugh Lupus), and had a younger son, Robert Wigot, Fitz Wigot, or Bigot, who was introduced by Richard d'Avranches to the favour of Duke William."—The Norman People. The story is differently told by the monk of Jurmieges, who says that Robert was a knight in the service of William Warlenc, Count de Mortaine, and so needy that he asked leave of his liege lord to seek his fortune abroad, and follow Robert Guiscard to Apulia. The Count desired him not to go, promising that within eighty days he should have no need to better his position, as he might then help himself to whatever best pleased him in Normandy. From this intimation Robert concluded that his lord was planning an insurrection that should place the crown of Normandy on his own head, and asked his cousin Richard d'Avranches to obtain for him an audience of the Duke, to whom he at once communicated his suspicion of the plot. William acted upon it with such vigour that "his justice, if justice it was, fell so sharply and speedily as to look very like interested oppression."—Freeman. He at once accused the Count of treason, banished him, and gave the Comte' of Mortaine to his own half-brother Robert. Bigot himself must have been rewarded with several grants; for Wace (who mentions him at Hastings) speaks of him as a land-owner:—

"L'Ancestre Hue le Bigot
Ki avoit terre a Maletot
Etais Loges[43] et a Chanon:"

adding that "he served the Duke in his house as one of his seneschals, which office he held in fee. He had with him a large troop, and was a noble vassal. He was small of body, but very brave and bold, and assaulted the English with his mace gallantly." There is some doubt whether it is Robert, or his son Roger that is here described; for both may have been in the battle; but it was at all events the latter who is recorded in Domesday as holding a great barony of one hundred and seventeen manors in Suffolk, besides other lands in Norfolk and Essex. He sided with Robert Court-heuse, and fortified his castle of Norwich against William Rufus, laying waste all the country round; yet he seems to have suffered no penalty for his revolt, and on the accession of Henry I. received a grant of Framlingham in Suffolk, with his father's office of Lord Steward of the Household. He married Adeliza, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Hugh de Grentemesnil, Seneschal of England, with whom he founded Thetford Abbey in 1107, and left seven children. His eldest son, William, styled Dapifer regis Anglorum, perished in the Blanche Nef; and it was the second Hugh le Bigot, who became the founder of this splendid house, and "the principal instrument for advancing Stephen, Earl of Boloigne, to the Crown of England. For being Steward of the Household to King Henry (an Office that gave him great repute) he hasted into England; and in the presence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, averred upon his Oath, that King Henry on his death-bed, upon some dislike towards his Daughter Maud, the Empress, did disherite her, and appoint Stephen to be his Heir; whereupon the Archbishop (being credulous) solemnly anointed him King. For which great service, as some say, it was, that King Stephen, soon after, advanced him to the Earldom of the East Angles, commonly called Norfolk."—Dugdale.

Henry II. was no sooner seated on the throne, than he espoused his mother's quarrel by seizing Bigot's castles and declaring his honours forfeit. All were restored to him in 1163: yet, eleven years later, he made a secret treaty with the King's rebellious sons, and took up arms in their behalf. He and his Flemish levies were defeated by Robert de Lacy at Bury St. Edmund's; and the King, entering Suffolk with a strong force to deal out to him the full measure of his wrath, razed his castle of Walton to the ground, and captured Framlingham. But Bigot owned another stronghold that he deemed impregnable, and of which, according to tradition, he was wont to boast—

"Were I in my Castle of Bungay,
Upon the River of Waveney,
I would not set a button by the King of Cockeney."[44]

An old ballad recites how "Bigot bold," when summoned to appear before the King,—laughed in the herald's face,

"And rode away on his berry brown steed,"

setting all pursuit at defiance;

"The Baily he rode and the Baily he ran
To catch the gallant Lord Hugh;
But for every mile the Baily rode
The Earl he rode more than two.

"When the Baily had ridden to Bramfield oak,[45]
Sir Hugh was at Ilksall bower:
When the Baily had ridden to Halesworth Cross,
He was singing in Bungay tower:

"Now that I'm in my castle of Bungay,
Upon the river of Waveney,
I will ne care for the King of Cockeney.'

Yet this flourish of trumpets proved mere idle bravado; for when the King's troops beleaguered the place, Bigot's little garrison of five hundred men lost heart and deserted, leaving him to make what terms he could with his angry master. They were, as might have been foreseen, sufficiently humiliating. He had not merely to pay a fine of one thousand marks, but to see his cherished fortress levelled to the ground; and in his discomfiture he left the country, journeyed to Palestine with the Earl of Flanders, and only returned home to die in 1177.

He was succeeded by his son Roger, whom Coeur de Lion, on his accession, re-constituted Earl of Norfolk and Lord Steward; but for this charter, and the confirmation and restoration of his lands, he had to give a further sum of one thousand marks to the King. He was one of the confederate barons who confronted King John at Runnymede, and, with his son Hugh, numbered among the twenty-five illustrious "conservators" of Magna Charta. This Hugh, third Earl, married Maud, the eldest of the three great Pembroke co-heiresses; and their son Roger obtained from Henry III., in her right, the great hereditary office of Earl Marshal of England. In 1247, "the King solemnly gave the Marshal's Rod into her" (the Countess Maud's) "hands, in regard of her seniority in the inheritance of Walter Marischal, sometime Earl of Pembroke; which she thereupon delivered unto this Earl Roger, her son and heir."

Earl Roger, "noted for his singular skill in all warlike exercises," was one of the most accomplished knights of his day; and had few equals either in the tilt-yard[46] or the field. His domain contained one hundred and sixty-two knight's fees: and he stands forth in history as the true type of the great feudal Seigneur, haughty in bearing and fearless of tongue, whose power in the realm might challenge—if it did not threaten—the authority of the King himself. His name is brought prominently before us in all the transactions of Henry III.'s reign; and Dugdale has preserved two characteristic anecdotes of him. In 1248, "having advertisement that the Earl of Gisnes was arrived in England, this Earl caused him to be taken; by reason whereof, a great complaint was made. Whereupon, being sent for to give answer thereunto, he told the King, That when he himself went as Ambassador to the Council at Lions, riding through the territories of that Earl, instead of kind usage, for the many favours he had received from the King, he was shamefully dealt with, having his Horses and Servants detained, until he had satisfied their unreasonable demands for his passage: which incivility, he had now only retaliated to him, passing through his Lands, saying to the King, 'Sir, I do hold my Land as freely of you, as he holds his of the King of France, and am an Earl as well as he. How happens it then, that he hath power to make merchandise of the Ways and Air unto Passengers?'"

Some years afterwards, he had an altercation with the King himself. When "making a just apology for Robert de Ros, then charged with some crime that endangered his life, he had very harsh language given him by the King, being openly called Traytor. Whereupon, with a stern countenance, he told the King 'That he lied'; and, 'that he never was, nor would be a Traytor'; adding, 'If you do nothing but what the Law warranteth, you can do me no harm.' 'Yes,' quoth the King, 'I can thrash your Corn, and sell it, and so humble you.' To which he replied, 'If you do so, I will send you the Heads of your Thrashers.' But by the interposing of the Lords then present, this heat soon passed over."

Towards the close of his career, he joined the Baronial standard, and was appointed Constable of Oxford. He died s. p. in 1269, having married the Scottish princess Isabel, daughter of William the Lion, to whose brother, Alexander II. of Scotland, he had been in ward.

The Earldom then passed to his nephew Roger, fifth Earl of Norfolk and second Earl Marshal, the son of Hugh Bigod, appointed Justiciary of England by the Barons in 1257; "a famous Knight, and Skillfull in the Laws of the Land, who stoutly executing the Office of Justitiar, suffered not the rights of the Kingdom at all to waver."

"This great and last Earl of his Family," as Dugdale terms him, was no whit behind his predecessors in spirit and daring. He and another "stout Earl," Humphrey de Bohun, resisted Edward I.'s oppressive and vexatious war taxes, invited the Londoners to stand up for their liberties, and resolutely refused to follow the King to Flanders until he had ratified the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest. He attended his sovereign in the Welsh and Scottish campaigns; but when summoned to go to the war of Gascony without him, he and the Earl of Hereford, then Lord High Constable, claimed the privileges of their tenure. "I will go," quoth Bigod, "if you, Sir King, go in person, and attend you in the fore-front of the army, as I am bound to do by hereditary right; but otherwise I will not go." "But you shall go with others," cried the angry King, "and that without me!" "I am not so bound," replied Bigod, "neither will I go without you." Then the King swore a great oath—"By God! Sir Earl, you shall either go or hang!" "Sir King," retorted Bigod, "I will neither go nor hang"; and "so departed without leave."

Yet this notable passage of arms, and perchance others of like quality, led to no ultimate breach between them; for the Earl, some five years before his death, settled the whole of his possessions on the King. Various motives have been suggested for his so doing: but there were at least three sufficiently cogent ones. He was in want of money; he had no children; and he had quarrelled irretrievably with his heir. "His younger brother. John, a rich dignified churchman, having lent him great sums of money which he exacted again in haste, the Earl constituted King Edward I. heir to all his estates, and delivered also to him the Marshal's Rod, upon condition of having it rendered back to him in case he should have any children; as likewise to have £1000 pension for his life, and £1000 in present from the King to pay his debts.[47] This instrument was dated from St. John's, Colchester, in 1302."—Morant's Essex. The more completely to exclude this unlucky John from the succession, he at the same time surrendered his Earldom into the King's hands; which was then re-granted to him with limitation to the heirs male of his body.

The settlement signed at Colchester included all his castles, towns, lands, and tenements in England and Wales, with the famous castle of Bungay, which he had received license to rebuild; but reserved Settrington and three other Yorkshire manors, as well as two more in Norfolk. Settrington was, it appears, the residence of his uncle Ralph (the Justiciary's younger son), who married Berta Furnivall, and had a daughter named Isabel, married first to Gilbert de Lacy, and secondly to John Fitz Geoffrey. There is no mention of a son; yet the name existed in Yorkshire at least three hundred years after this; for we find Sir Francis Bigod of Mogreve Castle, in Blakemore, taking an active part in the Pilgrimage of Grace. He sent out a circular through Richmondshire and the county of Durham, inviting the people to a muster at Settrington, raised an enthusiastic force, and captured Beverley. He was executed with the other leaders in 1537. The family must have been extinct in 1666, as the name does not occur in Dugdale's Visitation of the county.

A branch of the Bigots settled in Somersetshire, where they owned the parish of Marston-Bigot. "Walter de Bigot was Lord 43 Hen. III., and was succeeded by Richard de Bigot, his son, who, incurring the displeasure of Edward II. by fortifying his mansion here without licence, and disrespecting the King's messenger, forfeited his land here to the Crown."—Collinson's Somerset.

Bohun :

in Leland's list, Boown. Two leagues south of Carentan, in a low and isolated situation, adjoining the Marshes of the Taute, are the two villages called the Bohons—the parishes of St. Georges and St. Andre-de-Bohon—that gave their name to this illustrious house. They belong to the arrondissement of St. Lo, in the Cotentin. The site of the castle, with its moat, are plainly visible near St. Andre. Humphrey de Bohon founded a Benedictine Priory at St. Georges in 1092.—M. de Gerville.

"De Bohun le Vieil Onfrei," who held the fief at the time of the Conquest, and was known as Humphrey with the Beard,[48] though said to have been near of kin to Duke William, was but slenderly rewarded for his prowess at Hastings. Wace speaks of him as among the foremost in the battle; yet all he received was the Norfolk manor of Talesford. It was the extraordinary succession of great alliances made by his descendants that gave the name its lustre, and wealth of accumulated dignities. His son, Humphrey Magnus, founded the fortunes of his family by his marriage with a great Wiltshire heiress, the daughter of Edward of Salisbury; and his grandson, Humphrey III., married the eldest of the three daughters of Milo of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford, Constable of England, and eventually the co-heir of her brother Mahel. She brought him as her dower, with twenty knight's fees, the office of Lord High Constable, which "went with inheritance, and by the tenure of the manors of Haslefield, Newman, and Whitenhurst,[49] in Gloucestershire, by grand serjeancy."—Duncumb's Herefordshire. He was Seneschal to Henry I., and Sewer both in Normandy and England to the Empress Maud, in whose cause he fought and was taken prisoner at the battle of Winchester. His only son, Humphrey IV., whose wife was a Scottish princess named Margaret, sister of William the Lion, and widow of Conan le Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, was Constable of England in his mother's right, and according to the chartulary of Llanthony Abbey (their burial-place), succeeded to her Earldom: but in truth this was first granted to the next in succession, Henry de Bohun, by King John's charter of 1199. This Earl of Hereford was one of the twenty-five great barons appointed at Runnimede to be the guardians of Magna Charta; and "the next ensuing year, the Barons raising fresh troubles, was by the procurement of the King, excommunicated by the Pope."—Dugdale. He was one of the leaders of the rebellion against Henry III., and fell into the King's hands at Lincoln. He died in 1220, on his voyage to the Holy Land, having married Maud, only daughter of Geoffrey Fitz Piers, Earl of Essex, who inherited from her brother, William de Mandeville, the great honour of Essex, and all its manifold possessions. With her, too, came their famous badge of the white swan,[50] betokening her descent from the mystic Knight of the Swan (see Toesni), and ever after borne by her posterity. It thus became the cognizance of Thomas of Woodstock, the husband of the eldest co-heiress of the Bohuns (hence called by Gower Vox clementis cygni), whose seal is diapered with ostrich feathers and swans. His Duchess Eleanor bequeaths to her son Humphrey "un psaultier, bien et richement enlumine, ove les claspes d'or enamailes ove cignes blank": and when this good Duke, Lord Protector of Henry VI., was murdered in 1447. a poem of the time announces that "The Swanne is goon." Henry IV., who married the other co-heiress, bore her silver swan, ducally gorged and chained Or, on his banner; and it is one of the badges, used by Henry V., that are carved on the cornice of his chantry in Westminster Abbey.

Humphrey V., Earl both of Hereford and Essex as the son of this illustrious heiress, officiated as Marshal of the King's house at Henry III.'s marriage in 1236, and three years later was one of the nine godfathers of his eldest son. "The custody of the Marches of Wales was committed to him, and he acquired the truly honourable distinction of the Good Earl of Hereford from his zealous opposition to the arbitrary measures proposed by the King."—Duncumb. Twice already he had protested against them; once in 1227, when he "demanded the restoration of the Charter of Liberties;" and again in 1253, "when that formal curse was denounced in Westminster Hall against the Violaters of Magna Charta, with Bell, Book, and Candle."—Dugdale. When the Barons' War broke out, he and his two sons were foremost in taking up arms against the King; and the eldest of them, Humphrey VI., was one of the chief commanders at Lewes, and again at the disastrous rout of Evesham, where, "it is said by some, that when he came near the place of fight, he withdrew himself." Be this as it may, both he and his father were taken prisoners; and while the Earl was pardoned and restored within the year, the son died soon after in captivity at Beeston Castle in Cheshire, whither he had been carried. Faithful to the family tradition, he had taken to wife an heiress of the best blood in England, Eleanor de Braose, the daughter of the Lord of Brecknock, by Eva, one of the five co-heirs of William Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke; and their son, Humphrey VII., inherited the Earldom at his grandfather's death in 1275. He and Roger Bigod were the two bold Earls who, in 1296, when ordered out to take the command of the army in Gascony, declared they would go if the King went, but not else; for, as Lord High Constable and Earl Marshal of England, they were bound only to attend upon the Sovereign himself in war. To assert their privilege, "the two Earls put themselves in Arms; which being discerned, that business was prosecuted no further."—Dugdale.

The next heir, Humphrey VIII, achieved the crowning triumph in this long category of splendid alliances by marrying the King's daughter, Elizabeth Plantagenet, widow of John, Earl of Holland. He followed his father-in-law to Scotland on five several occasions, and is

"li Conestables
Joefnes homes, riches et metables,
Ki Ouens estoit de Herefort;"

of the Roll of Carlaverock; justly described as "the most distinguished nobleman in the kingdom." Five years afterwards, he received from Edward I. a grant of the whole territory of Annandale, that had been wrested from Robert Bruce. During the next reign he was the determined antagonist of the King's worthless favourites, actively opposed Piers Gaveston, and was present when he was beheaded near Warwick in 1314; then engaging with equal zeal against the younger Despencer, he joined the Earl of Lancaster in his unsuccessful revolt. He lost his life after the defeat at Boroughbridge, where, while endeavouring to cross the bridge, he was run through the body with a lance by a soldier that lurked underneath. He left five surviving sons; John, Humphrey, Edward, William, and AEneas; of whom the two elder each inherited the Earldoms. John held them only four years; Humphrey IX., who succeeded at twenty-four, died unmarried in 1361; Edward was already dead, leaving no issue; and the honours and heritage descended on William's son, Humphrey X.

William de Bohun, "a right valiant and expert commander," who had died the year preceding, was created Earl of Northampton when the Black Prince was created Duke of Cornwall in 1337, and received splendid grants from the Crown, including the castle and town of Stamford with the lordship of Grantham in Lincolnshire, Fotheringhay in Northamptonshire, and Oakham in Rutlandshire. No man had more fairly earned the King's favour. He served him well and faithfully through life, following step by step in the wake of his fortunes, and commended as an excellent soldier in an age when, all alike competed for glory in the field. He was one of the Marshals of the army in Flanders in 1338; in the great sea-fight at Sluys in 1340; at "that famous Feast and Jousting, which the King made for love of the Countess of Salisbury" in the same year; his Lieutenant and Captain-General in Brittany in 1342; among the chief leaders of the heroes of Cressy; twice commissioned to treat with the Scots, and Lord Warden of the Marches towards Scotland. His wife, Elizabeth, one of the co-heiresses of Giles, last Lord Badlesmere, was a great benefactress of the Church; and among numerous other gifts, bestowed on the house of the Black Friars in Ludgate (where she was buried) "a Cross made of the Wood of the very Cross of Our Saviour, which she usually carried about her, wherein was contained one of the Thorns of his Crown."

Humphrey X. united the three Earldoms of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, "but these great honours were not long by him enjoyed"; for he died in his thirty-second year, the last survivor of his princely race. He had married the daughter of his guardian the Earl of Arundel, and left only two little girls to represent all the power, wealth and grandeur of the Bohuns. Both of them were matched with the kindred blood of Plantagenet. Eleanor, the eldest, married Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, the sixth son of Edward III., to whom she brought the office of Lord High Constable, and the Lordships of Essex and Northampton. The second, Mary, became Queen of England. Her husband, Henry Earl of Derby, the son of John of Gaunt, was created Duke of Hereford in her honour two years before he ascended the throne as the first King of the House of Lancaster.

The Barons Bohun of Midhurst represented, in the female line, a younger son of "le viel Onfroy" of the Conquest, Richard de Meri, Sieur de Bohun, 1070-1113, whose daughter and heir carried his Norman barony to one Engelger, supposed to have been by birth an Angevin. Engelger's daughter must have been the wife of Savaric Fitz Cana, for their eldest surviving son, Savaric Fitz Savaric, inherited the barony in 1180.

Savaric Fitz Cana was the son of Cana, daughter of Gelduin II., Lord of Chaumont-sur-Loire, by her second husband, Ralph de Beaumont, Vicomte du Mans, whom she married about 1055. When the Honour of Arundel was forfeited to the Crown in 1102 by the outlawry of Robert de Belesme, some "rich manors lying on either bank of the Arun between Arundel and the sea," were bestowed upon Savaric, to which Henry I., by a subsequent grant, added Easebourn, Midhurst, and Lynchmere. His eldest son died s. p., and the second, Savaric Fitz Savaric, became Baron of Bohun on the death of his uncle, Engelger II.;[51] but he again left no posterity, and the son of the third brother, Franco Fitz Gelduin, became the heir. He is best known as Franco de Bohun, the name which he adopted and transmitted to his descendants. His grandson and namesake, who obtained a share in the great Pembroke inheritance through his marriage with Sibyl, one of the seven daughters of William de Ferrars Earl of Derby, by his first wife, Sibyl de Mareschal, was summoned to Parliament in 1295 as one of the barons of realm. This writ of summons, was, however, never repeated either to his son or grandson, and it was not till 1354 that one was received by his great-grandson John, Lord Bohun of Midhurst. But neither his son John nor his descendants were ranked, as Dugdale relates, among the barons of the realm, thus showing, in Dugdale's opinion, that a writ of summons was not then conceived to create an hereditary dignity. The said John de Bohun had a son Humphrey, whose son, another John, had issue two daughters his co-heirs, whereof Mary married David Owen, a natural son of Owen Tudor; and Ursula married Robert Southwell, but had not any issue.

"Sir David Owen, by Mary his wife, had Henry his. eldest son, who was a great spendthrift, and sold the reversion of the manor of Cowdrey, co. Sussex, &c, after his father's death, to Sir William Fitz William, for two thousand one hundred and ninety-three pounds, six shillings, and eight-pence."—Banks.

Bailif :

"from the Norman office of Le Bailli, a species of Viscount or Sheriff. The name occurs as Bailof in Battle Abbey Roll" (this is in Leland's copy). "The office, being of importance, was usually held by Normans of rank."—The Norman People. My own conviction is, that Bailif here stands for Baliol—one of the great names hitherto supposed to be missing on the Roll. In an old list, preserved in the Durham Bolden-Buke, of the "Chivaliers demorantes en le Franchise de Duresme demy Tyne et Teys, q. furent a Baner en le temps le Roy Henry, fitz, le Roy John, a le Bataille de Lewes," the three first names we find are the following:—

"John de Baillof demorants a Chastell Bernard:
Hugh de Baillof son fitz a Seleby:
Eustace de Baillof dem'ant a Querundon."

In another similar MS. list, said to have been found in Lord Conyers' study, the name is spelt Bailiffe; but in both cases it stands for Baliol.—Hutchinson's Durham, vol. i., p. 220.

It is the name of a small Norman town, Bailleul, two miles from Argenton, "d'ou e'taient originaires les Bailleuls, Rois d'Ecosse."—Vosgier, 1799. The above-mentioned John was fifth in descent from Guy, the patriarch of the race, who received from William Rufus the barony of Bywell in Northumberland, and the forests of Teesdale and Marwood, the lordship of Middleton-in-Teesdale, and Gainford, "with all their royalties, franchises, and immunities," in the co. of Durham. His son, Barnard I., who "shared in the honour of the signal defeat which the Scots sustained at the battle of the Standard" in 1138, built the famous stronghold that gives its name to the town of Barnard Castle on Tees. He chose a noble site for the head of his Honour. "Barnard Castle," as Leland says, "standith statelie upon Tese," crowning the precipitous rock that here stems the wild current of the river, and guarding its passes from this overhanging brow. It once covered seven acres of ground, and was reputed the strongest fortress in the North of England; and though its fair battlements have been long since defaced and ruined, it still towers aloft in its pride of place, looking down upon the grey roofs clustering at its fee:.:he beautiful Tees rushing past in its wooded glen, and far over Marwood Chase to the moorland hills beyond. There is a fine description of "proud Barnard's bannered towers" in Rokeby—

"High crowned he sits, in dawning pale,
The sovereign of the lovely vale."

But the view, magnificent as it is, fills short of the compass ascribed to it by Scott:—

"Nor Tees alone, in dawning bright,
Shall rush upon the ravish'd sight:
But many a tributary stream
Each from its own dirk dell shall gleam:
Staindrop, who from her sylvan bowers
Salutes proud Raby's battled towers:
The rural brook of Egliston;
And Balder, named from Odin's son:
And Greta, to whose banks ere long
We lead the lovers of the song:
And silver Lune, from Stanmore wild.
And fairy, Thorsgill's murmuring child:
And last and least, but loveliest still,
Romantic Deepdale's slender rill."

When Alexander of Scotland invade i the Northern counties in 1216, he reconnoitred Castle Barnard (as it was first called), but left it unmolested; for, while surveying its formidable defences, a cross-bow shaft from the battlements laid his brother-in-law, Eustace de Vesci. dead at his feet.

"Barnard II. succeeded his father before 1167. In 1174 he joined Robert de Stuteville and other Northern barons in relieving Alnwick Castle, then besieged by William King of Scotland. Towards morning, when they had proceeded about twenty-five miles from Newcastle, so thick a fog arose as to render the march dubious or dangerous; but sensible of the advantages of speed and decision: 'Stay or turn who will,' said Baliol, 'if I go alone, yet will I onward.' Fortune favoured the enterprise; the mist suddenly dispersed, and the towers of Alnwick glittered before them in the morning sun. William of Scotland was observed in the distance in the open field, with no stronger escort than a party of sixty horse, whilst most of his troops, fearless of any surprise, were plundering the country in scattered parties. After a short but gallant resistance the Lion of Scotland was led away prisoner, and delivered to King Henry at Northampton."—Surtees.

Barnard II.'s grandson, Hugh, one of the great Northern barons, answered for thirty knight's fees in 1215, and throughout the Baron's war stoutly maintained his allegiance to the King, being accounted one of his "fautors and evil counsellors." He was lavishly rewarded with confiscated estates; and "Certain it is," says Dugdale, "that Hugh Baliol benefited himself not a little in those troublesome times of King John; for when all was at quiet at the entrance of Henry III., he could not forbear his wonted course of plundering."

His son and heir, John, who was taken prisoner with Henry III. at Lewes, married the great heiress that transformed the fortunes of the family, Devorguill, the daughter of Alan of Galloway and the Scottish princess Margaret, and eventually eldest co-heir of the blood royal of Scotland. This "brought him into close connection with the Scottish kingdom. On the marriage of Margaret of England to the young King of Scotland, the tuition of the Royal infants and of their kingdom was committed to him, and to another powerful baron still nearer to the Border, Robert Ros, of Wark. Within two years they were both accused of abusing their authority as Regents. The rich and powerful Baliol made his peace partly by payment of a heavy fine, and partly by calling to Henry's recollection the services which his father had often rendered to his father John at his greatest need."—Surtees. He died in 1268, and the Lady Devorguill had his heart embalmed and encased in a coffin of enamelled ebony,

"Lockit and bounden with silver bright,"

which she carried with her wherever she went. At dinner and supper, she caused it to be laid on her husband's vacant seat, and never took her own place at the table till she had paid it due reverence—the same accustomed reverence as if her lord had been actually in presence. When she died she directed that it should be laid on her breast in her coffin, and buried with her in the Cistercian house she had founded for its reception—Dolce Cor, or Sweet Heart Abbey, near Dumfries. Her husband had given "annual exhibitions to certain poor scholars of Oxford," requesting her on his death-bed to continue this charity; and she dutifully undertook the completion of his design, and founded Baliol College in 1284.

She was the mother of four sons and four daughters. Alan, the eldest son, had not survived his father; Hugh, the 2nd, died s. p. in 1271; as did Alexander, the 3rd, in 1279; and John, the youngest, then succeeded to a vast inheritance. "Besides Barnard and its dependencies, he held the barony of Bywell in Northumberland, and large estates in Herts, Northampton, and several southern counties. In Scotland he inherited from his mother the lordship of Galloway, the castle of Botel in Kenmare, and Kirk-Andrews; whilst in France he still held the ancient Norman estates of his house, Bailleul, Dampierre, Harcourt, and Verney. From Devorguill he derived the very dubious blessing of the nearest claim in blood to the crown of Scotland, after the decease of the Maid of Norway; and under the decision of Edward I. of England, to whom, as lord paramount, the competitors submitted their pretensions, his title, as representing the eldest daughter of David Earl of Huntingdon, was pronounced superior to those of Bruce and Hastings, who derived from younger daughters, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone on St. Andrew's Day, 1292."—Ibid. But this ill-starred greatness led only to the downfall of his house. His reign proved as brief as it was disastrous, and was remembered with such bitterness, that "his very name was accounted unfortunate, and no King of Scotland was ever after allowed to bear it." In little more than three years and a half he was kneeling a suppliant, stripped of every ornament of royalty, at Edward's feet, confessing, "for very fear of his life, his several offences against his liege lord; and then, by delivery of his wand and star, making full resignation of all his right to the crown and realm of Scotland into the hands of the King of England."—Ibid. Not only was he bereft of his kingdom, but of almost all his splendid inheritance, and "passed, without a blow, from a throne to an English prison." He did not, however, remain long in the Tower, and was not banished the kingdom; but eventually retired to Normandy, where he still retained his ancestral estates, and died at Chateau Gaillard, a blind and neglected old man, in 1314. His son, Edward Baliol, on the death of King Robert Bruce, by a bold stroke seated himself on the vacant throne: and having acknowledged Edward as his suzerain, was for some years upheld there by the power of England; but in 1339 even this phantom sovereignty came to an end, and he died an obscure pensioner of the English crown. He left no children by the French princess he had married; and as his only brother Henry had been slain on his part at Annan in 1332, the chief male line of Baliol terminated with him.

Collateral branches were, however, no: wanting: besides "many sprinklings of this great house that can scarcely with any certainty be applied to the parent stock," Surtees thus enumerates them:—
Barnard, son of Eustace, and brother of Hugh de Baliol (one of King John's evil counsellors) was still living, and a baron by tenure in 1245. His descendants are not mentioned.

Ingelram, a younger son of Barnard II., acquired Inverkeillour, in Forfar, through the heiress of Walter de Berkeley. Chamberlain of Scotland, and built Red Castle near the mouth of Lunan Water. He was the grandfather of a second Ingelram, one of the Magnates of Scotland. 1280-84, who died childless; and in 1308 Red Castle had passed to the son of Constance de Baliol, Henry de Fishburn.

Eustace, supposed to be a brother of the elder John de Baliol, was a baron by tenure and Sheriff of Cumberland in 1260. having married a great Cumberland heiress, Hawyse de Levinton. Nothing is said of his posterity.

Alexander, Lord of Cavers in Roxburghshire, whom Dugdale calls King John's brother, and others have declared to be his uncle. He was assuredly neither the one nor the other, for in one of his charters (dated 6 Hen. III., and preserved in the register of Binham Abbey. Norfolk), he gives the names of his father, Henry de Baliol, and his mother Lora. Henry de Baliol's parentage has not been ascertained: but Lora "was the daughter of Peter de Valoines, and, as the co-heir of Christian, Countess of Essex, brought her husband lands in Norfolk, Essex, and Herts. Alexander himself obtained the Kentish Honour of Chilham through his wife Isabel de Dover, the widowed Countess of Atholl, and was Chamberlain of Scotland 1290-1307. He witnessed John de Baliol's homage to Edward for the crown of Scotland in 1292, as one of the Scottish Magnates; but afterwards zealously espoused the English interests, and was repeatedly summoned for service in the Scottish wars. He was a baron by writ in 1299, and the next year followed the King to the siege of Carlaverock:—

"Mes Alissandres de Bailloel,
Ke a tout bien fere metoit le oel,
Jaune baniere avoit el champ
Al rouge escu voidie du champ."

He is believed to have died about the year 1309, and left a son of his own name, who was the father of Thomas, presumed to have been "the last male heir of Baliol." His sister and heiress, Isabel, was given in marriage by David II. to Ranald More. "The Lords of Cavers," says Surtees, "still existed in 1368, but every trace of the name was extinguished before the close of the fourteenth century."

There is an old Kentish house that claims to descend from the royal Devorguill, though it bears neither the name nor the arms of Baliol. Its pedigree assigns to her two more younger sons, Alexander of Chilham (who was, as we have seen, only a kinsman), and William, unnoticed, as far as I am aware, in any other record. He was, it goes on to say, styled Le Scot, and, dying about 1313, lies buried in the Whitefriars Church at Canterbury. His descendants, who all bore the name of Scott, were seated at Brabourne and Scott's Hall in Kent, and eminent among the gentlemen of the county. Many of them appear as Sheriffs and knights of the shire; one was Chief Justice of the King's Bench and Knight Marshal of England; another was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, and sent by Edward IV. on an embassy to France; while a third, appointed to command the Kentish levies at the approach of the Armada, was so popular and powerful in his neighbourhood, that he was able to despatch 4000 men to Dover the very day after he had received his commission from the Council. Seventeen generations of Scotts lie buried in Brabourne Church, where several stately monuments—among them a very singular one in the shape of a reredos or altar—have been raised to their memory. There is a curious heart-shrine that belonged to the family in the same church, which Mr. Scott conjectures once contained the heart of John de Baliol, brought thither when "their troubles with England came on, and the Baliols became unpopular in Scotland;" a mild form of expression for the downfall of a dynasty. But is it credible that the coffin of the royal Devorguill should have been opened in a religious house of her own foundation, in order to remove the treasured relic from which that house took its name?

Nor do I believe that a brother of King John of Scotland—a prince of the blood of Malcolm Canmore—lived and died utterly ignored by every contemporary chronicler, and content to abdicate both his name and his coat of arms.[52] But William Le Scot might possibly be identified with a Sir William de Baliol, who died in 1313 (though there is no record of this latter having discarded his patronymic), and "seems to have belonged in some shape to the line of Cavers, but his exact position has not been ascertained."—Ibid. Was he the same William de Baliol who held lands in Notts and Derby by knight-service, and was ordered to attend muster at Nottingham, 25 Ed. I.?

Bondeuile :

from the castle of Bondeville or Bonneville in Normandy. There is a Richard de Bondeville entered on the Dives Roll; and in 1165 the son of Robert de Bonavilla held lands in York.—Liber Niger. "In 35 Hen. III., William the son of Nicholas de Bonvile, having all accoutrements prepared at the King's charge, solemnly received the honour of Knighthood, on the Festival of our Saviour's Nativity, the same year: and, upon his Father's death in 49 Hen. III. had livery of his lands, lying in Com. Somers."—Dugdale. To him succeeded a second Nicholas, who died in 1294: but after his another hiatus occurs in the pedigree; and we only take up the broken thread again in 1378, when we find Sir William de Bonvile, Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset, and some years later, of Devonshire. He had considerable possessions in the West country, and a residence at Exeter, where he founded a Hospital for twelve poor men and women. He was followed in 1408 by his grandson and namesake, a soldier of renown in the French wars, who inherited another Somersetshire estate from his cousin John de Bonvile of Meryat. He first took the field in the retinue of Thomas Duke of Clarence, under the victorious banner of Henry V.: then, as Seneschal of Acquitaine, was retained to serve his successor with twenty men-at-arms and six hundred archers, and "merited so well for his services "that he was summoned to parliament as Lord Bonvile of Chuton in 1469. A few years afterwards he was constituted Constable of Exeter for life, and Lieutenant of Acquitaine. But he and his house perished, like so many others, in the havoc of the ensuing Civil War. He was a zealous partisan of the House of York: and none among all the fortunes that "withered with the White Rose," underwent so cruel and instantaneous a collapse. Within a space of less than two months, three generations of Bonviles—the last heirs male of their lineage—had been swept away, and the name which he had made glorious existed no more. His eldest son William had married the heiress of Lord Harrington, and was the father of another William, who inherited his mother's barony, and took to wife a daughter of the Earl of Salisbury, Lady Catherine Nevill. Both son and grandson were slain before his eyes at the battle of Wakefield, on the last day of the year 1460, and in the month of February following, his own grey head fell on the scaffold. He had been one of the Yorkist barons in whose custody Henry VI. had been placed when he was taken prisoner at Northampton, thus incurring the bitter hostility of the Queen: and at the second battle of St. Albans, "when the rest of the Lords (who then also being there, were entrusted with the like custody of that King), fled away to their party, he would have withdrawn himself, had not the King assured him that he should receive no bodily hurt." But though he had surrendered on the faith of this Royal promise that his life should be spared, it was not kept: for "Such," continues Dugdale, "was the indignation of the Queen towards him, that they rested not till they had taken off his Head."

One little great-grand-daughter was thus, by "a very singular and almost unparalleled course of descent," left to inherit his great possessions, Cecily, in her own right Baroness Bonvile and Harrington, then a child of ten years old. She was given in marriage by Edward IV. to the eldest son of his Queen, Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset, and was the great-grandmother of Lady Jane Grey. Her second husband was Lord Henry Stafford, a younger son of the second Duke of Buckingham, who was created Earl of Wiltshire in 1509, but by him she left no children.

Brabason :

a Brabant family, that appears to have settled in Normandy. "In 1198 Thomas Brabancon paid a fine of £50 in Normandy, and Roger lent £15 to the King (Magn. Rotul. Scaccar. Norm.). The family continued in Normandy (La Roque, Maison d'Harcourt, i. 604)."—The Norman People. Jacques le Brabancon followed the Conqueror to England. His descendants, first seated at Betchworth in Surrey, were transplanted into Leicestershire about the time of Henry III. through the heiress of Sir John de Moseley. "Eastwell was for many hundred years the inheritance and chief seat in this county of the antient Family of Brabason; of which house was Sir Roger Brabason, who in 1290 was one of the Judges of the Common Pleas, and had £23 6s. 8d. allowed him as his salary, and was afterwards Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. In 1307 he was appointed Constable of the Tower, and in 1316, for that he had served the office of Lord Chief Justice till he was very antient, was honourably released from the place, and made one of the King's Privy Council."—Nichol's Leicestershire. As one of the King's Judges, he had been summoned to Parliament from 1294 to 1314; "but in the latter year had summons among the barons of the realm; for it seems that in those days the parliament was (not unfrequently) called together by a consimilar writ, directed as well to the nobles as to the King's Justices, which latter were not, on these occasions, distinguished from the barons as caeteris de consilio nostro."—Banks. According to the peerages, he died childless, and the line was carried on by his brother Matthew, the ancestor of the Earl of Meath. "However, if Burton" (History of Leicester, p. 250,) "is to be credited, he had issue a son, William Brabazon, who married Janet, daughter of William Trussel. and had a son John, whose sole daughter and heir Joan, carried the manor of Sproxton in marriage to William Woodford."—Ibid. Either the above-mentioned William, or his cousin of the same name (for Matthew, too, had a son William) was knight of the shire for Leicester in 1313, and summoned for service in Gascony in 1325. Another Brabazon was slain at Bosworth Field. Sir William, who d:ed in 1552, "seised in fee of the manor of Eastwell, held of the King as of his Duchy of Lancaster," had been appointed in 1534 Vice-Treasurer and General-Receiver of Ireland, and was "one of the most faithful men to the English interest that had appeared in the country from the Conquest to that day." The year after his arrival, Lord Chief Justice Aylmer writes to Lord Cromwell, that he "is extolled as having saved the Kingdom;" and he was three several times named Justiciar. His energy and determination forced the acts abolishing the supremacy and jurisdiction of the Pope through the Irish parliament, and obtained the surrender of the religious houses; while, by carrying fire and sword into their territories, he brought the marauding rebel chiefs to their knees. He had acquired an Irish estate, and both his sons—though the elder held lands in various English counties, and occasionally resided at Nether Whitacre in Warwickshire—elected to become Irishmen. This elder son, Edward, who was little more than three years old at the time of his death, was created Baron of Ardee in 1615, and was the father of William, first Earl of Meath. Charles I., who bestowed this title upon the latter in 1627, had at the same time named him one of his Privy Council; and in 1644 he and two others of its members. Sir Henry Tichborne and Sir James Ware, were sent by the Marquess of Ormonde (then Lord Lieutenant) to confer with the King at Oxford on the affairs of Ireland. They had transacted their business, and were on their passage home, when they were chased and captured by a Parliament ship, and had barely time to toss into the sea the King's packet of letters to Ormonde, before they found themselves prisoners. All three were committed to the Tower, where Meath remained eleven months in confinement. He died in 1651, and has been followed by eleven successive Earls of his name.

Sir Anthony, the second son of the Lord Justice, was appointed Governor of Connaught, and became seated at Ballinasloe in Galway. His grandson and namesake "upon the beginning of the commotions in 1641, forsook his religion and became a Papist; his father and grandfather having been good Protestants." He was the ancestor of the families of Ballinasloe, Partri, Newpark, Carrstown, and Killaly, in the counties of Roscommon, Louth, and Mayo, and of Anthony Brabazon, of Brabazon Park, in the latter county, who received an Irish baronetcy in 1797. It expired with his son, and his estate passed to the children of his sister, Mrs. Hercules Sharpe.

Baskeruile :

(in Wace, Basquevile). Martels de Basquevile was at the battle of Hastings. This was the descendant of Nicholas de Basquevile, one of the six sons of Baudry-le Teuton, who derived his name from Basceville or Basqueville, in the Fays de Caux, which continued to be the fief of Martel for two centuries. "The continuator of William de Jumieges, enumerating the nieces of Gunnora, Countess of Richard I. of Normandy, mentions one who married Nicholas de Bascheritivilla (vulgo Basqueville), and was the mother of William Martel and Walter de St. Martin."—Eyton's Shropshire.

Bacquevile or Baskerville is not written in Domesday; but Mr. A. S. Ellis suggests that the surname of Ralph, a sub-tenant of Roger de Laci, at Icombe, in Salemanesberie hundred, and Winrush, Gloucestershire, was probably De Baskerville. In 1109, Robert de Baskerville, on his return from the Holy Land, granted lands to Gloucester Abbey (Mon. I. 115). Either he, or another of the same name, held five knight's fees in 1165 of Hugh de Laci in Herefordshire; and Radulph de Baskerville one fee under Adam de Port in the same county. Combe (Icombe) continued theirs for at least 200 years; and they were frequent benefactors to St. Peter's Abbey, where one of them, Bernard de Baskerville, assumed the habit of a monk. Sibilla de Baskerville—presumably the last heiress—was living in 1280.—v. Rudder's Gloucestershire. Long before this, however, the family had attained abnormal proportions, and extended into many other parts of the country. "At the beginning of the thirteenth century there were Baskervilles in Herefordshire, Northamptonshire and Shropshire, in Warwickshire, Norfolk, Buckinghamshire, Wiltshire, and possibly in other counties. No reasonable ground has yet occurred to my notice for further associating any two of the branches, except that the Shropshire and Northamptonshire branch was identical, and also had lands in Herefordshire. Yet these are not to be confounded with the Baskervilles of Eardisley in Herefordshire, however difficult it may be to preserve the distinction."—Eyton's Shropshire.

This opens a wide and perplexing field of research, on which I must not attempt to enter. The principal house was that of Eardisley: "the habitation, for a long time, of the famous and ancient family of the Baskervilles, which bred in all times so many noted knights, and flourished long since in this county and its neighbour Shropshire, and held (to note so much by-the-bye) the hamlet of Lanton in Capite, as of the Honour of Montgomery, by the service of giving the King one barbed arrow as often as he came to hunt in Cormedon Chase."—Camden.

Their tenure of Eardisley Castle "commenced at least as early as the thirteenth century. In 1251 Humphrey de Bohun and Aleanore his wife, by a fine granted the manor of 'Irdesle' to Walter de Baskerville (Close Rolls, 36 Hen. III. m. 16), but there is good reason to believe that his ancestors had been settled in that place—certainly in the county—at a much earlier date. They claim, indeed, to have acquired possession of the manor of Eardisley by the marriage of Sir Ralph Baskerville with Sibyl, heiress of Adam de Port and of his wife, who was a daughter of De Braose, and a grand-daughter of Milo, Earl of Hereford. With greater certainty we may state that Ralph de Baskerville held lands under Adam de Port de veteri feoffamento, i.e. by inheritance from the reign of Henry I. (Lib. Scut), and that on the murder of Ralph Baskerville in Northamptonshire about the year 1194, his son Thomas succeeded him at Pickthorn, the Shropshire estate (Eyton's Shropshire), and another son, Roger, at Eardisley in Herefordshire.—(Her. Visit.)

"Walter de Baskerville, grandson of this Roger, had licence from the Bishop of Hereford in 1272 'to hold divine service in an oratory built within the walls of the castle' (Reg. Breton), and we may assume from this that Eardisley had then become the chief residence of the family, as it continued to be for the four succeeding centuries.

"During that long period the house of Baskerville produced a series of knights, whom to mention by name would exceed our limits. They won their spurs not by wealth or by waiting upon the Court, but by active service at home and abroad, and on the grave of each might be inscribed the quaint old epitaph:—

'Eques Auratus well may he he said
Whose coyne, not warlike courage, such hath made;
To Baskerville, we Miles do afford
As knighted on the field by his flesht sword.'

"The most eminent members of the Eardisley line were Sir John Baskerville, who, while yet a boy, followed King Henry to the battlefield of Agincourt, and his son, Sir James, one of the three Herefordshire heroes who were made Knights Banneret by Henry VII. after the battle of Stoke in 1487. The latter married Sibyl, sister of Walter Devereux, first Lord Ferrers, who fell at Bosworth fighting against the cause which his brother-in-law supported. A descendant was Sir Thomas Baskerville, who died in 1597 commanding Queen Elizabeth's troops in Picardy. There was a tablet to his memory in old St. Paul's setting forth the glories 'of the right worthie and valiant gentlemen,' and his services in the Netherlands, Indies, Spain, and France, and attributing to him

' A pure regard to the immortall parte,
A spotless minde and an unvanquisht heart.'

In the Civil War, Sir Humphrey Baskerville of Eardisley took the side of the King, but was not actively engaged in the struggle. Indeed, the importance of the family had then begun to decline, and Symonds states that the income of the knight (whom he calls a traveller) had dwindled down from ,£3000 per annum to £300. Misfortunes continued to attend die family. The castle was burnt to the ground in the Civil War, only one of the gatehouses escaping, and in this the representative of the family was living in 1670 in comparative poverty.—(Blount's MS.). The parish register contains die burial entry of Benhail Baskerville in 1684, to whose name are added the words, 'Dominus Manerii de Erdisley.' At his death the family became extinct in the direct male line, and the remainder of the property (most of which had been sold by Sir Humphrey Baskerville in the reign of James I.) was purchased by William Barnesley, Bencher of the Inner Temple."—Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords, by C. J. Robinson.

Ralph de Baskerville, who in 1165 held a knight's fee of Adam de Port in Herefordshire—probably at Bradwardine—is considered by Eyton to have been the progenitor of the Shropshire Baskervilles. About 1180, he was Lord of Pickthorn in that county, where his descendants continued for nine generations, and also held Lawton and other manors. He died in 1190, by the hand of one of his own vassals, leaving his son Thomas a minor. But no sooner was the young heir of age, than he challenged Roger Fitz William in the King's Court at Westminster, "for that wickedly, and in the King's peace, and in felony, and in murder, he slew Ralph de Baskerville his (Thomas') father in his house; and this the said Thomas saw, as he said, being a boy under age, and this he offers to prove against Roger with his body." This was in Easter Term, 1200; but it was only in the following year that the Court decided to allow the duel. "No record remains of this duel. The Appellant, however, survived it."—Eyton's Salop.

The last of the line, John de Baskerville, died in infancy in 1383, and Pickthorn passed to his aunt, Margaret Foulhurst. Another John, descended from a younger brother, was living in the ensuing century; but his posterity likewise became extinct, and the Baskervilles of Newton had ended with an heiress in 1325. Those seated at Northwood were in fact Botterells, who, for some reason or other, bore their mother's, instead of their father's name; they, too, disappear after 1325.

One single branch is all that is now left of this once far-spreading family,[53] and this only survives under a changed name. Its connection with the parent stock is not traced, and would have to be sought for in remote antiquity, as it has been seated in Cheshire for upwards of 600 years. "The early history of the Baskerville family is very obscure. No Inquisitiones post mortem were taken, as they held no lands directly under the Earl of Chester, and very few deeds relating to them have been met with."—Earwaker's East Cheshire. It is at all events certain that Sir John de Baskerville, about the year 1226, received from Robert de Camville a grant of Old Withington, and that this estate has been handed down to the present day by twenty generations of his successors. John Baskerville, who inherited it in 1718, having married Mary, daughter and heir of Robert Glegg, of Gayton-in-Wirrall in the same county, took the name and arms of Glegg, ever since retained by the family.

Bures :

Unless this be an interpolation, it cannot designate the ancient Suffolk family of Bures, who derived their name, not from the Norman town on the river Bethune in which Mabel de Belesme met her fate, but from Bures or Buer in the Hundred of Babergh, where St. Edmund. King of the East Angles, was crowned. They bore Ermine, on a chief indented Sable, two lions rampant Or.

There was a French family thus denominated—one of whom, Pierre de Bures, was Viscount of Dieppe and Arques during the war of 1173-74—which very possibly had representatives in England, as the name is found in various parts of the country, and several different coats are assigned to it in Burke's Armoury. The Bowers of Iwerne House, Dorset, claim descent from Michael de Bures, a contemporary of the Conquerors, whose son Walter gave its present name of Bures to a small manor he possessed near Calne in Wiltshire. Nicholas de Boure, 2 Richard II., was seated at Boure's Place, near Deverell, holding part of his estate in capite; and Boure's Field, in the same county, belonged to his brother William. They bear Sable, three talbots' heads couped in chief, Argent langued Gules; in the middle point a cinquefoil Ermine. Sir Robert de Bures, Lord of Chartley, Stafford, served as Knight of the shire in 1313. Sir John de Bures of Somersetshire, several times mentioned at the same period in the Parliamentary Rolls, who likewise held lands in Berkshire and Gloucestershire, bore arms nearly identical with those of the Suffolk house.

Bounilaine :

evidently the Buttevillain of Levi's list: in Abbot Brompton's it appears as Boutevilain: and is Botevilain in the Roman de Rou. "Botevilain and Trossebot feared neither blow nor thrust, but heartily gave and took many on that day." Though thus signalised at the Battle of Hastings, the name does not occur in Domesday; and is only found in the following century in Norfolk and Northamptonshire. "Flordon (in the former county) came to the Buttevillains very early. Robert held it in 1139."—Blomfield. According to the Liber Niger, he held two knight's fees of Walter de Wahull, and three of Roger Bigot, Earl of Norfolk. His son William founded Pipewell Abbey in Northamptonshire, where "he held lands, at Pipewell and elsewhere. He was in great favour with Henry II., who, upon going into Normandy, gave him a writ, directed to the Bishops of London and Norwich, and to all his liege people, English and Norman, of Northamptonshire, Norfolk, and Suffolk, granting him all the lands and other liberties that his father had enjoyed."—Banks. He married Joan, daughter of Sir Ralph Camois; and had a son, Robert, "one of the barons that levied war against King John, and received a pardon from Henry III. in 1216, yet was afterwards in arms against him both at Lewes and Evesham."—Blomfield. In this latter case the rebel must have been his son of the same name, called Roger by Matthew Paris, who tells us he was taken prisoner in 1264, but was subsequently pardoned. The next heir, William, is included by Banks among the Barones Pretermissi, as "one of those considerable men who, 24 Edward I. had summons to attend the great council, then appointed to convene at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, upon the subject of an expedition against the Scots. But after this period the name of Boutevelayn is no more noticed upon any similar occasion, although the posterity of this William long continued to possess considerable estates in Norfolk Northamptonshire, and elsewhere." Their possessions included Hastings and Gissing in Norfolk, Cottesbrook in Northants, and Fenwick and Thornditch in Bedfordshire. Sir William's son, Sir Robert, one of the tilters at the tournament at Stebenhithe (Stepney) and Dunstable in 1308, was slain on Midsummer Day, 1314, with the Earl of Gloucester in Scotland, and was followed by another Robert, "who 5 Hen. V. going into foreign parts, conveyed Cottesbrook to the Duke of Clarence and other feoffees for the time of his absence from the kingdom."—Bridge's Northants. With his son William the line terminated, and terminated miserably, for the last unhappy heir was an idiot. On his death in 1465, the estates passed to his two sisters, Elizabeth Chatterton and Julian Duke.

The Boutevillians bore Argent, three crescents Gules. One of these Lords of Cottesbrook is roundly abused in the chronicle of Pipewell Abbey "It is there recorded that he denied the existence of the foundation charter; and worse than this, that, having claimed the maintenance of a horse and a pack of hounds at the Abbey, and suffered discomfiture by the ejection of his steed by a subtle device from the Abbot's stable, he threatened excision generally to their horse's tails, and dire demeanour to the brethren; for the which he was likened by them to Achitophel and to Herod."

Bois :

This name is only too amply represented. Five distinct families claiming it as their patronymic are specified in The Norman People, viz.:

"1. De Bois-Arnaud, hereditary stewards of the Counts of Breteuil, sires of Poilly. Their signatures appear in the charter of William Fitz Osborne to Lire Abbey, temp. William the Conqueror. They long flourished in Leicester and Northants.

"2. De Bois-Guillaume, of the bailifry of Caux, of William de Bois was seated in Essex, 1086. They long flourished in the Eastern Counties.

"3. De Bois-Herbert, Barons of Halberton, Devon. Hugo de Bosco occurs 1083 (Exon. Domesday). They long flourished in Dorset, and the barons of Halberton, Devon, were a branch.

"4. De Bois-Robert or Roard, of whom Robert de Bois and his brother held estates in Bucks, 1086. Sire Nicholas de Bois, of this family, lived in the fourteenth century.

"5. De Bois, descended from a companion of Bernard de Neumarche, to whom he granted a barony in Brecknock, 1086, named after him Trebois."

This opens a wide field for investigation, on which I feel I must leave it to other enquirers to win their spurs. Yet even so the list is incomplete, for it omits "Rogerus de Boscnorman," entered as a Northamptonshire baron in Domesday, and the great Kentish clan of Boys, of whom Hasted enumerates no less than ten branches seated at Fredville, Nonington, Betshanger,[54] Bonnington, Hoad, Barfriston, Denton, Tilmanstone, Sandwich, and St. Gregories. Their common ancestor was John de Bois, who died about thirty years after the Conquest; and they are mentioned by Phillpot in his Villare Paulinum, 1659, as having "been then settled for seventeen prior descents at Bonyngton." In the sixteenth century Sir John Boys founded Jesus Hospital at Canterbury: and in 1644 "Colonel John Boys was Governor of Donnington Castle in Berkshire, and was knighted by King Charles for his gallant defence of the castle against the rebels, receiving an augmentation to his bearing of a Crown imperial Or on a canton Azure."—Sir Bernard Burks. This very ancient East Kent family still survives in the main line.

The name likewise travelled into Scotland. Sir Humphrey de Bois, of Dryfesdale, who was slain at Lochmaben in 1333, is supposed by Dalrymple to have been the ancestor of Hector Boece, the historian.

Boteler :

This name, as Pincerna, is three times entered in Domesday. "Hugo Pincerna" held a barony in Bedfordshire; and two others, Richard and Robert, were under-tenants, the first in Shropshire and Cheshire, the second in Shropshire only. The two first founded baronial families, and in giving some account of each of these, I will commence with Hugo, the feudal Butler of the Counts of Mellent.

This dignity had been, and continued to be, hereditary in his family, as was then customary. He accompanied the Count to England in 1066, and received his share of the spoils awarded to the new Earl of Leicester. His son, Ralph Pincerna, had the custody of his suzerain's estates in 1130 (Rot. Pip.), and was a benefactor of Kenilworth Priory (Mon. ii. 115, 118, 134). Henry I. confirmed his grants. He was seated at Oversley in Warwickshire. "where," says Dugdale, "taking advantage of the natural Ascent of the Ground near the Stream of Arrow, he built a strong Castle, and within a Mile distance thereof (on the north side of Alcester) founded a Monastery for Benedictine monks anno 1140." His descendants, for three generations, were styled Pincerna, and then Le Botiller. One of them acquired the great Shropshire barony of Wem with the daughter of William Pantolf; another was a baron by writ 24 Ed. I.: and a third was disposed of in marriage by an agreement very characteristic of the times. He was only sixteen when his father died, and in the same year Walter de Beauchamp "obtained a grant of his marriage in behalf of Eleanor his daughter; and in case Eleanor should die before the accomplishment of that intended marriage, that then he might marry some other of his daughters. And, moreover, that if the said John le Botiller should depart this life before such marriage, that then the said Walter might have the same benefit of the next heir and so from heir to heir till one of his daughters were wedded to one of these Botillers." No man could have done more to secure an alliance on which he had set his heart; and yet it is very doubtful whether it ever took place. John died three years afterwards; and "whether this marriage was compleated by him or his brother Gawine (who was his heir) I make a question." The last Botiller lived in the time of Edward III., and left an heiress married to Sir Robert de Ferrers, who was thereupon summoned to Parliament as Baron of Wem.

I find mention of at least three other representatives of Hugo Pincerna in the male line. His great grandson, "John, son of Robert Pincerna, son of Ralph (Mon. Angl. ii., 309), held lands in Bedford in 1165. Ralph le Botiler of Bedford, c. 1300, married Hawisia Gobiun, of the same county (Roberts, Cal. Gen.). In 1376 John Botiler married Isolda Gobiun, heiress of Waresley, Hunts, where he resided (Lodge, 'Irish Peerage '). From him descended the Butlers of Waresley, one of whom, George Butler, of Fen Drayton, Cambridge, was lineal ancestor of the Earls of Lanesborough. The arms of this family in various branches are those of the Botilers of Wemme."[55]—The Norman People. Sir Stephen Butler removed to Ireland in the reign of James I., and was the great grandfather of Brinsley, created in 1728 Viscount Lanesborough, whose son Humphrey was the first Earl of that name. Newton Butler, co. Fermanagh, takes its appellation from them.

The second branch, of which Burke has not clearly made out the descent, was seated at Hatfield-Woodhall in Hertfordshire.[56] Sir John Butler of that place was first created a baronet by James I., and further advanced to a peerage by his successor in 1628 as Baron Butler of Bramfield in the same county. He was at the head of a goodly family of six sons and six daughters, but all the six sons died unmarried, and the title expired with the eldest in 1647.

Another of the Botilers of Wem, named William, married Joan de Sudeley, sister of the last Lord Sudeley of Sudeley in Gloucestershire, who died unmarried in 1367. As her sister Marjory, the other co-heiress, left no children, this barony was eventually vested in her grandson, Sir Ralph Botiler. It was this Ralph that built Sudeley Castle, "of subject's castles the most handsome habitation, and of subject's habitations the strongest castle," of whom Leland says:—"The Lorde Sudeley that buildid the Castle was a famous Man of Warre in K. H. 5. and K. H. 6. Dayes, and was an Admirall (as I have heard) on Sea: whereupon it was supposed, and spoken, that it was partly builded ex spoliis Gallorum, and some speak of a Towre in it called Potmare's Towre, that it should be made of a Ransome of his.

"One thinge was to be noted in this Castle, that part of the Windowes of it were glased with Berall." So splendid an abode well befitted its occupant, and the lengthy list of his honours and preferments, furnished by Dugdale. He had served his first campaign in the retinue of Humphrey Duke of Gloucester in 1418: but three years later brought to the French wars a train of his own, composed of twenty men-at-arms and sixty archers on horseback, and throughout gained more than his full share of success and renown. He "stood firm to the Lancastrian Interest in all those sharp Contests betwixt that and the House of York;" and was amply rewarded for his fidelity by Henry VI. He was Chamberlain of the Royal Household and Baron Sudeley by letters patent in 1429, with a pension in support of his new dignity: Treasurer of the King's Exchequer in 1430; Lord Treasurer of England in 1443, receiving at the same time another annuity, and for "his Winter Robe, against Christmass, 10 Ells of fine Cloth of colour Violet in Grain; and for its Lining ccc Bellies of Minever"; joint governor, with Lord Beaumont, of the Channel Isles in 1446, and twice sent on embassies to France. "But upon thee Fall of King Henry the Sixth, the scene being changed, he excused himself from coming to Parliament by reason of his Age:" and withdrew altogether from public affairs. If he thus reckoned upon being unnoticed and passed over by his former enemies, he had left out of his calculations the tempting prize that even a sovereign might be found to covet. Accordingly, "K. E. 4 bore noe good Will to the L. Sudeley, as a Man suspected to be in heart K. H. 6 his Man; whereupon by complaints he was attached, and going up to London he looked from the Hill to Sudeley, and sayd, 'Sudeley Castle, thou art a Traytor, not I.' After he made an honest Declaration, and sould his Castle of Sudeley to K. E. 4."—Leland. No child of his was wronged by this transfer, for none had been born of his marriage. His barony died with him in 1473; and his heirs were the sons of his two sisters, Sir John Norbury and William Belknap.

The second Pincerna entered in Domesday is Richard, the ancestor of the Butlers of Chester, who held great estates in Salop and Cheshire, and made grants to Chester Abbey about 1090 (Mon. i. 201). "It appears from the early arms of these barons that they were a branch of the house of Venables or Le Venur."—The Norman People. His son Robert founded a Cistercian abbey at Pulton in Cheshire, afterwards transferred to Delacres in Staffordshire; and Aumeric Pincerna acquired the barony of Warrington in Lancashire through his marriage with Beatrice de Vilers. William le Botiller was certified to hold eight knight's fees in that county of King John. To him succeeded a second William, Sheriff of Lancashire and Constable of Lancaster Castle 43 Hen. III., who enrolled himself in the ranks of the insurgent barons, but made his peace after Evesham, and subsequently served Edward I. so well in the wars of Scotland and Gascony, that he was summoned to Parliament by writ in 1294. His son had the like summons in the following reign, but none other of his descendants ever "stood in the degree of Barons of this Realm," though they continued seated at Beausey in Lancashire till after the time of Henry VIII. These Butlers gave their name to Crophill-Butler in Nottinghamshire.

One of the Lords of Warrington was foully murdered in 1521. "Sir John Butler" (according to a MS. now in the Bodleian Library) "was slaine in his bedde by the procurement of the Lord Standley; Sir Piers Leigh and Master William Savage joining with him in that action (corrupting his servants): his porter setting a light in a window to give knowledge upon the water that was about his house at Bewsey. They came over the moat in leather boats, and so to his chamber, where one of his servants, named Houlcrofte, was slaine, being his chamberlaine; the other basely betrayed his master: they payd him a greate reward, and so coming away with him, they hanged him on a tree in Bewsey Park." The brave chamberlain was, says popular tradition, a negro, and helped to save his master's infant son, whom a faithful maid-servant wrapped up in her apron, and carried unharmed out of the house. The young heir's mother was absent at the time. "Sir John's lady at that instant being in London, did dream the same night that her husband was slaine, and that Bewsey Hall did swymme with blood: whereupon she presently came homewards, and heard by the way the report of his death." She afterwards prosecuted his murderers; "but, being married to the Lord Grey, he made her suite voyde, for which reason she parted from her husband and came into Lancashire, saying, 'If my Lorde will not let me have my will of my enemies, yet shall my body be buried with hym:' and she caused a tomb of alabaster to be made, where she lyeth on the right side of her husband, Sir John Boteler." In good sooth his blood remained unavenged; for none cared to prove the guilt of the head of the powerful house of Stanley; and of his two accomplices, only one underwent even a show of penance. This was Sir Piers Leigh, an ecclesiastic, who, six years afterwards, was sentenced to build a church at Disley. The cause of this deadly feud had been nothing more serious than some grudge or quarrel respecting the ford at Warrington.

The last Boteler of Beausey died either in 1586 or 1587; but a junior branch is still represented by the Hoghtons of Hoghton Tower. "In the reign of William Rufus, the manor of Houghton was given by Warin Bussel with a daughter in marriage to Hamo Pincerna; after whose death his wife gave it to their second son, Richard. The son of Richard Fitz Hamo was Adam, who in the reign of Henry II. styled himself Adam de Horton, or Adam Dominus de Horton."—Bailie's Lancashire. Hoghton Tower, "rising in isolated pre-eminence from the rocky banks of Darwen," crowns the summit of a lofty hill, and was ruined in the Civil War, "when the gate-house was accidentally blown up with gun-powder, and one Captain Starkey, with two hundred soldiers, were killed in that blast most woefully. This stately fabric is invironed with a most spacious park" (Richard de Hoghton, 9 Richard II., obtained from his Earl, John of Gaunt, license to add sevenscore acres to his park): "which in former times was so full of tymber that a man passing through it could scarce have seen the sun shine at middle of day; but of late dayes most of it has been destroyed. It was much replenished with wild beasts, as with boars and bulls of a white and spangled colour, and red deer in great plentie."—Dr. Kuerden. James I. spent three days at Hoghton Tower, "in the midst of the most splendid festivities," on his progress from Edinburgh to London in 1617. "There is a laughable tradition still generally current in Lancashire that our knight-making monarch, finding, it is presumed, no undubbed man worthy of the honour, knighted at the banquet in Hoghton Tower, in the warmth of his liberality, a loin of beef, the part ever since called sir-loin. Those who would credit this story have the authority of Dr. Johnson to support them; among whose explanations of the word sir in his Dictionary is:—"a title given to a loin of beef, which one of our kings knighted in a fit of good humour."—Baines.

Robert, the third Pincerna of Domesday, was the butler of the Earls of Shrewsbury in Shropshire, where Felton-Butler still designates one of his professions. To what family he belonged I am quite unable to determine. He may have been (according to The Norman People) the brother of Roger de Corcelle (ancestor of the Churchills) who held a great barony in Shropshire in 1086: or else the Robert Pincerna spoken of in the Recherches sur le Domesday as the brother of Geoffrey Alselin or Ascelin, likewise a powerful baron at the same time, whose name has been transformed by the English genealogists into Hauselyn. This Geoffrey or Goisfrid was the son of Ascelin, conjectured to have been either a bastard or a cadet of the family of Dinan in Brittany. Robert "probably shared in the forfeiture of his suzerain. Robert de Belesme, in 1102: for King Henry I., when he founded the Honour of Montgomery, annexed thereto the escheated estate of Robert Pincerna."—History and Antiquities of Shropshire.

The great family that has made the name of Butler illustrious can find no place here, as they did not assume it till the time of Henry II., who first appointed Theobald Walter Chief Butler of Ireland.[57] This was an office of great dignity and power. "It cost the nation so recently as 1810 no less than £216,000 to purchase the prizage of wines (one of its hereditary privileges) from his heir the Marquess of Ormonde."

Bourcher :

or Bourchier: not the original form of this great name, which, derived from Boursseres in Burgundy, passed through various stages of transmutation as Berseres, Bursers, Boussers, Burcer, Bowser (as it is given by Duchesne) Burghcher, &c, &c, before it finally reached the one in which it is familiar to us. Urso de Berseres, in 1086, held Senly in Buckinghamshire (Domesd.) and Sylvester de Bursers, in 1165, was a tenant of the Honour of Clare, in Suffolk (Liber Niger). Nearly two hundred years after this, the name first comes to the front, on the marriage of Sir John, the son of Robert de Burser, with the heiress of Stansted Hall in Essex, "where his posterity grew in time so famous." She was the only child of Walter de Colchester and his wife Joan, one of the sisters and co-heirs of Roger de Montchensie, thus succeeding to a great estate, and bringing her husband an important position in the county. He was one of the justices in 1318: a Conservator of the peace in 1319, and a Justice of the Common Pleas in 1321. His son and successor Robert rapidly rose into eminence. He was Justiciar of Ireland, Lord High Chancellor of England, a baron by writ in 1342, and with the Black Prince "in the very heat of the battle" at Cressy. He had the King's license to hold his court leet at Halsted, to impark his woods there, and to make a castle of his manor house at Stansted. Edward III. further selected him as one of the ambassadors sent to treat for a peace with France in 1347. He died two years afterwards, cut off by the plague that then universally raged in England; and left two sons: John, second Lord Bourchier, and William, father of the first Earl of Eu. He, again, had found a wealthy wife, Margaret, sole heiress of Sir Thomas Prayers, by Anne, daughter and heir of Henry de Essex, one of the descendants of an earlier Henry, who was Baron of Rayleigh and Standard Bearer of England.

John de Bourchier, who succeeded to his father's barony at twenty, "was one of the Lieutenants appointed by Edward III. to prosecute his right and title to the Crown of France, and spent a considerable part of his life in the wars of that kingdom, where he acquired great reputation."—Morant. He was some time Governor of Flanders and Captain of Ghent;—appointed, it is said, at the request of the Flemings themselves; and lived to be an old man—old enough to claim exemption from further service, either in the field or in the council chamber. The next Lord obtained a similar immunity on the same score of age and infirmity, and yet only out-lived his father nine years. The barony passed to his daughter Elizabeth, who successively carried it to Sir Henry Stafford and Sir Hugh Robsart, but died childless in 1432, when it retorted to her cousin Henry, the second Earl of Ewe.

He was the grandson of William de Bourchier (the younger son of the first Baron), and the Louvaine heiress whom he had married. His father, a second William, had been made Constable of the Tower and created Earl of Ewe by Henry V., being the second husband of Anne Plantagenet, Countess of Stafford, daughter and eventual sole heir of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, the sixth and youngest son of Edward III. They had four sons, who in honour of their royal blood, all filled high positions in the world, and were prominent in the bloody conflicts of the Red and White Rose. The eldest, Henry, second Earl of Ewe, became, as Lord Bourchier, the head of the house. Thomas, the second, first Bishop of Ely, and then for thirty-two years Archbishop of Canterbury, "wore a mitre fifty-one years, the like not to be paralel'd in any other Dignitary of the Church, before, nor since." William, the third, was summoned to parliament as Baron Fitz Warine in right of his wife. John, the youngest, married the heiress of another barony, and had summons to parliament as Lord Berners.

Henry, the second Earl, began life, as did his brother, a zealous Lancastrian, and received many favours at the hand of Henry VI. He was only once summoned in his Norman dignity, for in 1446 he received the English title of Viscount Bourchier, and eight years later was Lord Treasurer of England. But his marriage changed his politics. The Bourchiers had become a power to be reckoned with in the State; and a princess of the blood, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Earl of Cambridge, Lord Protector of England, and aunt of Edward IV., was given him in marriage by her brother the Duke of York, "in the firme hope and sure confidence that he and hys generacion should be a perpetual ayde to the duke and his sequele, as well in prosperitie as in aduersitie, associate together in all chance of fortune." Nor was this hope deceptive. Not only did Lord Bourchier forsake his old master and attach himself to the House of York, but his brothers followed in his wake, and Lord Berners, who had been installed a Knight of the Garter for his valour in the Lancastrian army at St. Albans, was five years afterwards appointed Governor of Windsor Castle by Edward IV. Lord Bourchier himself was loaded with honours and estates it the accession of the new dynasty. He was re-appointed Lord Treasure, created Earl of Essex, and received the castle and honour of Wark, with Tyndale in Northumberland, forfeited by Lord Ros; Aylesbury and other Buckinghamshire manors that had been the Earl of Devon's; the possessions of the attained Earl of Wiltshire in Essex, Suffolk, and Lancashire, and the Cambridgeshire estate of "John Ormund, alias Boteler." Nor were these lavish grants deemed sufficient; for in 1464, the King, "in recompense of the charge he had been at in his service, granted him Licence to transport 1,600 Woolen Clothes, of his proper Goods, or any others, without any Accompte, or Customs for the same." He died the same year as the King, having had, besides a daughter, Isabel, who only lived a few days, seven sons, almost all of whom advanced their fortunes by marriage, but, with the one exception of the eldest, left no posterity:

1. William, whose wife was the Queen's sister, Anne Wydeville.

2. Sir Henry, married to Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Thomas, Lord Scales.

3. Sir Humphrey, married to Joan, daughter and co-heir of Sir Richard Stanhope, who, on the death of her elder sister, Maud, Lady Willoughby de Eresby, brought him their mother's barony of Cromwell, by which title he was summoned to parliament in 1460. Eleven years after that, he and another Humphrey Bourchier .(the son of the first Lord Berners) fell fighting for the House of York at the battle of Barnet.

4. Sir John, married to Elizabeth, grand-daughter and sole heir of William, fifth Lord Ferrers of Chartley, and widow of Sir Edward Grey.

5. Sir Thomas married to Isabel, daughter and heir of Sir John Barre, and widow of Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Devon, beheaded in 1469.

6. Sir Edward, slain at Wakefield.

7. Fulke, died young.

William, the eldest, who had died in his father's life-time, and was the only one of these childless brothers that did not die s. p., left a son and two daughters; Henry, the second Earl and last heir-male; Cecily, married to John Devereux, Lord Ferrers of Chartley, in whose descendants the Earldom of Essex was ultimately vested; and Isabel, probably died young.

Henry succeeded to the Earldom on his grandfather's death in 1483, when he was not more than eleven; yet Dugdale asks us to believe that, only two years afterwards, he was selected by "that prudent Prince," Henry VII., as one of his Privy Council. Though he is described as "a person of singular endowments," this is as astounding as the statement that his cousin, the second Lord Berners, had been made a Knight of the Bath by Edward IV. at the unripe age of eleven. It should, however, be borne in mind that the Bourchiers, with their usual felicitous tactics, had turned their faces to the rising sun, and earned the gratitude of the new Tudor dynasty. They had all taken part with the Earl of Richmond. Cardinal Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated at his coronation; and the same Lord Berners who had been so prematurely knighted by the Yorkist king was among the hostages left with the King of France "as security for the re-payment of the charges incurred in fitting out the expedition." One of the new King's first acts was to redeem them.

The young Lord Essex took the field betimes. In 1492 he went with the King to the siege of Boulogne; and in 1496 was one of the three Earls that commanded the first division of the army at Blackheath. "Great confidence," Lord Bacon tells us, "was reposed in these three Leaders: All, men famed and loved among the people." On the accession of Henry VIII. he was named Captain of his Horse-guard, a newly formed and gorgeous corps of "Fifty Horse, trapp'd with Cloth of Gold, or Goldsmith's work: whereof every one had his Archer, a Demi-Lance, and Coustrill." From this time forth he belonged to the brilliant train of knightly courtiers that attended the King in peace and in war. As Lieut.-General of all the spears he went with him to Therouenne and Tournay; and was one of the four challengers at the famous Jousts held in honour of the King's sister, Queen Margaret; where he, with the King himself, the Duke of Suffolk, and Nicholas Carew, "answered all corners." His was among the stateliest figures in the magnificent pageant known is the Field of the 'Cloth of Gold, where the two Kings of France and England met to outvie and outdazzle each other in splendour. But in 1539, "adventuring to ride a young unruly Horse, at his Manor of Basse in Com. Hertf., he had the bard hap to be overthrown; and by the fall, to break his neck." He had increased his vast patrimony by the acquisition of one of the Duke of Buckingham's forfeited manors, granted to him by the King, and his marriage with the elder co-heir of Sir William Say. But he left no son to inherit it. His only child, Lady Anne, was Baroness Bourchier in her own right, and the wife of William, Lord Parr of Kendal, who in 1541 had livery of all her lands. A horrible mystery of some kind enshrouds the history of this most unhappy woman. Her children were bastardized by Act of Parliament in the following year: notwithstanding which her husband was created Earl of Essex in 1543 (a few months after his sister Katherine had become Queen of England), "with the same place and voice in Parliament" that had belonged to his father-in-law. Edward.VI., on his accession, advanced "his honest uncle," as he was pleased to call him, to the Marques-sate of Northampton, and constituted him Lord Great Chamberlain for life in 1550. "Having," says Dugdale, "about this time married Elizabeth, daughter of George Lord Cobham, in 5 Ed. 6 he obtain'd a special Act of Parliament for the disannulling of his marriage with the Lady Anne Bourchier, and also for ratifying his marriage with the said Elizabeth." The reasons—whatever they were—for this foul treatment of the great heiress, in whose veins flowed the haughty blood of Plantagenet, are carefully suppressed: but it is noted that four of the peers "dissented to the Bill." Of the fate of the poor, disgraced, and disinherited children we hear nothing. The barony of Bourchier passed to the last Earl's nephew, Walter, Lord Ferrers of Chartley.

The line of Lord Berners had terminated with a grandson in 1532; but there yet existed descendants of the first Earl's third son, William, Lord Fitz Warine. He had acquired his barony through Thomasine his wife, daughter and heir of Sir Richard Hanckford, by Elizabeth, sister and heir of Fulk. seventh and last Lord Fitz Warine. At the downfall of the House of Lancaster, he participated in the benefits heaped upon his family by the new Yorkist King. and was named Master Forester of Exmoor and Racche in Somersetshire, with a license (similar to that granted to his elder brother, who, like him, was a trafficker in woollens), for the yearly export of 1000 cloths of his own goods, free of charge. His son married the heiress of Lord Dynham, and his grandson, who was created Earl of Bath in 1536 by Henry VIII., obtained another great fortune through his wife Cecily, daughter of Giles, Lord Daubeny, and sister and heir of Henry Daubeny, Earl of Bridgewater. Their estates lay, as the title implies, in the West of England, and their manor house was at Tawstock, near Barnstaple, in Devonshire, where the last Earls of this name lie buried. There were in all five; but the direct line ended with the fourth, who left only three daughters; Elizabeth, Countess of Denbigh: Dorothy, Lady Grey of Groby; and Anne, Countess of Middlesex, among whom the old barony of Fitz Warine fell into abeyance. The Earldom passed to a cousin, Henry Bourchier, who had no children, and became extinct at his death in 1654. A monument erected to him in Tawstock Church records the long descent and illustrious alliances of the great house of which he was the last heir.

With him, the name disappears from its pride of place in the Baronage; yet it would seem not to have altogether passed away. Dugdale, in his 'Visitation of Yorkshire,' gives the pedigree of a family of Bourchier then existing in the county, that bore the arms of the Earls of Essex. It is brief: commencing with Sir Ralph Bourchier of Beningborough, from whom Barrington Bourchier, then (in 1665) fourteen years of age, was fourth in descent.

Brabaion :

evidently Brabason: a duplicate.

Berners :

from Bernieres, near Falaise. Hugh de Bernieres appears as a Domesday tenant in the counties of Essex, Cambridge, and Middlesex. In Essex he held Bernston (Bernerstown), Roding Berners, &c, under Geoffrey de Mandeville; and in Cambridgeshire Eversdon, which is said to have been his chief seat, as it certainly was that of his posterity. William de Berners, in 1093, witnesses Robert Fitz Hugh's charter to Chester Abbey; and two of the name are entered in the Liber Niger: Ralph de Bernieres, holding six knight's fees; and Richard de Bernieres, seven. Robert de Berners, 6 Ric. I. "gave a Fine of 200 Marks for obtaining the King's Favour, and restitution of his Lands."—Dugdale. Ralph, in 1264, took part with the rebellious barons; but must likewise have been reinstated and forgiven, if, as is believed, he was the same Ralph who served as Sheriff of Berkshire twenty years afterwards. He died in 1296, possessed of Islington in Middlesex, West Horsley in Surrey (the inheritance of his wife Christian), Icklingham in Sussex, and the old Domesday manors, with Berners-Berwick in Essex. His son Edmond, then serving in the wars of Gascony, was grandfather of Sir James de Berners, beheaded in 1388. He had been one of the detested favourites of Richard II., "who, in that King's Reign, when the great Lords were prevalent, amongst others (then accounted Enemies to the publick) was arrested of Treason, and committed to Prison: Whence, being brought to judgment, in the ensuing Parliament, he underwent the sentence of death, as a Traitor, and suffered accordingly.

"To whom succeeded Richard his son and heir. Which Richard (residing at West Horsley in Com. Sur.) had the reputation of a Baron of this realm; though nothing of his Creation or Summons to Parliament (that I could ever see) doth appear thereof."—Ibid. It was the second husband of his daughter and sole heir Margery, 'Sir John Bourchier, K.G., who received summons to parliament as Lord Berners in 1454.

This Sir John, the fourth son of William, Earl of Eu, trimmed his course, like the rest of his family, according to the exigency of the times, and was fist a Lancastrian, and then a Yorkist, in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VI. granted him his barony, and Edward IV. appointed him Constable of the castle, and Warden of the park and forest, of Windsor. His successor was a grandson of his own name, who enjoyed "the rare felicity of continuing in favour with Henry VIII. for eighteen years," and was Chancellor of the King's Exchequer and Lieutenant of Calais and the Marches, with munificent grants of land. He was fond of literature and literary work, and is best known for his excellent translation of Froissart, undertaken at the King's desire, though he was the author of several others, such as 'The Hystorye of the most noble and valyannt Knyghte Arthur of lytell Brytayne': 'The ancient, honorable, famous, and delightful Historie of Huon of Bourdeux, enterlaced with the love of many Ladies,' &c. Once he was sent on a mission to Spain, and his biographer quotes with evident relish a rough rejoinder he made to the French Ambassador there. Both had joined in the diversions of the Spanish Court: and "On Midsummer daye in the mornynge, the king, with xxiii with him, well appareled in coots and clokes of gould, and gouldsmythe worke, on horseback in the aid market place (at Saragoza) ranne and caste canes after the countrey maner, whear as the kinge did very well and was much praysed; a fresh sight for ace or twise to behold, and afterward, nothing. As soone as the cane is caste, they fly: whereof the Frenche Ambassador sayd, that it was a good game to teche men to flye. My lord Barners answered, that the frenchmen learned it well besides Gingate, at the jurney of Spurres. The same day at afternoon, in the aid market place, there was bull-baiting, &c." (Letter from the Ambassadors to Henry VIII.)

He died at Calais in 1532, leaving no legitimate male heir, though he had several bastard sons that bore his name. His wife, Lady Katherine Howard (daughter of the "Jockey of Norfolk," slain at Bosworth), brought him two daughters, Mary, the wife of Alexander Unton, who had no children, and died before him, and Joan, married to Edmund Knyvett of Ashwellthorpe in Norfolk, and thus left sole heir. But there was little or nothing to inherit. "The laste lorde Barnes," Leland tells us, "solde almost the substance of all his Landes": and died very much in debt.

It does not appear that Joan ever bore the title of Baroness Berners: but in 1832—Just 300 years after her father's death—his barony was called out of abeyance in favour of one of her descendants, Robert Wilson, whose great niece and heiress married Sir Henry Tyrwhitt.

Morant speaks of another branch of this house, seated at Amberdon in the parish of Depden, Essex, whose pedigree could be traced up to the Hugh de Bernieres of Domesday. His son Ralph "came into the great estate of Payne Burnell by marrying Nesta, his sister and heir": and their descendants retained it till the time of Henry VI. Nicholas Berners, of Ambredon Hall, was the last, and died in 1441, leaving an only child, Catherine, the wife of Sir William Fynderne. The name, in its abbreviated form of Bernes or Barnes, is retained by their manor of Matching-Barnes.

The identity of Dame Julyans Berners, authoress of the 'Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle,' has never been established. Some have called her the daughter of the Sir James who was executed in 1388; but the probable date of her book is about a century later; and from her title of Dame, she must have been a wife rather than a daughter. In these popularity-hunting days, it is refreshing to note how solicitous she is that her treatise should not be indiscriminately read,[58] and fall into unworthy hands, being intended only for true sportsmen. Her style is charmingly simple and natural, and the wholesome advice she gives her readers proves her to have been a worthy and God-fearing woman. She enjoins the angler to use "generous and noble conduct": not to fish in any poor man's special water: not to break any man's gins, wears, or hedges, or leave open his gates; not to act in a covetous and mercenary spirit for the sake of gain, but to use the sport principally for his solace, for the health of his body, and specially for his "poor soule": and pursue it as much as possible alone, that he may serve God devoutly, saying his accustomed prayer, and thus escape many vices and temptations, and "have the blessynge of God and Saynt Petyr, whyche he them grannte that wyth his precyous bloode us boughte."

A treatise on Hunting, included in the same Booke of Seint Albans, is conjectured to be hers also.

Braibuf :

from the castle of Brebeuf in Normandy; "not the name of a fief, but simply of the locality."—Sir Francis Palgrave. No trace of this castle now remains. It stood near Conde-sur-Vire, in the district of Torigny, and a considerable domain was formerly attached to it, of which the only remnant, the Great Park and Little Park of Brebeuf, were sold about one hundred years ago by one of the last Seigneurs of the name. Nicholas de Braiboef is cited among the nobles belonging to the Viscountcy of Bayeux in 1272; and Jean de Brebeuf had a grant of main-levee from Henry V. in 1419. The translator of Lucian's Pharsalus—better known from Boileau's satires than from his own works—belonged to this family.—M. de Gerville. Their coat of arms sounds formidable: D'azur au boeuf furieux de sable accorne et ongle d'or.

Hugues de Brebeuf is entered on the Dives Roll, and appears in Domesday as Hugo de Braiboue, holding Otringeberge (now Watringbury) in Kent under Bishop Odo. He must be the same Hugo de Braybeof that witnesses Ivo Tailboy's charter to Spalding Abbey (Mon. Angl.); and in the next century we find the name in Lincolnshire. "Radulf de Braiboef debet servicium three militum Willelmo de Romare in Co. Lincoln."—Liber Niger. Ralph de Braibuef (probably the same) is mentioned in the Great Pipe Roll of 1189-90, and "Rad' de Brayboft de Claxby," in the time of Edward I. was a benefactor to Newsom Abbey.—Rotuli Hundredorum. Claxby is four miles from Alford.

A branch of the family was seated in Hampshire as early as the twelfth century, and "were of some note in the county." William de Braibof is mentioned there in 1194-1198 (Rotuli Curiae Regis): and another William, in 1272, had the custody of Porchester Castle, and was Sheriff of Hants in 1279 and 1280. Hackwood Park owes its origin to him; for in the first year of his shrievalty he obtained the King's license to impark "his wood of Hagwood with its timber," which at that time formed part of the forest of Eversley. In the following year he was summoned, with some others, to "show his title to free chase of the cat, the hare, and the fox, within the hundred of Basingstoke, and showed to the satisfaction of the jury that his ancestors had enjoyed the right from time immemorial, that is to say, from the time of Richard I."—Woodward's Hampshire. He died in 1284; seized of Cranborne, Freshwater in the Isle of Wight, the hamlet of Likputt, Eastrop, &c. His son was probably the William de Brayboef of Aldersbury in Wiltshire, who held Crofton (East Grafton?) in that county in 1316: and another of his descendants, Hugh, was the owner of Eastrop at the close of the same century. This must have been the same Sir Hugh, the last heir of the house, whose daughter married Sir Hugh Camoys, and left an only child, Elizabeth, who became the wife of Sir John Hamelin.—Dallaway's Sussex.

Dallaway styles him Sir Hugh Brebeuf of Surrey, where he undoubtedly had property, and Brabeuf's manor retains his name. It was acquired in 1231 by Geoffrey de Brabeuf, whose posterity held it for more than one hundred and thirty years. Andrew de Brabeuf died in 1362, leaving Agnes his heiress, married first to Robert Danhurst, and secondly to Robert Loxley.

Brande :

William Brant held in Fincham, Norfolk, of Earl Warren (Domesday): and according to the Testa di Nevill, Robert Brant possessed estates in the same county in the thirteenth century. Robert Bronde, Prior of Norwich, who repaired, if not rebuilt, the chancel of his church, bore Gules, a cat of mountain (or ounce) Argent, spotted Sable, "Sir Bertram Braundes," is mentioned by Robert of Gloucester among the Crusaders who were at the siege of Jaffa with Richard Coeur de Lion.

"King Richard the First with good intent
To that city of Jaffa went;
On morrow he sent after Robert Sakevile
And Sire William de Watervile,
Sire Hubert and Sire Robert de Turnham,
Sire Bertram Braundes and John de St. John.
Goth he sent to the Soudan,
And Sey myselfe a yen thrifty man
In the feilde y wolde with him fighte
For to doe yeme Godes righte; &c."

A knight of this name fell at Bosworth Field, "Sir William Brand was one of those who died; King Henry's standard he hevyed on hye, and vamisyd it, tyll with deathe's dent he was stryken downe."

This name (supposed to be of Danish origin) is borne by a Hertfordshire family that acquired the barony of Dacre towards the close of the last century. Gertrude Trevor, who succeeded her brother, the nineteenth Lord, as Baroness Dacre in 1794, had married in 1771 Thomas Brand, of the Hoo. Her younger grandson, Henry, was Speaker of the House of Commons from 1872 to 1884, and received in the latter year the title of Viscount Hampden.

Bronce :

or Bruis (Leland preserves the original spelling): from the castle of Brus or Bruis (now called Brix), near Cherbourg. The ruins of an extensive fortress built there in the eleventh century by Adam de Brus, and called after him Chateau d'Adam, yet remain. Robert de Brus was at the battle of Hastings, and held a great barony of ninety-four manors in Yorkshire (Domesday), where he built Skelton Castle. Either he or his son of the same name (from the dates probably the son, as it is scarcely likely that the elder Robert should have outlived the Conquest for seventy-five years) married Agnes daughter of Fulk de Paganell, who brought him as her dowry Hart and Hartnesse in the Bishopric of Durham, "the maritime key of the Palatinate." How he acquired Annandale and his great Scottish estates is not so clear. Some say they were a grant from David I., having from his youth been "a friend and familiar of the King of Scots" at the court of his brother-in-law Henry I.; others believe that his second wife was Agnes of Annan, a Scottish heiress. It was probably both as an old acquaintance and liegeman that he was sent to offer terms of peace to the Scottish king on his invasion of England in 1138, and it is curious to note, that he was associated in this embassy with Bernard de Baliol. On the king's refusal, these two barons, whose descendants were destined to be such deadly rivals, fought side by side at the Battle of the Standard, and were also soon after ranged under the same banners as partizans of the Scotch intruder Cumin. Bruce died in 1141, and was buried in the Abbey he had founded at Guisborough, leaving by his first wife two sons; Adam, founder of the elder line of Skelton, who was with his father at Cowton Moor: and Robert, whose posterity sat on the throne of Scotland.

The Lords of Skelton ended in the fifth generation with Peter de Brus, Constable of Scarborough Castle, who died in 1271. His four sisters divided the inheritance; and the extent of his territory may be estimated from the share allotted to each of them. That of Laderina, the youngest, is not specified: but the elder, Agnes, married to William de Fauconberg, had Skelton Castle and lands; Lucy, married to Marmaduke Thweng, had Danby with its chase and adjacent manors, and the whole forest of Vaux; while Margaret brought to her husband Robert de Ros the entire barony of Kendal.

Robert de Bruce, the younger son, received Annandale as his appanage, and "being thus a liegeman of the Crown of Scotland, he was taken prisoner in fair battle by his own father, who sent him to the English monarch: and he, struck probably with the extraordinary situation of the parties, and pleased with the good faith of the father, placed his captive once more at the disposal of his own parents. The story has yet a sequel: the young Lord of Annandale, amongst other familiar discourse, complained that his valley of Annan afforded no wheaten bread, and his father, to compensate for the privation, gave him the wheat-producing district of Hart and Hartness."—Surtees. It was the great grandson of this Robert that made the famous alliance with the blood royal of Scotland, through his wife Isabel, one of the co-heiresses of David Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of William the Lion: and in her right their son Robert, sixth of this hereditary name, formed one of the crowd of competitors for the Scottish throne that appeared on the death of the Maid of Norway in 1291. He had been one of the fifteen Regents of Scotland in 1255, and a faithful adherent of Henry III. throughout the Barons' War, having been taken prisoner while commanding the Scottish contingent with Baliol and Comyn at the battle of Lewes. When Edward I., the appointed umpire, decided in favour of Baliol's claim to the throne, he appears to have at once accepted the decision, and acknowledged the new king. The next Robert, who was several times summoned to parliament by Edward I., went with him in his earlier days to Palestine, and on his return chanced to meet the young Countess of Carrick (heiress of an Earl Neil killed in the Crusades), hunting in the woods near her castle of Turnbery, and she, seeing this "gallant young knight, handsome and courteous," just come back from the Holy Land with Prince Edward, fell in love with him at first sight, and invited him to be her guest. He was unwilling to comply, but she seized his bridle reins "with a gentle violence," led him to her castle, and within fifteen days became his wife. From that time he was Earl of Carrick, de jure uxoris, till the death of the Countess, when he passed on the title to his eldest son. Like his father, he acknowledged the title of Baliol, and remained through life the staunch liegeman of England. He even forfeited his Scottish estates by attending the King in the invasion of Scotland that followed Baliol's renunciation of allegiance in 1298, having had, it is said, some hopes held out to him of receiving the Scottish crown. But "when the prize was won, and Bruce reminded the King of his promise, the stern monarch turned round upon him, "Ne avons nous autres choses a faire que a, voz reaumes gagner?"

His son was of different metal. It is true that he, too, began by twice taking the oath of fealty to England; but he speedily stood forth as the chosen champion who was to achieve the independence of Scotland; and the heroic and romantic story of Robert the Bruce, crowned King at Scone in 1306, yet long a hunted fugitive in his own dominions, maintaining the stubborn and desperate struggle that closed with the glories of Bannockburn, stirs the heart of every Scotsman, and cannot need to be recalled here. He was twice married. His first wife, Isabel of Mar, brought him only a daughter named Marjory, by the second, Elizabeth de Burgh (the "proud English wife," who despised the homely Scottish court, and taunted him with being but "a summer's king"), he had one son, who succeeded him on the throne as David II., and whose marriage he had the triumph to "contract, en plein souverain, with the daughter of that English Edward who had so lately trampled the crown of Scotland in the dust."—Surtees. But Joan Plantagenet brought David no children. Nor did any of the Bruce's brothers leave any posterity. Edward, the second, was crowned King of Ireland in 1316, and killed at the battle of Dundalk two years afterwards; and the three others, Thomas, Alexander, and Nigel, all fell into the hands of the English, and were mercilessly put to death as traitors. One cousin remained—Sir John Bruce, the son of his uncle Sir Bernard, who was seated, at Exton in Rutlandshire: but he, too, left no heir save a daughter: and thus the royal male line of Bruce came to an early end. It was King Robert's eldest daughter, Princess Marjory, the wife of the Lord High Steward of Scotland, who eventually transmitted the crown to her son Robert II., and was the ancestress of the long line of Stuart kings, of whom one was destined to unite under his sceptre the rival kingdoms so long and so bitterly divided.

"A French queen shall bear the son,
Shall rule all Britain to the sea,
He of the Bruce's blood shall come,
As near as of the ninth degree."
—Thomas the Rhymer.

There were two other co-heiresses, the half-sisters of Marjory, born of her father's second marriage: first, the Princess Margaret, Countess of Sutherland, now represented by the Duke of Sutherland; next the Princess Maud, married to Thomas de Izac, from whom descended the Stuarts of Rossythe in Fife, and New Halls in West Lothian.

The still existing families that bear this proud name descend from a distant kinsman and namesake of Robert the Bruce, to whom David II. granted the castle and manor of Clackmannan, with some other manors, in 1359, by a charter in which he designates him as Dilecto et fideli consanguineo suo Roberto de Bruis. At what period these cousins had branched off from the parent stock is not known; but it cannot have been less than 140 years before that date, as they clearly made no claim to the succession, and did not therefore descend from Robert V., who married the Scottish princess Isabel, and succeeded his father as Lord of Annandale in 1215. This Sir Robert Bruce of Clackmannan had a very numerous posterity. From him came the Bruces of Kennet, represented by Lord Balfour of Burleigh; the Bruces of Blair Hall, whose chief is the Earl of Elgin: the Bruces of Airth, the Bruces of Stenhouse, &c. Their detailed pedigrees are given in Drummond's 'Noble British Families.'

The first Lord Elgin was the second son of Edward Bruce, created in 1603 Lord Bruce of Kinloss, and succeeded his elder brother (killed in a duel by Sir Edward Sackville) in the barony in 1613: ten years later he received his Earldom, and in 1641 an English peerage with the title of Lord Bruce of Whorlton. His son was made Earl of Aylesbury in 1664, but both these English creations expired on the death of Charles, third Earl of Aylesbury, and fourth Earl of Elgin, in 1774. This Earl Charles, having early lost his only son, obtained a fresh patent of his barony with remainder to his adopted heir, Thomas Brudenell (the youngest son of his sister Elizabeth, Countess of Cardigan), who consequently succeeded him as Lord Bruce of Tottenham in Wiltshire, was afterwards created Earl of Aylesbury, and was the father of the first Marquess of that name.

The Scottish honours passed to his heirs-general, the Bruces of Carnock, who had been since 1647 Earls of Kincardine; and thus Charles Bruce, who succeeded his namesake exactly a hundred years afterwards as fifth Earl of Elgin, was already the ninth Earl of Kincardine, and united the two Scottish titles now jointly borne by his descendants.

The name is still represented in France. "A branch of the Barons of Bruce continued in Normandy, and had a seat in the Exchequer, and the arms they quarter are the arms of Bruce of Annandale."—Sir F. Palgrave.

Burgh :

"They who assumed the surname of Burgh, or Burke, are descended from William Fitz-Adelm, steward of Henry II., and Governor of Wexford in Ireland."—Sir Egerton Brydges. This refers to the existing family, whose splendid pedigree, giving them "an Imperial Carlovingian descent in the male line, and a more dignified origin than the houses of Bourbon, Hanover, Saxony, Savoy, or Stuart," dates only from about the middle of the last century, when it appeared for the first time in an Irish peerage, and is utterly ignored by Dugdale and the older authorities. "Burgh" must here stand for Serlo de Burgh, a powerful Northern baron in the time of the Conqueror, who built Knaresborough Castle, and appears to have taken his name from the manor of Burgh,[59] in Yorkshire. He left no son, and was succeeded by his nephew Eustace Fitzjohn, who married two of the greatest heiresses in England, and founded the illustrious houses of De Vesci and De Lacy. (See Vescy and Lacy.)

Bushy :

or Bussy, as Leland gives it, from Buci, in Normandy. Robert de Buci held a great barony in Northamptonshire and Leicestershire in 1086 (Domesday): but left no heir save a daughter, married to Ralph Basset, Justiciary of England under Henry I. (Mon. ii. 190). Collateral branches were not, however, wanting; for, in the same reign, William Jordan, and Roger de Buyssy witness Walter Espec's foundation charter to Kirkham Priory. William was Espec's brother-in-law, the husband of Hawise, the eldest of the three sisters who became his co-heiresses; and their son, Jordan de Bussi, is mentioned in the time of Stephen, when he held his uncle Walter Espec's castle of Werke, "and gallantly repulsed the attack of William Fitz Duncan, King of Scots." Of his descendants I am unable to find any account, except that they held of Mowbray in the thirteenth century.—The Norman People. Dugdale mentions Roesia, daughter of Ralph FitzGilbert, and widow of William de Bussi, who re-married John de Buisli, temp. King John. Another William de Bussy occurs in Yorkshire about the year 1272.—Rotul. Hundred.

The first Jordan de Bussy, called, in the pedigree, the son of Lambert, founded a great Lincolnshire house, that lasted till the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign. There exists no county history to blazon their deeds of arms or count up their forfeitures: we are not informed on which side they fought during the Barons' War, or whether they wore the colours of York or Lancaster. They intermarried with the Paynells; with the heiress of Nevill of Scotton; and with a co-heir of John de Dive, whose mother was an Amundeville; but of the long line of knights one only stands out with any degree of individuality—Sir John, third of the name. He it was, who in the Parliament called together in September 1397—a parliament "packed with royal partizans"—stood up in his place to impeach one of the King's principal opponents. "Sir John Busshy accused Thomas de Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, of three-fold treason. To wit, I., granting the government of the realm, when he was Chancellor, to Thomas, Duke of Gloucester: II. under pretence of that commission, usurping Royal authority. By which usurpation, III. Sir Simon Burley and Sir James Barnes were traitorously murdered and put to death. Of which things," said Busshy, "your Commons demand judgement, worthy of so high treason, to be terribly pronounced by you; and because the Archbishop is a man of great consanguinite, affinitie, power, and most politike wit, and cruell nature, require he may be put into safe custodie, until the first execution of his judgement." The Archbishop was accordingly banished the realm, but when, two years afterwards, he returned in triumph with the new King, Henry of Lancaster, he had not forgotten his former accuser in the Commons, and Sir John Bussy's head fell on the block.

It has been said that an English family takes rank according to the number of its members that have been put to death for high treason: and it is not surprising to find Leland, about a century and a half later, speaking with veneration of this Sir John.

"The gentilmen communely caullid Busseyes cam with the Conqueror owt of Normandie.

"Bussey that was so greate in King Richard the 2. Dayes, and was behedid at Brightstow, had his principal Howse and Manor Place at Hougheham a 3. Myles from Granteham.

"Busse's Wife that was behedid at Brightstow lyith at Howheham, and diverse of the Busses in the same Paroche Chirche.

"Bussey now alive is the v. or vi. in Descent from great Bussey that was behedid, and is the last Heir Male of this Howse.

"This Bussey's Doughter and Heire is maried on the Sunne and Heire of Brightenel in Northamptonshir."

The heiress's husband was the uncle of the first Earl of Cardigan, Sir Edmund Brudenell of Dean, esteemed by Camden "an excellent improver and admirer of renowned antiquity." Agnes Bussy brought him Thisselton in Rutlandshire, and her paternal seat of Hougham, both of which, according to Collins, "remained in the family, though she died issueless." By another and more likely account, Hougham passed to her father's sister Joan, the wife of Thomas Meeres, of Kirton in Holland.

A junior line, the Bussys of Haydor, near Sleaford, had branched off from the main stock three generations before, and died out about the beginning of the seventeenth century. There was also a yeoman family of this name seated at Leverton, near Boston, in the preceding century, "but there is no evidence to shew their connexion with the great house of Hougham and Haydor."

Kirkham-Buci, in Sussex, belonged to the De Bucis, who held it from the twelfth to the fourteenth century, "and gave their name as a suffix, which has been ignorantly corrupted by sea."—Lower's Sussex. "Dom. Hugh de Buscy" occurs in the Hundred Rolls of 1272 as a landowner in Northumberland, Norfolk, Lincoln, Suffolk and Sussex; and may have been the father of Hugh de Bowcy, Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1340, whose co-heirs were two daughters—Sybil, married to Sir John de Islebon; and Joan, married to Sir William de Fyfhide. "John de Islebon and Sybil renounced, in favour of Sir William and Joan, their claim to the right of' the coat of arms, crest, and helmet' belonging to the late Hugh de Buci—a singular, though not unique, instance of this practice in heraldry during the Middle Ages."—Ibid. In 1300, Sir Hugh de Busseye, of Lincoln, bore Argent, three bars Sable.

Banet :

or Bavet, for Bavent, with which it corresponds in Leland's list. The name is so spelt in the Liber Niger, where Picot de Bavet is entered as holding one knight's fee in Norfolk of William de Albini. It was derived from Bavent, lying on the Dive, a little south of Varaville, in Normandy. "De Baudre de Bavent" was represented at the great Assembly of Norman nobles in 1789; and belonged to the Bailifry of Bayeux.

Another Norfolk mesne-lord appears in the Liber Niger, Hubert de Baduent, an undertenant of the Honour of Rie. From him descended Adam de Bavent, who in the following century obtained through his wife a share of the estate of William de Wiston in Sussex, and was the father of another Adam, married to Alice de Scudamore. The latter had died before 1292, when the wardship of his son Roger was in dispute between the King and William de Say; and the contest was revived fourteen years afterwards by William's son Geoffrey; the young heir being then still under age.

Roger de Bavent came from Sussex to the coronation of Edward II. (Palgrave's Parl. Writs): and was afterwards summoned to Parliament with tolerable regularity from 1313 till 1321, when, as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, the whole of his possessions were seized by the Crown. He recovered them at the general restoration of forfeitures on the accession of Edward III., and added to them an estate in Wiltshire; for in 1327 "he was found to be one of the heirs of John Lord Gifford of Brimsfield, viz: son of Alice (wife of Adam de Bavent), daughter of Peter Scudamore, son of Maud (wife of Godfrey Scudamore), one of the aunts of John the last Lord Gifford of Brimsfield." Two of these manors, Norton-Bavent, and Fifield-Bavent, still bear his name. He had the privilege of a weekly market and yearly fair at Marom in Lincolnshire, and Shipborne in Kent (the latter granted to his father in 1283), where Wrotham was held of him by the Colepepers.—v. Hasted's Kent. His successor, Roger II., made over to the King, in 1344, the whole of his estates in Wales, Dorset, Wilts, Surrey, Kent, and Sussex, with the reversion of a manor in Suffolk, and "all the other lands and tenements in England and Wales, which he then held in demesne, or which might come to him by right of inheritance, with the exception only of the manors of Chiltington and Sloghtree in the county of Sussex." This was merely to constitute the King his heir; for he soon after received a fresh grant of the lands for life. He died in 1355, leaving a son John, who (according to Dallaway) only survived him three years, and having no posterity, Eleanor his daughter, the wife of William de Braose, was her brother's heir. "From this Eleanor descended Beatrix de Braose (daughter of Peter, son of John, son of the said Eleanor) who, by death of her brother Sir John Braose, without issue, became heir of this line. She married Sir Hugh Shirley, who was Master of the Hounds to King Henry IV., and was slain, fighting on his part, at the battle of Shrewsbury.

"The present Marquess Townshend (1808) is her heir and representative."—Townsend's Additions to Dugdale's Baronage.

This is one account, given by Banks, and followed by Dallaway in his History of Sussex; but Dugdale substitutes for Roger II. Thomas de Bavent, who, in 1330, obtained a licence for a weekly market at Eston-Bavent, in Suffolk. He was succeeded by his son Peter, who died in 1370, leaving Eleanor and Cecily his daughters and heirs.

Banks adds yet another pedigree, which apparently belongs to a different line altogether, commencing with William Bavent of Bilsby (one of the Lincolnshire manors in which Roger I. had free warren), obt. 1252. Of him, in the fourth generation, came Peter Bavent, the last heir male, and the father of two daughters; Alianor, married to Marmaduke Lumley; and Elizabeth, married to William Chamberlain of Edlington.

"The several pedigrees of this family are so variant from each other, that to endeavour to reconcile them with the records would be an almost indefinite task, unless for any one who, in the character of heir-general, may conceive a baronial claim to be derivable under, and by virtue of the writs of summons before cited."—Banks.

It is clear the name did not expire with the barony, for we find two Bavents—Roger and John—among the esquires who were present at Agincourt in Lord Maltravers' train.

Blondell :

"This family came to England with' William Malet; and William Blondel in 1165 held three knight's fees of the Honour of the Malets at Eye (Liber Niger): and Robert de Crek held two more fees from Blondel. In Salop this family was seated before 1250 (Eyton). Sir Robert Blundell witnessed a charter of Abberbury Abbey there (Mon. i. 606)."—The Norman People. In Lancashire "the Blundells, from the time of the Conquest, are said to have been lords of Ince Blundell. William Blundell had a seat here in the reign of Henry III.; from him it descended to John Blundell, the plaintiff against John de Chatherton and Katherina his wife at Westminster in 49 Ed. III. for the manor of Ince juxta Sefton .... which the same John and Katherina remitted and quit-claimed to him and his heirs for ever, in consideration of 100 marks of silver. The pedigrees of this family are very obscure, and certainly not very accurate, for none of them notices this John, so incontestably proved by this instrument to have held Ince in the reign of Ed. III. In the pedigree of Blundell of Crosby, Alice, daughter of Nicholas Blundell, 4 Ed. III., and sister of Henry, living 26 Henry VI., is stated to be the first wife of——Blundell of Ince. As there is an interval of a century and a half between Nicholas and Henry, it is not improbable" (the gentle irony of this is delightful) "that the Crosby pedigree is also erroneous; but this is the first mention of the Ince branch in the family papers. After this nothing is certain until the time of Robert Blundell, who died 1763, and was succeeded in Lydiate and Lostock by Henry Blundell, who married Agnes, daughter of Sir George Mostyn, of Telacre in Flintshire, and died in 1810, aged eighty-six. His representative is Charles Blundell, Esq., owner of the greater part of the township, but the manorial rights are claimed by him and the Earl of Sefton."—Baine's Lancashire. Charles Blundell died s. p. in 1838. The Crosby line ended with Nicholas Blundell in 1737; and in 1772 the son of his second daughter, Frances Pippard, assumed the name and arms of Blundell, and is still represented. The grandfather of the last male heir, William Blundell of Crosby, was a captain of dragoons under Sir Thomas Tildesley, in the Royalist army of 1642, and had his thigh shattered by a musket shot at the assault on Lancaster. "My equipage for the war," he says in one of his letters, "was far above my fortune. But in the first day of my services, before I had mustered the 100 dragoons which I was, by commission, raising, I lost the use of my limbs by a shot, and could never recover them since." The 'Note Book' of this gallant Cavalier, published in 1880, shows him to have been a man of sense and wit, a strict Catholic, and honourable, true and loyal to the core. He lost his father when he was eleven years old, and his grandfather, anxious to re-settle the estate during his own lifetime (for two-thirds of the landed property of recusants then lay absolutely at the mercy of the Crown), married him at fifteen to a daughter of Sir Thomas Haggerston, of Northumberland. "You will remember," he writes in after years to his mother-in-law, "what a pretty, straight young thing, all dashing in scarlet, I came to Haggerston." Anne Haggerston proved an exemplary wife. "And now," he says in another letter, "when I speak of your ark, I must here acknowledge that the dove which was sent from thence, some 30 years ago, hath saved from sinking our little cock-boat at Crosby[60] in many a storm." His troubles commenced betimes; for he was barely twenty-two when he became a cripple for life, nicknamed Halt-Will by his tenants; and upon this first misfortune followed the plunder of almost all his goods, and the sequestration of his lands, which continued for ten long years. "Thus," says he, "I was in the prime of my youth confined to my plundered bare walls and a pair of crutches;" but it was, he adds emphatically, "for the noblest cause in the world." He was four times imprisoned during the Commonwealth; once for ten weeks in "a loathsome prison" at Liverpool; and twice paid ransom, till at length he never ventured near his own home, from the fear of being again apprehended. Crosby was left in charge of his wife and sister; and so exposed were these poor women "while the war lasted, to domiciliary visits, in which the soldiers carried off anything they could lay their hands on, that they were obliged to bury their bread from meal to meal." At length, in 1653, he obtained leave to compound for his estate, that is, to re-purchase his own life interest in it with money borrowed from his friends; and in addition found himself saddled with arrears of rent due to the Crown (arising from frequent grants for recusancy), some of which dated back to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and were detailed in a portentous bill—a roll twenty feet long—that is still shown at Crosby. The Restoration brought him no compensation and he in fact remained, on account of his religion, constantly more or less under suspicion, and sometimes under persecution, to the end of his life. He writes in 1679, "I was troubled a little some months agoe to see my trusty old sword taken from me (wch had been my companion when I lost my limbs, my lands, my liberty for acting against the rebels in the King's behalf) by an officer appointed for ye purpose, who in that former old war had been a captain against the King." He underwent his fifth term of imprisonment in 1689, and died in 1698, an old man fast approaching eighty. It is remarkable that though he loved books, and was himself an author, with a talent for poetry, he appears never to have read Shakespeare, and only knew (and heartily disliked) the prose writings of Milton.

One of these Blundells settled in Bedfordshire, where the name is found in a list of the principal gentry of the county in the time of Henry VI. Fuller, in quoting this catalogue from an ancient record, says, "Hungry Time has made a glutton's meal on this catalogue of gentry, and hath left but a little morsel, for manners, remaining; so few of these are found extant in this shire, and fewer continuing in genteel equipage; among whom I must not forget the family of the Blundells, whereof Sir Edward Blundell behaved himself right valiantly in the unfortunate expedition to the isle of Roe." This was the expedition to the isle of Rhee, under the Duke of Buckingham. The family thence migrated to Ireland. Francis, brother and heir of Sir George Blundell, of Cardington, Bedfordshire, was appointed Irish Secretary in 1619, created a baronet in 1620, and had a grant of a manor in the Queen's County, to which he gave his own name. Sir Montague, his great grandson, was raised to the peerage of Ireland in 1720 as Baron of Edenderry and Viscount Blundell, but left no surviving son to inherit his titles on his death in 1756. One of his daughters was the grandmother of Mary, Baroness Sandys, who became the wife of the second Marquess of Down shire.

In Lancashire the old name is affixed not only to Ince-Blundell, but to Blundellsands, near Liverpool.

Breton :

Brito, or Le Breton. No less than nine of this name appear in Domesday Book: all of them probably Breton knights that had followed the fortunes of Alain-le-Roux or his kinsmen. Alured Brito held of the King a barony of twenty-two lordships in Devonshire: Gozelin another in Bucks, Gloucester, and Bedfordshire; Oger one in Leicester and Lincoln; Rainald one in Sussex; Tihel one in Essex and Norfolk; Waldeve one in Lincoln and Cheshire; and Maigno or Manno Brito one in Bucks and Leicestershire. Two others, Roger and William, were mesne-lords in Somerset and Huntingdon. It would seem an endless—not to say a hopeless—task to disentangle the genealogies of all these various adventurers from Brittany; the more so as many of them probably assumed the name of their manors. This was the case with Richard Brito's descendants in Nottinghamshire. Annesley, part of the great fee held by Ralph FitzHerbert at the time of Domesday, was held under him by "one Richard, who probably was father or ancestor of Ralph called Brito, who, together with his son Reginald de Anesleia, gave the church of Felley to the Priory of St. Cuthbert de Radford, near Worksop, in the year 1158."—Thoroton's Notts. From him descended Francis Annesley, first Viscount Valentia, temp. James I., and the Earls of Anglesey, Mountmorris, and Annesley. Maigno Brito, the Buckinghamshire baron, was the ancestor of the Wolvertons of Stoke-Hamond (one of his manors mentioned in Domesday), where they continued for a considerable time.—Lysons.

Banks enumerates several "persons of great eminence" bearing this name among his Barones Pretermissi. Amongst them are Ranulph Briton, of Northamptonshire, Chancellor to Henry III., as well as to his Queen, who died of apoplexy about 1247; John Briton, Bishop of Hereford, one of the King's Justices in the same reign; another John, seated in Norfolk, who affixed his name to Edward I.'s memorable letter to the Pope as Johannes le Briton, Dominus de Sporle; and William Breton, whose identity has never been satisfactorily established, who had a writ of military summons to attend the King at Newcastle in 1295.

Morant informs us that the surname of the "Tihell Brito" of Domesday was De Helion, and that he founded a flourishing and richly-endowed family in Essex, which gave the name to their seat of Bumsted-Helion. Their barony was, however, subjected by the Empress Maud to Alberic de Vere, Earl of Oxford. The last heir-male, John Helion, whose mother, a very great heiress, had brought the estates of the Swinburnes and Bottetourts, died 28 Hen. VI. He had himself acquired Gosfield Hall through his wife, Alice Rolf; and the whole accumulated inheritance centred on his second daughter, Isabella Tyrell; the eldest, who had married Sir Thomas Montgomery, of Falkborn Hall, being childless.

Bluat :

or Bloet; Bluett in Leland's list; from Briqueville-la-Blouette, in Normandy. This name was still represented there in the last century. "Blouet de Cahagnolles," belonging to the Bailiwick of Caen, sat in the great Assembly of the Norman nobles in 1789. Richard Blouet is on the Dives Roll; and Ralph Bloiet was an undertenant in Hampshire in 1086. He is mentioned in the Monasticon Anglicanum (lb. i. 118) as a benefactor to Gloucester Abbey. Robert Blouet was Bishop of Winchester in the time of William the Conqueror. (Order. Vit. 763). The family long remained of eminence in the West of England; and Collins, misled by an Elizabethan herald, Hervey, Clarencieux-King-of-Arms in 1584 (the epoch of mendacious genealogies), claims for their ancestor the title of Earl of Sarum or Salisbury. This is a purely gratuitous assumption, as there is no record of any prior grant of the Earldom that was bestowed by the Empress Maud on Patrick D'Evreux early in the twelfth century.

The son or grandson of this fabled Earl, Sir Roland Bluet, became Lord of Raglan in right of his wife Lucretia, and his posterity held the castle for several generations. William Bluett was summoned with other barons to march against the Welsh in 1256. Another descendant acquired Holcombe Rogus, Devonshire, by marriage with a co-heiress of Chiselden in the fifteenth century; and a third (the younger brother of a Sir Roger Bluett, who died in 1566), married a Cornish heiress, the daughter of Roger Colan, and "from him," says Gilbert, "all the Bluetts of Cornwall are since descended." There must, however, have been an earlier connection with the county, for I find John Bluett served as Sheriff 21 Henry VI. The direct line of the Devonshire branch ended in 1656 with another John Bluett, who is said to have owned one of the largest estates in the West, and left four daughters, married into the families of Jones, Wallop, Louthall, and Basset. They have been generally called his co-heiresses; but it is clear that Halcombe, at least, passed to a cousin of the same name, the son of his uncle Francis, who had been killed at the siege of Lyme in 1644. This cousin died s. p. in 1700, the last heir male of the elder line, and bequeathed his estate to the representative of the Cornish branch, Robert Bluett of Colan. Robert's son Buckland again proved childless, and "made a long but fruitless search to ascertain the existence of any male descendants of his family. One Roger Bluett (the son of Sir Roger's youngest son Nicholas) had five sons living at the time of the Visitation of 1620, but no trace could be found of this branch."—Lysons. At length, in default of evidence, he had to accept "the presumption that Peter Bluett, then of Falmouth, might be descended from one of the sons of a half-brother of Colan Bluett, who lived in the early part of the seventeenth century," and left him Holcombe Court at his death in 1786. It is still held by his posterity.

I find mention of several other branches of this old house. There was one in Somersetshire, seated at Hinton Blewett, where they held one knight's fee of Le Despencer, and continued as late as 38 Henry VIII. (vide Collinson). In Hampshire, Ralph Bluet of Anne occurs during the fourteenth century.

In Leicestershire an earlier "Ralph Bloet was seized of the manor of Daglingworth, temp. Henry II.; which King had a natural son by the wife of Ralph. This son was named Morgan, and was elected Bishop of Durham, but was denied a dispensation by the Pope, as the canons require in case of bastardy, because he persisted to own himself the King's son, and not Bloet's, and so lost his bishopric."—Nichol's Leicestershire. His descendant Ralph, forfeited his estate for rebellion under Edward II.; but was restored on the accession of Edward III. Sir John, his son, left an heiress named Elizabeth, married to James de Berkeley, who died 6 Henry IV. Daglingworth had been in the family for two hundred and fifty years.

Baious :

Bayous in Duchesne's copy; for De Bayeux, from the town of that name. "Ranulph de Bayeux was one of the Proceres of Normandy, 1050, in rebellion against Duke William (Ord. Vitalis). His descendants were great barons in Lincoln. The name continued long as Bayouse, Beyouse, and at last Bews."—The Norman People. Dugdale commences their pedigree with Ranulph de Bayeux, who temp. Henry I. had great possessions in Lincolnshire "whereof five Knight's Fees were held of him by Peter de Gosla (alias Gousel) who, towards the latter end of that King's Reign founded the first Abbey of the Praemonstratensian Order in this Realm, called Newhus." Both he and his son Hugh were benefactors of this Abbey. The latter died in the early part of Richard Coeur de Lion's reign, when "Alianor his Widow gave a fine of c Marks, that she might, with the consent of her Friends, marry unto whom she liked best." John the next in succession, was the last of the family that held the barony, for though he had a brother named Stephen, his two daughters were his heirs, of whom one was granted in marriage by the King to Elyas de Rabayne. But "under colour of that Grant, this Elyas took the other Daughter, and carried her beyond Sea, to the intent that he might as well defraud the King of the Custody of the moiety of that Barony, as the other Coheir of her Inheritance. The King, therefore, sent his Precept to the Sheriffs of Somerset, Dorset, and Lincoln Shires" to seize the lands. How the matter ended does not clearly appear. Backwell-Bayouse, in Somersetshire, and Waybayouse (now Upway) in Dorsetshire, take their name from this family.

Browne :

"a name, I suspect, of long subsequent date."—Sir Egerton Brydges. Undoubtedly so, in its present modernized guise; but as Le Brun or Brunnus, it frequently occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of the twelfth century, and is several times written in Domesday. William le Brun held in Suffolk; and Bruno (perhaps the same) in Warwickshire: besides "Brun presbyter" in Oxfordshire. Yet it would be presumptuous to pronounce all the Brownes to be of Norman lineage,[61] for they are so preponderant, that in one single year (1838), 5585 births, marriages, and deaths, were registered among them: and twenty-one different families "have received from the Sovereign hereditary titles of nobility."—Sir Bernard Burke.

Of these, the most considerable—that of the Viscounts Montague—was an offset of the great Norman house of La Ferte, who held the barony of La Ferte (now La Ferte Fresnel) near Evreux. Hugh de la Ferte is mentioned by Wace at Hastings. Richard de la Ferte accompanied Robert of Normandy to Palestine in 1096, and his youngest son, Gamel, surnamed Le Brun (according to family tradition to distinguish him from a brother called Le Blond), settled in Cumberland, where he had baronial grants from Waldeve FitzGospatric, and his descendants long flourished, the name gradually changing to Broyne, Broun, or Browne. Anthony, a younger son of Robert le Broun, knight of the shire for Cumberland 1317-1339, settled in London, became a rich merchant, and was created a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Richard II., as a reward for having lent the King a very large sum of money, and then generously cancelled the bond. He left two sons, Sir Robert and Sir Stephen, the latter of whom became Lord Mayor of London in 1439. The eldest, Sir Robert, of Beechworth, in Surrey, was the ancestor of the baronets of Beechworth, extinct in 1690; and of Anthony Browne, the fortunate cadet with whom the promotion of the family began. He was "Standard Bearer throughout the whole realm of England and elsewhere" under Henry VII.: Esquire of the Body to the King, Constable of Queenborough, and carried away one of the chief matrimonial prizes of the day, Lady Lucy Nevill, the fourth of the great Montague heiresses, and widow of Sir Thomas FitzWilliam.

Their son, a second Sir Anthony, was an able and astute courtier, who, throughout the reign of Henry VIII., stood high in the favour and confidence of his master, and served him faithfully and efficiently. "The times," says Lloyd, "were dark: his carriage so too: the waves were boisterous; but he, the solid rock, or the well-guided ship that could go with the tide." He was knighted at the siege of Morlaix in 1523; in 1525 appointed an Esquire of the King's Body; then Master of the Horse for life—"an eminent office" in those days—in 1539, and a Knight of the Garter in 1540. He attended the King to the Field of the Cloth of Gold, where he had the credit of unhorsing the French King in a joust, and was his proxy at the marriage ceremony with Anne of Cleves.[62] At the Dissolution of the Monasteries, he received the splendid gift of Battle Abbey, once "the pledge and token of the royal crown," with the lion's share of his possessions. The story goes, that when he was holding his house-warming in the Abbot's Hall with great rejoicings and festivity, a monk suddenly made his appearance in the midst of the guests, strode up to the dais, and pronounced a solemn malediction upon the spoliator of the Church. He warned Sir Anthony that the curse would cleave to his remotest posterity, and foretold the special doom that was to be their temporal punishment. "By fire and water," he cried, "your line shall come to an end, and perish out of the land!" This prophecy sunk deep in the minds of men; for it was still well remembered and current in the county, when it came to pass after the lapse of two hundred and fifty years.

In 1542, another great estate accrued to him by the death of his half-brother, William FitzWilliam, Earl of Southampton, from whom he inherited (with Easebourne Priory, Waverley Abbey, and some other Church lands), the beautiful domain of Cowdray in West Sussex, where a stately mansion had just been built. He had himself commenced a great manor-house at Battle, and when, in 1547, he was found to be one of the executors of Henry VIII.'s will, and the guardian of his two younger children, he added a wing for the reception of the Princess Elizabeth, who it was proposed should take up her abode with him. But he died, before it was completed, in the following year. He had married Alice, daughter of Sir John Gage; and when left a widower at the ripe age of sixty, obtained the hand of a beautiful and high-born girl of fifteen, Lady Elizabeth Fitzgerald—Surrey's "fair Geraldine."

His eldest son (by his first wife) was created Viscount Montague by Queen Mary, on the occasion of her marriage with Philip of Spain. She further appointed him her Master of the Horse, and gave him the Garter in 1555. He was through life a zealous and uncompromising Roman Catholic, resolutely refusing to vote for the abolition of the Pope's supremacy at the accession of Elizabeth; yet, when the realm was threatened with invasion, and some of his co-religionists were having masses said for the success of the Armada, he was "the first that showed his bands to the Queen" at Tilbury. He was "very sickly and in age," but came ready to hazard his life, and all else he had to give, in her quarrel, bringing with him about two hundred horsemen, "led by his two sons, and with them a young child, very comely, seated on horseback, being the heir of his house, that is, the eldest son of his son and heir."

Three years later, during one of her summer progresses in Sussex, Elizabeth spent six days with him at Cowdray, and was magnificently entertained, with the usual pageants and compliments. There exists a long and detailed account of this Royal visit, where we find it noted that on Sunday morning three oxen and one hundred and forty geese were consumed at breakfast; and on the Thursday following the Queen dined at a table "48 yardes long, in the privie walks of the garden."

The good old Viscount died in the ensuing year, and was succeeded by the "comely child" his grandson, Anthony Mary, whom, Horace Walpole includes among his "Royal and Noble Authors," on the strength of a voluminous "Booke of Orders and Rules for the better Direction and Government of my Household and Family," that he compiled when he came of age. It furnishes a very curious picture of a nobleman's establishment in 1595. The number of retainers is prodigious; thirty-seven "Principal Officers" are enumerated, many of whom had subordinates under them; the first fourteen being "Gentlemen by birth," the next two "Gentlemen by Office," and the rest "Yeomen Officers." Nor does this long list include other servants incidentally mentioned, such as "Butler, Pantler, Housekeeper, Footemen, Caters (Caterers), Gentlemen's servants, Boys of the Kytchen," &c. &c, besides "Gentlewomen," and the necessary complement of "Chambermaydes" and "Lawnderers." The etiquette observed would not have disgraced the Court of Louis XIV. Lord Montague never left the house without having one, at least, of the Gentlemen of his Chamber, and several Yeomen of his Chamber and Gentlemen Waiters in "diligent attendance": if he rode out, the Gentleman of the Horse helped him into his saddle, while the Yeoman of the Horse held his stirrup, and a footman stood at his horse's head. When he and his wife took a journey, the entire household, headed by the Steward, rode in array before him, always bare-headed when they passed through a town or village, followed by his "brethren, children, and uncles," with all the parade of a royal progress. He could not sit down to any meal till a minute and august ceremonial had been gone through, the observances commencing with the cookery, for the Clerk of the Kitchen is enjoined to suffer "none to stand unseemely with his back to my meate when it is at the range." Even the dinner table was an object of reverence; the Yeomen of the Ewry only approached it with three low obeisances, and kissed it respectfully before laying the cloth. The dinner and supper were brought in by a long and solemn procession, heralded, on important occasions, by the Marshall of the Hall, followed by the Steward and Comptroller, bearing their white wands of office, and all stood up uncovered as they crossed the hall. The rest of the household took their meals at six different tables, divided according to their rank by the most punctilious rule of precedence. Finally, at night, a Gentleman of the Chamber lighted his Lord to his room, and tucked him up in bed.

Unfortunately for Lord Montague, Guy Fawkes had twice been—though for a short time only—a member of this over-grown household; and on the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, he was sent to the Tower as an accomplice. His father-in-law, Lord Dorset, interceded in his behalf, and succeeded, it is said, in mitigating his sentence, though he was condemned to pay a fine of £4000; and suffer imprisonment during the King's pleasure.

His son was further impoverished by his loyalty during the Civil War, when his estates were sequestered, and Cowdray was garrisoned and somewhat misused by Sir William Waller. He was obliged to dispark the Great Park at Battle, and his successor, again in want of ready money, pulled down the great conventual kitchen for the sake of the materials. The Abbey itself was disposed of by the sixth Viscount, who sold it in 1719 to Sir Thomas Webster. The next Lord, who married a Methodist of Lady Huntingdon's sect, was the first of the family that seceded from the Church of Rome; and it was accordingly on his only son and heir that the monk's curse lighted. This eighth Viscount Montague was drowned in the Rhine in September 1793, when only twenty-four years of age. He was on a boating expedition with his friend Mr. Sedley Burdett, and made a fool-hardy attempt to shoot the falls of Laufenberg, in which they both lost their lives. They had been duly advised of the danger of the venture, and entreated not to risk it; but warning and persuasion were alike disregarded. At the last moment, as they were stepping into their boat, Lord Montague's servant clutched his collar, crying "My lord—my lord! the curse of water!" but he wrenched himself free, and sprang away out of reach. The boat capsized in the second wave of the Laufen, and the two gentlemen, with their dog, were seen swimming gallantly through the surges, till all disappeared in the vortex under the Oelberg. The Rhine is there one hundred feet deep, and though large rewards were more than once offered, the bodies could never be recovered.

The messenger that carried these heavy tidings to England crossed another hurrying out to inform the poor young Viscount of a dire calamity that had befallen him at home. On the night of September 24, 1793, Cowdray House was burnt to the ground. It was conjectured that some careless workmen had left a pan of smouldering charcoal behind in the great gallery; at all events the fire, however caused, spread so rapidly and devouringly that scarcely anything could be saved. Pictures, carvings, tapestries, frescoes, and furniture—the accumulated treasures of generations—all perished together in the flames, and the curse pronounced upon the sacreligious Sir Anthony was fulfilled to the very letter. By flood and by fire his house had been overthrown, and come to its appointed end. It is true that one heir male was left, a distant cousin, then an old bachelor, who bore the title for four years, but it expired at his death in 1797.

With the extinction of the family in the male line, it might have been supposed that the curse had done its work, and would thenceforward no longer rest on the doomed inheritance. But the saddest part of the tragedy is yet to be told.

Cowdray had passed to the only sister of the poor young man drowned at Laufenberg, Elizabeth Mary, married in 1794 to Stephen Poyntz of Midgeham in Berkshire, by whom she had a family of two sons and three daughters. In the summer of 1815, Mr. and Mrs. Poyntz were staying with their children at Bognor, and two Miss Parrys, the daughters of Admiral Parry, who were relations of hers, were on a visit to them. One fine, warm day, Mr. Poyntz proposed a boating excursion, and, with these ladies and his two sons, put out to sea in a little skiff, managed by a boatman and his boy. Mrs. Poyntz, who is said to have had a superstitious dread of going on the water, declined accompanying him, and, as the evening approached, was sitting at the window watching them on their return home. They were close in shore, when a sudden squall struck the sail and upset the boat, and the wretched mother saw her two sons drowned literally before her eyes. For some time they clung to their father's coat, who had managed to lay hold of the capsized boat; but, whether from cramp or terror, their strength failed them, and poor Mr. Poyntz, unable to assist them, had the agony of feeling one after the other let go, and drop back into the sea. The two Miss Parrys and the sailor's lad were also drowned, but Mr. Poyntz was rescued by the boatman; and of the merry party that had set out together that morning, they returned the sole survivors. This terrible event was at once put to the account of the accursed inheritance of Cowdray; and there had, in truth, been evil auguries abroad long before it happened. Croker writes in 1831: "When I visited the ruins of Cowdray twenty years ago, I was reminded (in addition to other stories[63]) that the curse of both fire and water had fallen on Cowdray, and the good folks of the neighbourhood did not scruple to prophesy that it would turn out a fatal inheritance. At that period, the present possessor, Mr. Poyntz, who had married Lord Montague's heiress, had two sons, who seem destined to inherit Cowdray: but on July 7, 1815, these young gentlemen, boating off Bognor with their father, on a very fine day, the boat was unaccountably upset, the two youths perished, and thus were once more fulfilled the forebodings of superstition."

The three daughters, thus become co-heiresses, divided the property between them, and Cowdray was sold in 1843. Frances Elizabeth, the eldest, married first Robert, eighteenth Lord Clinton, and secondly Sir Horace Seymour; the second, Elizabeth Georgiana, married Frederick, fourth Earl Spencer; and the youngest, Isabella, married Brownlow, second Marquess of Exeter. The two latter narrowly escaped sharing their brother's fate. Lady Clinton had married in the preceeding year, and was not with them; but the younger sisters were both to have joined the boating party, had Lady Exeter been ready in time. She had often been too late before, and as their father was rigidly punctual, her sister Elizabeth remained behind with her to share the blame, and Mr. Poyntz fortunately declared that he would not wait for them.

Dallaway, in his History of Sussex, mentions that, "a branch of this family, according to uncertain tradition, was settled in Ireland in 1565; the ancestor having accompanied Sir H. Sydney, Lord Deputy, from whom the present Marquess of Sligo is descended." This ancestor, Thomas Browne, of whose descent the peerages furnish no details, was seated in Mayo, where his son—the first sheriff of the county—lost his life in an affray with the native Irish, and his posterity continues to the present day. John Browne, created a baronet in 1632, had two sons, Sir George, and John: from the elder are derived the Viscounts Kilmaine; from the younger, the Marquesses of Sligo.

Beke :

This great Norman house was divided into two branches, that gave their name to Bec-Crespin and Bec-en Caux, and claimed to descend from Duke Rollo's daughter Crispina, the wife of Grimaldi, Prince of Monaco. Their coat of arms, "Fuselee d'argent et de gueules," was that of the Grimaldis. Other authorities derive them from Amfrid the Dane, whose son Turstin Goz is given as the common ancestor of the house of Avranches, Earls of Chester, and the Barons of Bec-Crespin, hereditary Constables of Normandy, and Castellans of Tillieres. Again, Dugdale asserts that Walter Bec, the progenitor of the Lords Beke of Eresby, had "a fair inheritance in Flanders"; in this following a pedigree furnished by Glover in 1582.[64] It is in some respects unreliable; for it further affirms that Walter Bec received Eresby by gift of the Conqueror, whereas in reality it was only acquired one hundred years afterwards. Two of the name are found in Domesday; Goisfrid de Bec, a great baron in Hertfordshire; and Walter Bec, a small sub-tenant in Buckinghamshire. From one or other of these—to judge by the Christian name, most likely the latter—descended another Walter Bec, who married the heiress of Hugh Fitz Pinco, entered in the Liber Niger as holding seven knight's fees in Lincolnshire of the Bishop of Durham. She brought the estate said to have been the gift of the Conqueror; and her great grandson John was summoned to Parliament as Lord Beke of Eresby in 1295. The succesion is distinctly set forth in a charter by which this Lord of Eresby confirms all the grants made by his ancestors to Kirksted Abbey, from the time of its foundation in 1139. Therein are mentioned "Hugo films Pincionis abavus meus";—"Walterus Beke, proavus meus";—"Agnes filia Hugonis filii Pincionis, quondam uxor predicti Walteri Beke";—"Henricus Beke avus meus;"—and "Walterus Beke pater meus."

The first Walter and the heiress of Eresby had four sons; of whom Hugh, the first-born, died on his return from the Crusade of 1189, unmarried: and Henry, the next, "being weak of understanding, his brothers divided the inheritance with him." These were:—Walter, seated at Lusceby in Lincolnshire, whose grandson and namesake was Constable of Lincoln Castle in the time of Henry III. and Edward I.: and Thomas, a priest. The weak-minded heir, however, found a well born and richly dowered bride, and was the father of Walter II., with whose three sons, John, Thomas, and Anthony, the succession closed.

John was, as I have said, a peer of the realm, with the grant of a yearly market and fair at Spilsby, and license to make a castle at Eresby. He died, a very old man, in 1303, the year after his only son, on whose death he adopted his grandson Robert de Willughby, and made over to him Eresby and the other estates. Robert was the son of the eldest of his two daughters, Alice, wife of William de Willughby, of Willughby in Lincolnshire, and was summoned to Parliament as Lord Willoughby de Eresby in 1313. His descendants in the male line held the barony till 1525, when it passed through an heiress to the Berties,[65] from whom it has been transferred by the Burrells to the Heathcotes. Lord Beke's other co-heiress, Margery, married Richard de Harcourt, of Stanton-Harcourt, in Oxfordshire.

His two younger brothers, Thomas and Anthony, were both of them princes of the Church. Thomas was Chancellor of Oxford in 1269, Lord Treasurer of England in 1279, and Bishop of St. David's in 1280: but his fame was utterly eclipsed by that of his magnificent brother Anthony, Prince-Bishop of Durham, one of the chief potentates of his age, and "the prowdest Lorde in Christientie." "No man in all the Realm, except the King, did equal him for habit, behaviour, and military pomp: and he was more versed in State affairs than in ecclesiastical duties; ever assisting the King most powerfully in his wars; having sometimes in Scotland 26 Standard Bearers, and of his ordinary Retinue 140 Knights, so that he was thought to be rather a temporal Prince than a priest or Bishop."—Dugdale. As Prince Palatine, there was not, in point of fact, a single attribute of sovereignty that did not belong to him. He levied taxes; raised troops; sate in judgment of life and death; coined money; instituted corporations by charter; created Barons, who formed his council or Parliament, and granted fairs and markets. He was Lord High Admiral of the seas or waters within or adjoining the Palatinate; impressed ships for war; and had Vice-Admirals and Courts of Admiralty. Nor was aught wanting of the state and dignity of Royalty. Nobles addressed him only on bended knee; and knights waited bare-headed in his presence-chamber. His wealth was enormous, and his expenditure as magnificent as his income. He was a great builder. Besides his own collegiate chapel at Bishop's Auckland, he founded the two great collegiate churches of Chester-le-Street and Lanchester in his diocese of Durham; he built the castle of Somerton, near Lincoln, and the Manor of Eltham; re-built and castellated Auckland: "buildyed or renewyd Kensington, and gave it to King or Prince": and added greatly both to Alnwick and Barnard Castle. Another of his erections was his palace in London, Duresme Place. The lavish splendour of his household was proverbial. He is known to have given forty shillings (about £80 of our money) for as many fresh herrings in Lent:—and once, hearing that it had been said of some costly stuff offered for sale, "This cloth is so dear that even Bishop Anthony would not venture to pay for it," he immediately ordered the whole to be bought and cut up into horse-cloths. Yet his own mode of life was rigidly austere. Like his great predecessor, St. Cuthbert, he was never known to look a woman full in the face, always rose from his meals with an appetite, and never took but one sleep, saying that it did not become a man to turn himself in bed.

His chief delight was in war and feats of arms, for he was every inch a soldier; and the little army marching under the banner of St. Cuthbert was foremost in all Edward I.'s Scottish expeditions. None but himself was ever suffered to lead it in the field; and on one occasion, whilst fighting in the melee at the battle of Falkirk, he was met by the cry, "To your mass, O priest!" Langtoft's rhyming Chronicle praises his activity and boldness of heart:

"Le eveske de Duram, ke mout fet a loer,
En conquerant la tere fu tuzjours li primer."

He "never left the precincts of his castle but in magnificent military array" r and a short-bladed sword inscribed with his name is still preserved at Auckland. Edward I. appointed him Constable of the Tower, and frequently employed him on embassies. When, as his ambassador to Rome, he brought a Royal gift of some vessels of pure gold to the Pope, "His Holiness, taking especial notice of his courtly behaviour and magnanimity of spirit, advanced him to the title of Patriarch of Jerusalem." He died in 1310, and was the first Bishop ever buried in Durham Cathedral, where he rests in the chapel of the Nine Altars. Before his time none had ever ventured to be laid near the sacred grave of St. Cuthbert; and such was the superstitious dread of the people, that at his funeral they did not dare to bring in the body through the church doors, but introduced it furtively through a whole broken in the wall for that purpose. This breach is, I believe, still visible. His heir was his nephew Robert, Lord Willoughby de Eresby.

It is remarkable that three other prelates—all of them collateral descendants of the House of Eresby, are found within the next half century, viz.: Thomas, elected Bishop of Lincoln in 1319, who died a few months afterwards; Anthony, "made Bishop of Norwich by the Pope's mandate in 1337, who, being as proud and overbearing as his 'magnanimous' namesake and kinsman, but without his good qualities, was poisoned by his servants in 1343"; and Thomas, third of the name, who again was Bishop of Lincoln. The first Thomas—Lord Beke's brother—"died in 1293, and as the last Thomas was elected to the see of Lincoln in 1342, it follows that there was no less than five bishops of the same name and family living within the brief period of half a century—a fact unparalleled in the history of the Anglican, perhaps even of the whole Catholic Church."—Herald and Genealogist, vol. vii., p. 453. A John Beke was Vice Chancellor of Oxford 1450-52. Beke's Inn, in that city, existed until the beginning of the sixteenth century.

Further ramifications of the family are to be met with. In 1156, Everard de Bec, and Alan de Bec (then a minor) held lands in Cambridge of Hugh de Dovres (Lib. Niger). Hugh Beke, a contemporary of Walter I., Lord of Eresby in right of his wife, married, like him, an heiress, who brought him Livingsbourne (since Bekesbourne), a chief member of the Cinque-port of Hastings, which he held in grand serjeanty of the King by the service of furnishing one ship. (Testa de Nevill.) "Bekesbourne appears to have passed into other hands about the end of the thirteenth century; but the name is met with in the neighbourhood about the beginning of the fifteenth century, from which time down to the present day the descent of the family is to be regularly traced.—Ibid.

Bickard :

"Nicholas de Bichar" witnesses a charter of William de Granavilla to Gateshead: and was, without doubt, the same Nicholas, mentioned in the Rot. Cur. Northumbriae, who was Lord of Byker, near Newcastle, in the reign of Henry III. This manor was anciently held in grand serjeancy, by carrying the King's writ between the rivers Tyne and Coquet, and making distresses of goods for the King's debts.—Hutchinson's Northumberland. The family continued there till 1346. Richard de Bicker was summoned to attend the great Council at Westminster in 1324.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs.

The name is found at a rather earlier date in Lincolnshire, where Gerard de Bikere occurs in the Rotul. Cancellarii of 1202, and was presumably the owner of Bicker, "a very ancient and pleasant village, nine miles from Folkingham." But in this, as in the foregoing case, it seems most probable that the lord adopted the name of his manor, instead of imposing upon it his own; and if so, it can only be an interpolation with which we have no need to concern ourselves. Nevertheless it is noteworthy that we meet with it in other localities. Peter Becard, of Yorkshire, and William Bikere, of Bedfordshire, were living in the time of Edward I. (Rotul. Hundredorum). John Becard is included in the list of the gentlemen of Nottinghamshire made in 1433.

Banastre :

from Banastre, now Beneter, near Etampes. Camden, however, "derives the name from Balneator, Master of the Bath, which conjecture is countenanced by the old Banastre arms of two water buckets."—Bain's Lancashire. It still survives as Bannister. An ancient pedigree of this family, preserved in a petition on the Rolls of Parliament, begins with Robert Banastre, who came over at the Conquest, and held Prestatyn, one of the hundreds of Flintshire, under Robert de Ruelent. "Here a tower was built on the coast, whereof the foundations are still distinguishable. It was destroyed by the Welsh when they regained possession of that district in the time of Henry II. Robert, the son of Robert Banastre, withdrew with all his people into Lancashire, where they are found holding extensive possessions under the Earls of Chester, whose palatinate extended over the South of that county."—Sir Bernard Burke. Robert left three sons, Richard, Warin, and Thurstan, of whom the two elder died s. p. Warin, about the time of King John, was Baron of Newton (one of the palatinate baronies), and was succeeded either by his brother Thurstan, or Thurstan's son Robert, whose heiress was his grand-daughter Alice. She carried his barony to the Langtons: but several collateral branches of the family remained. "Bank Hall was for centuries the manorial residence of the Banastres or Banisters, Lords of the manor of Bretherton. In 34 Ed. III. a mandate was issued from the Duchy court, on the death of Thomas Banastre, directing the Escheator to seize his lands for the King and the Duke. A Thomas Banastre is mentioned in the Lansdowne Feodary, 23 Hen. Ill, as the son and heir of Sir Adam Banastre, whom Dr. Whitaker conjectures to have been of this family, and who was beheaded temp. Ed. II. by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, for his active opposition to that powerful and factious baron. The descent of the Banastres of Bank is not satisfactorily traced before the reign of Henry VIII., in whose second year died Henry Banastre of Bank."—Bain's Lancashire. The last heir male, Christopher Banastre, was High Sheriff in 1669.

The family was very numerous elsewhere in England. In Shropshire, Richard Banastre "was Lord of Munslow and Aston-Munslow in 1115, holding the same in capite under Henry I., and standing high in provincial importance. I think however that Richard Banastre was a greater man in Cheshire than in Shropshire. A deed of Richard, Earl of Chester, and the Countess Ermentrude, his mother, of the date of 1106, names Richard Banastre as one of the Barons of Cheshire: and in 1128 he is a prominent witness to a charter of Robert de Meschines.

"The successor of Richard Banastre, both in Cheshire and Shropshire, was Thurstan Banastre, probably his son, whose line ended either with himself, or his successor of the same name, and I think in the time of Henry II. He left two daughters his co-heirs, Margery, wife of Richard Fitz Roger, and Matilda, wife of William de Hastings."—Eyton's Shropshire. Nigel Banastre, in the twelfth century, acquired by marriage Hadnall in the same county, which his grandson, about 1230, held of the fee of John Fitz Alan, doing the service of one knight at Oswestry in war time. Another descendant is mentioned in 1316, "I will not attempt," continues Eyton, "to give any later or connected account of the Banastres of Hadnall. In the fourteenth century there were three families of Banastre, styled respectively of Hadnall, Smethcott, and Yarton. I cannot say how they were related, nor, indeed, which was the elder line." William Banastre, of Wem, was Sheriff of Shropshire in 1402. He, or one of his immediate descendants, obtained Lacon through the heiress of Hussey; and Ralph Banastre of Lacon was the faithless servant[66] who betrayed the Duke of Buckingham to Richard III. See Toesni. The Duke is said to have been "disguised and digging a ditch at the time of his arrest; and on the approach of Thomas Mytton the sheriff, who came to apprehend him, he knelt down in the orchard wherein he was taken, and solemnly imprecated vengeance upon the traitor and his posterity, which curses are said to have been signally fulfilled." Hall writes, "Sure it is that shortlie after he had betrayed the duke his master, his sonne and heyre waxed mad, and so dyed in a bore's stye: his eldest daughter, of excellent beautie, was sodainly stricken with a foule leperye; his second sonne very marvellously deformed of his limmes and made decrepit; his younger sonne in a small puddel was strangled and drowned; and he, being of extreme age, arraigned and found gyltie of a murder, and by his clergye saved: And as for his thousand pounds, kyng Richard gave him not one farthing, howbeit some say he had a small office or a ferme to stop his mouth."—Owen and Blakeway's Shrewsbury. That he received the manor of Ealding (now Yalden) in Kent as the reward of his perfidy is beyond all question; but the appalling list of domestic calamities called down upon him by his master's curse is hard of belief; and it should be borne in mind that the benefit of clergy was never extended to murder. "The family to which he belonged grew ashamed of this disgraceful member, and his name appears on none of their pedigrees."—Ibid.

"If ever wight had cause to rue
A wretched deed, vile and untrue,
Then Banister with shame may sing,
Who sold his life that loved him."

The Banastres also continued in Cheshire, where they have left their name to Mollington-Banastre, near Chester. Redacre Hall, in the parish of Prestbury, was their residence in the seventeenth century; and mention is made of a contemporary Hugh Banaster of Riding. Sulhamstead-Bannister, in Berkshire, commemorates another line of collaterals, of whom three were Sheriffs of the county; Alan Banastre, in 1169; Alard, in 1173, and Thomas, in 1203. One of the early Knights of the Garter is derived by Beltz, in his Memorials of the Order, from Englefield in Berkshire. Again, there were Banastres seated at Gnosall in Staffordshire. "Philip, son of Sir Philip, of that house, held Bosworth and Upton in Leicestershire in 1280. They ended early in the seventeenth century."—Nicholls. Dorothy daughter and sole heir of Sir Robert Banastre of Passenham, in Northamptonshire (perhaps their representative?), married William, second Lord Maynard, to whom she brought a great estate. She was the mother of Banastre, third Lord, and died in 1649.

Baloun :

Baalun, or Baladon—Leland mis-spells it Bealum—from the castle of Balaon or Baladon in Normandy, which as Orderic informs us, was garrisoned in 1088 by William Rufus. Three of the name, the sons of Drogo de Baladon, Hamelin, Wynoc, and Wynebald (the Guinebaud de Balon of the Dives Roll) came to England with the Conqueror. Hamelin received vast grants in Wales and Cornwall, and built a strong castle at Abergavenny, now

The rent Norman tower that overhangs
The lucid Esk:—

as a shapeless and shattered ruin. Being one of the strongholds of the ruthless Lords Marcher, it was the scene of many a deed of blood and violence, and Giraldus avers "that it was dishonoured by treason oftener than any other castle in Wales." In Leland's time it' was still "a faire Castell"; and then likewise remained "a Priori of Blake Monks of the French Order" (Benedictines) that Hamelin had founded in the town, and in which he lies buried. He died in 1090, childless; and left his castle and the whole vast Honour of Abergavenny to Brian Fitz Count, the son of his sister Lucie. This nephew, represented as "nobly descended and of great dignity" (though his lineage is dubious), was already Baron of Wallingford in right of his wife Maud, widow of Milo Crespin, and sole daughter of the Conqueror's favourite noble, Robert D'Oyley. But his two sons by this great heiress were both of them lepers; and it was in Abergavenny Priory that their broken-hearted father bestowed them before he assumed the Cross, and relinquishing every worldly possession, took his departure for Jerusalem.

Of Drogo de Baladon's second son, Wynoc, we hear nothing; but the third, Wynebald, was a great baron in the time of Henry I., and the benefactor of two religious houses. "With the consent of Roger his son," he gave his lordship of Rodeford, his mill at Fromelade, and half a hide at Ameneye, to St. Peter's at Gloucester; and Bridesthorne, the church of Hardwicke, &c, in Hertfordshire to the monks of Bermondsey in 1092.—Chauncy's Herts. But I can find no subsequent mention of Roger, and the name only occurs again in the county about 1290, when "Dionisia de Monte Caniso granted to the hospital of Biggin all the lands she had of the grant of Catherine Balun in Little Horsmead."—Ibid. The manor of Balun (now Balance) in that parish, took the name of its ancient owners.

John de Baalun, presumed to be of the same family, was one of the Lords Marcher guarding the Welsh frontier in the time of Henry III., and constantly summoned to arms in its defence. He was likewise in the French wars, and fought on the side of the Barons at Evesham, but soon after made his peace. His wife Auda, was the sister and co-heir of William Painell; "but further than this," ends Dugdale, "I have not seen of him." Some account of his descendants is given in Robinson's Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords.

"The earliest lord of Much-Marcle after the extinction of the Lacies (the grantees at the Conquest) of whom we find any record is John de Balun or de Baladon, who was a witness to Magna Charta in the ninth year of Henry III. Either he, or his sons, were commanded by the same King in 1257 to assist Humphrey de Bohun in guarding the Welsh Marches, and we find his name also among the benefactors of Aconbury Priory. By his descendants numerous alterations were made, and thus the great manor of Marcle became sub-divided. Walter de Balun married Isolda, daughter of Ralph de Mortimer, and at his death, about the year 1284, left his widow dower in Marcle. She took for her second husband Hugh de Audley: and an enquiry was consequently made by the Escheator whether it would be for the King's damage if John de Balun, kinsman and heir of Walter, alienated to her husband in fee the land which she held in dower. This alienation was effected, and the result of it was the formation of the manor of Marcle-Audley. The De Baluns, however, continued to hold land in Marcle for some time after this."

Matthew de Baelun held five knight's fees of the Earl of Eu in 1165 (Liber Niger): and the name survived in Sussex till the time of Queen Elizabeth, when Robert Balam was a burgess of Bramber.

Beauchampe :

Hugo de Belcamp (as it is written in Domesday), who in 1086 held a great barony in Herts, Bucks, and Bedfordshire, was the ancestor of "the god-like brood of Beauchamps," as Drayton calls them, whose family history would fill volumes. He derived his name from Beauchamp of Avranches, seated between that city and Granville, which formed part of the barony of St. Denis le Gaste (De Gerville, Anciens Chateaux de la Manche). It has consequently been suggested that the Beauchamps were a branch of the barons of St. Denis; but this is only a conjecture.[67] Nor is the name of Hugh's wife known; but he certainly left three sons; Simon, Pain (Paganus), and Milo, the ancestor of the Beauchamps of Eaton. Simon died childless, and probably early in life; for in the time of William Rufus his brother Pain had succeeded him, and obtained from that King the barony of Bedford, "which was," says Dugdale, "a Capital Honour; and also the strong castle of Bedford, the Head of that Barony," afterwards so nobly defended against King Stephen. Pain's wife was the widowed Countess of Essex, Rohais, daughter of Alberic de Vere, Lord Justiciary temp. Henry I., with whom he founded Chicksand Priory, Bedfordshire, where she lies buried. It was during the life of their son Simon II. that Bedford Castle stood its famous siege. Stephen had given Simon's daughter, with the whole barony of Bedford, to Hugh de Mellent, and commanded the Beauchamps to hold it of him, and do him service as their suzerain. Milo, who by royal license had then the custody of the fortress, refused obedience, and with his disinherited nephews, or, as Orderic calls them, the sons of Robert de Beauchamp, garrisoned it against the Royal forces. The pedigree is rather confused; and Mr. Planche maintains that it must have been the daughter of the elder Simon (hitherto believed to have died s. p.), of whom Orderic speaks as the cause of the feud; "for that she could not be the daughter of the second Simon, son of Pain, first Baron of Bedford, is clear, as he was living in 1207." Now it is equally clear that the grandson of the Hugh of Domesday could not be living one hundred and forty-one years after the Conquest, nor be the father of William de Beauchamp, who died about 1256. Dugdale has evidently skipped a generation in the pedigree, and merged two successive Simons into one.

Bedford Castle was a formidable stronghold. It stood on high ground, "a Fort of great Strength, environed with a mighty Rampire of Earth, and an high wall within which was an impregnable Tower," and the King raised an army for its assault; "but," Orderic tells us, "as it was the season of Christmas, and the weather very rainy, after great exertions he had no success." He was at last wearied out, and withdrew, leaving orders that the leaguer should be continued till the place was reduced by famine; and the gallant garrison, after holding out for five weeks, finally yielded it by the mediation of the King's brother, and marched out upon honourable terms. The castle was demolished by Henry III. in 1223, for William de Beauchamp, who was then its possessor, "as he had been an active person in those turbulent Times against King John, so did he continue against King Henry III., as is manifest from his being taken prisoner at the battle of Lincoln." But Ida his wife was the King's cousin; and he obtained permission to rebuild his house and surround it with a wall, though "without any battlement." The line terminated with his three sons, of whom John, the last, was slain at Evesham, and his lands were divided between his daughters, Maud de Moubray, Beatrix Fitz Otes, and Ela de Wake.

Two junior branches remained; the Barons of Eaton descended (as I have said) from Milo; and the Barons of Elmley, to whom were apportioned the most brilliant destinies of the race. Of the former was Hugh de Beauchamp, who founded the priory of Besmade near his park at Eaton; and "in 32 Henry III. being at Jerusalem, on pilgrimage, he was the year next following slain in the Holy Land, in that battle wherein Guy, King of Jerusalem was taken prisoner." The last of these Lords of Eaton mentioned by Dugdale is Roger in 21 Edward I., for, "in regard that they were not of the degree of Barons," nothing is said of his posterity.

Walter de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle in Worcestershire, whose exact relationship to the parent stock has never been clearly made out, married Emmeline, the heiress of Urso de Abitot, and received from Henry I. the hereditary Shrievalty of Worcester "to hold as freely as any of his ancestors had done." His son William was, as he himself had been, Despenser to the King, and termed "King of the Weste Partes," for he was sheriff of four neighbouring counties, and held fifteen knights' fees. His descendants—all of them stout soldiers—served as Barons-Marcher, till, in the middle of the thirteenth century, another William de Beauchamp, obtained the hand of Isabel de Mauduit, who brought to her son not only the Barony of Hanslape, but the famous Earldom of Warwick and its splendid castle, "the most Princely seat there is within the midland parts of the Realm." The second Earl was christened Guy in memory of his celebrated predecessor, and valiantly upheld the ancient glory of the name. He fought in the Scottish wars under the eye of Edward I.; receiving from him the forfeited lands of the Baliols, and when the great King lay on his death-bed at Burgh-on-the-Sands in Cumberland, "calling divers of his Nobility unto him, and among them this Earl Guy, he desired them to be good to his son, and not to suffer Piers Gaveston to return to England." Accordingly, in the next reign, Earl Guy was conspicuous among the barons who took part against the favourite; and in 1311, as he was travelling across Oxfordshire, came in the night time with a number of men, seized him, carried him to Warwick, and cut off his head. He avenged a private as well as a public quarrel; for "Piers," says Dugdale, "had much angered the Earl of Warwick by calling him the Black Dog of Arderne, because of his black and swarthy complexion." But he paid the penalty with his own life, for he died of poison administered by one of Gaveston's partizans. His wife, Alice de Toeni, the widow of Thomas de Leyborne, was again a great heiress; and their two sons—left fatherless in very tender years—each became renowned in arms. Both brothers were founder Knights of the Garter. John, the younger, was Captain of Calais, Admiral of the Fleet, and Standard Bearer at Cressy, and had summons to parliament as a baron, but died s. p.: while Thomas, the third Earl, a soldier from his earliest boyhood, followed Edward HI. throughout his triumphant campaigns. He was one of the principal commanders that, with the Black Prince, led the van of the army at Cressy, and fought there till "his hand was galled with the exercise of his sword and pole-axe." Before that, in 1346, followed only by a single squire and six archers, he had been the first man who set foot on shore at Hogue in Normandy, and "tho' he had but these few men, and a weak Horse under him, he encountered with one hundred Normans, whereof they slew sixty, making way for the Army to land." Again, on another occasion, hearing that the English lay idly encamped near Calais, "he hasted away with some choyce men," sailed across the Channel, and "highly blamed those that occasioned the English to forbear fighting, saying, 'I will goe on and fighte before the English bread which we have eaten be digested:' and thereupon presently entered the Isle of Caus, which he wasted. But, alas! on his return towards Caleys he fell sick of the pestilence, and dyed on the 13th November, 1369." He it was who built the existing castle of Warwick, founded the choir of the collegiate church of St. Mary's (where the curiously drawn likenesses of his nine daughters are placed in the S. windows), and made the town toll-free.

But the fame of all his fore-fathers paled before the star of Earl Thomas' grandson, Richard, "the very plume and pride of his martial race, who travelled to Russia, Poland, Venice, and Jerusalem, and whose livery the Soldan's Lieutenant coveted to wear." This latter story is so curious that it deserves to be given in detail. The Earl's journey to the Holy Land seems to have been more like a royal progress than a pilgrimage; and when "he had perform'd his offerings at the Sepulchre of our blessed Saviour, he set up his Armes on the N. side of the Temple, which continued there many years after. At the time of his being thus at Hierusalem, a noble person call'd Baltredam, the Souldan's Lieutenant, hearing that he was descended from the famous Sir Guy de Warwick, whose story they had in books of their own language, invited him to his Palace; and royally feasting him, presented him with three pretious stones of great value, besides divers clothes of silk and gold. Where this Baltredam told him privately that he faithfully believed as he did, tho' he durst not discover himself, and rehearsed the Articles of the Creed. And on the morrow he feasted Sir Baltredam's servants, and gave them scarlet with other English Cloth; which being showed Sir Baltredam, he return'd again to him, and said he would wear his livery, and be Marshal of his Hall. Whereupon he gave Sir Baltredam a gown of black puke furred, and had much discourse with him, for he was skilful in sundry languages." It is strange to note how one of the favourite tales of Christendom had thus struck root in the far East. On another occasion, when Earl Richard, being sent to the great Council of Constance, had overthrown and slain his challenger ("a greate Duke") in the lists, the Empress, moved to admiration, took his badge (or, as Dugdale calls it, his livery), the Bear, from the shoulder of one of his knights, and placed it on her own; whereupon the Earl, not to be outdone, presented to her the Badge wrought in pearls and precious stones. When he was Captain of Calais, he entertained the Emperor there on his way from England, "his comportment being such, that the Emperour told King Henry 'that no Christian Prince had such another knight for Wisdom, Nurture, and Manhood:' adding, 'that if all courtesie were lost, yet might it be found again in him,' insomuch as ever after, by the same Emperor's authority, he was called the Father of Courtesie." It was at Calais that, in 1415, he held his splendid tournament, having sent letters to the French Court, "offering to joust with any knight of France twelve courses." The first day he came into the lists with closed visor; his horse trapped with the red maunch of Toeni on its silver field; the second day accoutred in the scarlet and silver bars of Hanslape, and again with his visor down; but on the third day he made himself known, for he came with his face open, with the chaplet on his helm rich with pearls and precious stones, and in his coat of arms of Guy and Beauchamp quarterly, having the arms of Toeni and Hanslape on his trappers, and said, "That as he had in his own person performed the service the two days before, so, with God's grace, he would the 3rd." He overthrew all his three opponents, unhorsing them so easily, that the discomfited Frenchmen "declared that he himself was bound to his saddle; whereupon he alighted and presently got up again; but all being ended, he returned to his pavilion, feasted all the people, gave to those three knights great rewards, and so rode to Calais with great honour."

His first battle was against Owen Glendower in 1402, when he captured his banner and put him to flight; his next against the Percys at Shrewsbury; but it was in the French wars under Henry V. that the "victorious Warwick" won his great military renown. He had been in the King's service from the time he was Prince of Wales, officiated as High Steward of England at his coronation, and was appointed guardian to his infant son, Henry VI., by his will. It does not, however, appear that he was with him at Agincourt. In 1417 "he attended the Duke of Clarence into France, took Dampfront, and was the first to enter Caen, and set the King's arms on the walls with the Duke's, crying a Clarence! a Clarence! laid siege to Caudebec, blockt up the city of Roan by land and by water, and won Mont St. Michel, and other strong places, for which the King created him Earl of Aumarle, and on the death of the Duke of Bedford, Lieutenant-General of the whole realm of France and Normandy." He died in his French government, at Rouen Castle, in 1439; but desired that his body might be brought home, and lies buried in the Lady Chapel at Warwick, under a tomb second in magnificence only to that of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey.

He had been twice married. By his first wife, Elizabeth de Berkeley, the heiress of Thomas, Viscount Lisle, he had three daughters; 1. Margaret, married to the Earl of Shrewsbury, from whose son, John Talbot, the Dudleys, Earls of Warwick, derived; 2. Alianor, wife of Thomas, Lord de Ros, ancestor of the Dukes of Rutland; and 3. Elizabeth, wife of George Nevill, Lord Latimer. By his second Countess (again an heiress), Isabel le Despencer, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester, and widow of his cousin, the Earl of Worcester, he left another daughter and a son, each of them married to a Nevill; for Anne de Beauchamp, "was wedded to Richard, Earl of Salisbury, on the same year that Henry, her brother" (then scarce ten years old) "wedded Cecily, his sister."

The young heir, Henry, sixth Earl of Warwick, was loaded with such manifold honours from his very boyhood, that it is hard to conceive what further illustration could have been reserved for his maturer years. Before he was nineteen, true to the war-like instincts of his race, he had proffered his services for the defence of Aquitaine, and been created Premier Earl of England, with permission for himself and his heirs male to wear a gold coronet "in the presence of the King and elsewhere." Not more than three days later, he was made Duke of Warwick, with a grant of precedence immediately after the Duke of Norfolk; which last mark of Royal favour so bitterly angered the Duke of Buckingham, that an Act of Parliament was required, and actually passed, to adjust their relative rank. Further, he received a grant of the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Sark, Erme, and Alderney, to be held for the annual rent of a rose; with the hundred and manor of Bristol, and all the Royal castles and manors in the Forest of Dean; and was crowned King of the Isle of Wight by the King's own hands. "But, alas! this hopefull branch, the onely heir male to these great Earls, was cropt in the flower of his youth, and dyed at 22." He left only a little daughter of two years old, Anne, in her own right Countess of Warwick, who was committed to the care of Queen Margaret, but did not long survive. On her death, in 1449, the honours and possessions of her house reverted to her aunt Anne, Countess of Salisbury, the wife of the great mediaeval prince known as the King Maker, to whom the Earldom was confirmed by letters patent in the same year. When, after the fatal battle of Barnet, Lady Warwick was left a widow in 1471, she underwent great distress; the heiress of the Beauchamps "being constrained to take sanctuary in the abbey of Beaulieu in Hampshire, where she continued a long time in a very mean condition." The whole of her vast property had been taken from her by Act of Parliament, and settled upon her two daughters, as if she had been already dead. She, however, outlived them both; and in 1487 received back her inheritance from Henry VII., but evidently on the understanding that it should be passed on to him; for she lost no time in transferring the whole Warwick estate, and the Channel Islands—every shred of her birthright—by a special deed to the King.

Of the many ennobled offsets of this princely house, none proved of long continuance, and few outlasted the second generation.

The Lords Beauchamp of Hache, a Somersetshire branch, first summoned to Parliament in 1299, ended in 1360 with three heiresses, of whom Cecily, the eldest, carried the lion's share of the property to the Seymours. The first Duke of Somerset, among his other titles, consequently received that of Viscount Beauchamp, now borne by the Marquesses of Hertford. The Lords of Kydder-minster continued for only two generations, from 1387 to 1420; and Margaret, their heiress, married first, John Pauncefort, and then John Wysham. There were four Barons of Bletshoe. The first was Roger de Beauchamp, an eminent soldier in the French wars, Captain of Calais, and Chamberlain to Edward III., who acquired Bletshoe by marrying Sybil de Patshul, and died in 1379; the last, his great-grandson John, whose sister, Margaret, carried the barony to the St. Johns. She was three times married; first, to Sir Oliver St. John; secondly, to John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, by whom she was mother of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, and grandmother of Henry VII.; and thirdly, to Sir Leo de Welles. The Lords St. Amand, descended from William de Beauchamp, who in 1449 had summons to Parliament by that title in right of his wife, again ended in the second generation in 1580, leaving no posterity; while the Lords Beauchamp of Powyke, from whom they derived, had already become extinct in 1496. Here, also, we find not more than two Lords of the name. They were seated at Beauchamp's Court, near Alcester; and the first baron by writ, Sir John de Beauchamp; a Knight of the Garter, was appointed by Henry VI. Justice of South Wales, and Lord Treasurer of England. His son left three daughters: 1. Elizabeth, married to Lord Willoughby de Broke; 2. Anne, married to Richard Lygon; and 3. Margaret, married to Richard Rede. From the second daughter, Anne, are derived the Earls Beauchamp, whose ancestor, Reginald Pyndar, married the heiress of the Lygons in the last century.

Not a single heir-male now remains of this historical house. Not one of the many fair branches put forth by the stately and far-spreading tree survives.[68] Yet the multiplicity of manors retaining the name, proves how freely they once extended, and how wide a space they occupied in mediaeval England. The following long list probably gives but an imperfect impression of their number. In Worcestershire, Neshington-Beauchamp, Sheldesley-Beauchamp, Acton-Beauchamp, and Naunton-Beauchamp; in Somersetshire, Shepton-Beauchamp, Hatch-Beauchamp, and Beauchamp-Stoke; in Essex, Beauchamp-Roding or Roding-Beauchamp; Beauchamp-Otes, Beauchamp-Walter, Beauchamp-St. Paul's, Beauchamp-St. Ethelbert, and Beauchamp-Prediton; in Buckinghamshire, Drayton; Beauchamp; in Berkshire, Compton-Beauchamp; and in Leicestershire, Kibworth-Beauchamp.

Braye :

William de Braye was one of the subscribing witnesses to the charter of Battle Abbey in 1088; but does not appear in Domesday. His name was derived from Bray, near Evreux. "Milo de Brai, father of Hugh Trussel, married, c. 1070, Litheuil, Viscountess of Troyes, and c. 1064, founded Longport Abbey, Normandy (Ordaric Vitalis). Milo de Brai, his son, was a crusader 1096 (Idem). In 1148 Richard de Braio held lands at Winchester from the Bishop (Winton Domesday). The De Brais possessed estates in Cambridge and Bedford 1165 (Liber Niger). A branch was seated in Devon in the thirteenth century."—The Norman People. In Bedfordshire we find Eaton Bray, in the hundred of Manshead, a village about four miles from Dunstaple. "The family of Bray were of consequence in the county," says Lysons, "at an early period. Thomas de Bray was knight of the shire in 1289, and Roger de Bray in 1312. When they settled at Eaton-Bray, to which they gave their name, does not appear; but it was long before they were possessed of the manor. Edmund Bray, grandfather of Sir Reginald, the faithful minister of King Henry VII., was described as of this place, and it appears on record, that the parish was called Eaton-Bray in the reign of Edward III. It is probable that the Brays held the manor under the Barons Cantilupe and Zouche. Sir Edmund Bray, nephew of Sir Reginald, was summoned to parliament in 1530 as baron of Eaton-Bray. The title became extinct by the death of his son John Lord Bray without issue in 1537. The manor of Eaton-Bray passed to the posterity of William Lord Sandys, who married the only child of John Bray, uncle of the first Lord Bray. In the chancel of the parish church is the monument of Jane, wife of Edmund Lord Bray, who died in 1538. In the S. aisle is a fragment of stone-work, richly carved and ornamented with the Royal arms, and the arms and device of Sir Reginald Bray." This was the same Sir Reginald, who, on the battle-field of Bosworth, found the Royal crown in a hawthorn bush, "where, apparently, after falling from Richard's head, it had been secreted during the engagement."[69] Like Henry V. at Agincourt, he had come to battle wearing his crown upon his helmet, and he wore it to the last.[70] When the tardy interference of the temporizing Stanleys had decided the fortunes of the day, and one of his knights came to tell him that all was lost, adding, "I holde it tyme for you to flye": he replied by calling for his battle-axe. Then he took a solemn oath—"By Him that shope both se and lande, Kynge of Englande this day will I dye; one foote away will I not fie whil brethe wyll byde my brest within." He kept his word right royally. Making way with his sword, "high in blood and anger," he slew Richmond's standard-bearer, Sir Charles Brandon, with his own hand, thinking his next stroke should reach the Earl himself; and when Sir John Cheney interposed to raise the fallen banner, hurled him from his saddle with a single blow. But his foemen closed in on all sides, and overpowered and out-numbered, he fell, pierced with many wounds, ere he could cross swords with his rival. "They hewed the crowne of golde from his head with dowtful dents": and while his mangled and dishonoured corpse, flung across a horse's back, was being conveyed to Leicester, Sir Reginald Bray brought his trophy to Sir William Stanley, who, amidst the shouts and acclaims of the soldiers, crowned the new Lancastrian King on the field of battle.

"Courageous Richmond, well hast thou acquit thee!
Lo, here, these long usurped royalties
From the dead temples of this bloody wretch
Have I pluck'd off, to grace thy brows withall;
Wear it, enjoy it, and make much of it."

Sir Reginald was amply rewarded. He was a Knight Banneret, a Knight of the Garter, and Lord Treasurer of England. "He was noted," says Lord Bacon, "to have had the greatest Freedome of any Councillor, but it was but a Freedome, the better to set off Flatterie. Yet he bare more than his just part of Envie, for the Exactions." He left no posterity.

The first Lord Braye had two younger brothers, who are still represented: 1. Sir Edward, Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex, 30 Henry VIII., ancestor of the Brays of Shere in that county; and 2. Reginald, seated at Barrington in Gloucestershire. His son, the second and last Lord, had no less than seven married sisters, among whom the barony fell into abeyance in 1537; and thus, hopelessly merged in a crowd of claimants, it continued till 1839, when it was adjudged to Mrs. Otway Cave, as the descendant of the second sister, Elizabeth Verney. None of her four sons lived to succeed to it, and none of them left children; and once more it was fated to lapse among co-heiresses. But of her four daughters, the three eldest also died childless; the last of them in 1879, and Mrs. Wyatt Edgell, the youngest, became Baroness Braye. She had two sons; the eldest of whom was killed in 1879 in the war at the Cape; and the second succeeded to the barony on her own death soon afterwards. Finally, in 1880, after the lapse of nearly three hundred and fifty years, a Lord Braye again took his seat in the House of Lords.

Bandy :

Leland gives it Baudyn, which would appear to be but a duplicate of Baudoin or Bawdewyn. It probably stands for Bondy, from a place so named near St. Denis, Isle de France. Ralph de Bonde occurs in Palgrave's Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1199. Robert de Bundy founded Bradley Priory, Leicestershire, in the time of King John. There was a family of Bendys in Staffordshire, that bore Argent two bars Azure each charged with three martlets. "Shutt-End," says Erdeswick, "is an old house, formerly of the Bendys." William Bendy of Holbeach left two daughters his co-heirs: and another William Bendy, of King's Swinford, was Clerk of the Peace for the county, and died in 1684. William Bondi, of Bedfordshire, and Thomas Bundi, of Shropshire, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum, c. 1272. Richard Bundy, in 1313, appears in Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs as "manucaptor of John Pistor, Burgess returned for Guilford." The arms of Bondy: Or a bend, and on the sinister side two bendlets Vert, are preserved by Robson.

Bracy :

from Brecy near Caen-Robert de Breze and M. de Brece were among the one hundred and nineteen Norman gentlemen who defended Mont St. Michel, against the English in 1423; and three noble families of the name existed in the Duchy. It dates from the Conquest in England. William, son of Radulphus de Braceio (who occurs in a Norman charter of 1080), held Wistaton in Cheshire of the Barony of Nantwich; and the first mesne-lords of the manor, who bore its name, and continued till the time of Henry VI., are conjectured to have been the elder male branch of his descendants. The younger, that continued to be called De Bracy, "was connected with the parish soon after the Conquest, and had a share in the manor which they alienated before 16 Hen. VI."—Ormerod. William Malbank, Baron of Nantwich, gives notice, in one of his charters, that he has received from "Robert de Bracy, his black nephew," the homage and service of three knight's fees. Their original seat at Wistaston was Wildecattesheth, which became Wilcott's or Wilcock's Heath. From this parent stock there were numerous offsets; for in Cheshire "the Bressie's hath been a great name of gentlemen," writes Sir Peter Leycester; "but the connection of the branches is not sufficiently identified to form a pedigree."—Ormerod. Robert de Bracy was Sheriff of the county 31 and 33 Ed. I. Wilcock's Heath was still in their possession in 1666, though, during the reign of Henry IV., Thomas de Bracy had removed to Tiverton, on his marriage with the heiress of its manorial lords, the Hulgreves. "The family continued settled here in the male line to the middle of the last century. The daughter of the last Bressy married a Mr. Garnett, and was resident in the old family mansion, in 1804. From this last line the Bressies of Chester descended."—Ormerod. The Bressies of Bulkeley, derived from a common ancestor, survived in a lower grade of the social scale. Hamo de Bresci acquired Roger de Bulkeley's estate through the heiress of the Hadleighs about 1409. "The Bressies continued resident there in great respectability for two centuries and a half; and their lineal representative, Richard Bressy, entered his pedigree in Sir William Dugdale's Visitation of 1663. The family have retained their property" (of 300 or 400 acres) "but have gradually sunk to the rank of yeomanry, and are now represented by Mr. Richard Bressie of Cotton Abbott's, grandson of the above-named Richard, and proprietor of the Bressie estate in this township."—Ibid. To this "race of substantial yeomen" belonged the eminent engineer and contractor Thomas Brassey, whose eldest son received a baronetcy a few years ago, and was further created Lord Brassey of Bulkeley in 1886. "His father had lands of his own at Buerton, and rented from the Marquess of Westminster a large farm adjacent to it."—Sir Arthur Helps. He bequeathed to his children the largest fortune probably ever made by individual enterprise; and what, in these days of reckless speculation, is the rarer legacy of a stainless name.

Brace's Leigh, in Worcestershire, bears the name of another branch of the family, that can, with every probability, be traced back to the Domesday owner. "Warmedon and Eston were then held of the Bishop's manor of Norwiche by Urso d'Abitot and by Robert of him" (here follows a description of the property): "to which agreeth the book of tenures, temp. Ed. I., where Robert de Bracy held in Warmedon of William de Beauchamp" (who inherited Urso's domains). "Robert de Bracy 20 Ed. III., held in Warmedon the same land that Robert his ancestor had.

"Soon after this, the Bracys went to Madresfield. 7 Henry VI. William Bracy was an esquire returned into the Exchequer to attend the King's person with horse and arms into France; and the same year Thomas Lygon was certified in the Exchequer to hold the lands in Warmedon which Robert Bracy sometime had; for 7 Henry V. Joan Bracy, the heiress of that family, married Thomas Lygon."—Nash's Worcestershire. Madresfield is now the seat of Earl Beauchamp, their representative in the female line. Nothing is said of William Bracy's posterity; most probably he had none. His arms, Gules, a fesse and two mullets in chief Or, remain in one of the windows of Malvern Church; and are entirely different from those of the Cheshire Bracys, who bore Quarterly indented per fesse Sable and Argent, in the first quarter a mallard of the second.

"'Aldulfus de Braci, filius Bwerne, nepos Osberti Martell,' as he is styled in the Registers of Croxton Abbey, Leicestershire, and Melton Priory, Yorkshire, to both of which he was a benefactor, occurs in Domesday only as 'the foreigner' holding Croxton. He gave to the canons of Sempringham some large possessions in Normandy."—Nichol's Leicestershire. Three Ardulfs or Audulfs de Bracy, presumably his descendants, appear in Shropshire during the two ensuing centuries. The first Audulf, in the time of Henry II., received from his kinsman, William Martel, the manor of Meole, since Melesbracy or Meole-Brace; and held Eaton in Bedfordshire by gift of King John. His daughter Mascelina was the first wife of the first William de Cantilupe. Audulf II. was a benefactor of Dunstaple Priory, as his father had been before him; and had a long lawsuit with Roger de Mortimer, who unsuccessfully contested Meole. "The Fitz Warine Chronicle calls Audulf de Bracy his cousin, and implies that he shared his exile in Little Brittany in 1201."—Eyton. Audulf III. occurs 1267-1280, and had apparently succeeded John de Bracy of Meole, who was dead before 1262. Robert, perhaps his son, living 1272-1306, married Maud, one of the daughters and co-heirs of William de Warren or de Blancminster (Albo Monasterio), murdered about 1260. He and his wife granted their share (a third part) of Whitchurch-Warren to Fulco le Estraunge and his wife Alianor (perhaps their daughter); "the latter to restore the premises to the Grantors for their lives, to hold by payment of a rose-rent, and by render of all capital services."—Ibid, The last mentioned of the name is Ralph Bracy, Vicar of Meole in 1333.

In the Rotuli Hundredorum of 1272 I find entered Richard and Elias de Bracy, both of Oxfordshire; and William de Bracy, with his daughters Avicia and Joanna, of Kent.

Boundes :

I find in Normandy a family named De la Bonde that bore Ermine a cross Gules, and was ennobled in 1698. On this side of the Channel the name frequently appears in the Hundred Rolls, about 1272, chiefly in Norfolk and Lincoln; but the only earlier mention of it I can find is in Yorkshire, where "Bonde of Whasington" witnesses a grant of Hervey Fitz Aker of some land at Ravensworth in the North Riding. In Kent the manor house of Bounds, in the parish of Bidborough, took the name of its ancient owners, who continued there till 1347.—Hasted's Kent. Bernard de Bonde of Stamford, witnesses a deed there 30 Ed. I., and Beckley in Oxfordshire was held by Sir Nicholas Bonde of Edward Prince of Wales, t. Edward II. The existing Dorsetshire family of Bond of Grange has the honour of being included in Mr. Evelyn Shirley's jealously-guarded Libro d' Oro, "The Noble and Gentle Men of England," and claims a very high antiquity, but I fear on unsubstantial grounds. "Mr. Bond, of Creech Grange, has a very long pedigree of his family in the handwriting of his ancestor Denis Bond of Sutton, who died in 1658. It deduces their descent from 'Bond, a Norman,' who came into England with the Conqueror, and married the heiress of Bond of Penryn in Cornwall, from whom were eleven descents of the Bonds of Penryn, ending in an only daughter and heir, married to Sir William Mardolfe, knt. From her uncle Richard Bond sprang eight descents, described as of Yearthe (Earthe, near Saltash) in Cornwall; the last of whom, Robert Bond, is said to have had three sons: 1. Thomas of Yearthe, who left an only daughter married to John Halwell of Devonshire: 2. Robert of Yearthe, ancestor of the Bonds who were living at that place in 1623, when their pedigree was recorded in the Herald's Visitation of that year: and 3. Robert, ancestor of the Bonds of the Isle of Purbeck, who was living 9 Hen. VI. This pedigree was given to Elias Bond by a person named Sanque, described as one of the heralds, whom he met with at Rouen, in Normandy. Mr. Denis Bond, brother of Elias, says he had himself met this person in Spain, whither he had fled on the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, for he was a popish fello and one of the gunpouder treson." He affirmed the pedigree to be true, but Mr. Bond gave it no credit. It is very erroneous, has no dates, and is unsupported by original evidences.

"A more reliable account of the Bonds of the Isle of Purbeck shows them to have sprung from Hatch Beauchamp, in Somersetshire, where the name is to be met with as early as the commencement of the reign of Edward III."—Hutchin's Dorset. They purchased Creech Grange in 1686 from the Lawrences, and bear as their motto Point de faux-bond.

"Mr. Denis Bond thought the Bonds of London, whose pedigree is recorded in the Herald's Visitation of 1633, and whose descendant, Sir Thomas Bond, Comptroller of the Household of Queen Henrietta Maria, was created a Baronet by Charles II., were descended from a younger son of the first Robert Bond of Hatch Beauchamp. It is evident, however, from a calculation of dates, that they could not have been connected with him in the way supposed, though it is highly probable they were a branch of his family. Sir Thomas, the first baronet, was son of Sir William Bond of Highgate, Middlesex, son of Sir George Bond, Lord Mayor of London, and the brother of William Bond of Crosby Palace of Bishopsgate St., the magnificent Gothic hall of which still remains standing. He built Old Bond St. in London, which proved an unfortunate speculation, for Evelyn in his Diary says he built it 'to his great undoing.' Some interesting old monuments of these Bonds remain in the church of Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate Street, adjoining Crosby Hall."—Ibid. The baronetcy expired in the last century.

Bascoun :

The name of "P. Bascon" is inscribed on a marble tablet at Mont St. Michel, as one of the hundred and nineteen Norman gentlemen who defended the place against the English in 1423. "We find Bacon or Bacco in the eleventh century in Maine; but this family was Northman. Anchetil Bacon, before the Conquest, made grants at his lordship of Molay to Ste. Barbe-en-Auge (Des Bois): William Bacon, Lord of Molay, in 1082, founded Holy Trinity, Caen; and in 1154 Roger Bacon (who is mentioned as of Vieux-Molay) held estates in Wilts (Rot. Pip.). Robert, William, and Alexander Bacon held four knight's fees of ancient enfeoffment in 1165 from the Barony of Montfichet in Essex (Liber Niger).—The Norman People. The "Sire de Viez Molai," spoken of by Wace at the battle of Hastings, was the William Bacon above-mentioned, who founded, or according to another version, made donations to the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, where his sister had taken the veil. His son or grandson may have been the Richard Bacon, who was a nephew of Ranulph de Meschines, Earl of Chester, and the founder of Roucester Priory, in Staffordshire.

It seems all but self-evident that these Norman Lords of Molai, who came over at the Conquest, must have been the ancestors of the English family that has made their name illustrious. Few among our ancient houses can count up such a succession of eminent men as are shown on the pedigree of the Bacons: "no single cord, but a twisted cable of many together," as Fuller quaintly describes them. There was the Doctor Mirabilis of the thirteenth century, Friar Bacon, whose learning was so far in advance of the age that he was accounted a wizard: John Bacon, the studious and eloquent Carmelite styled the "Resolute Doctor;" Sir Nicholas Bacon, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, who "was, for judgment, the other pillar of the State;" and above all, his son Francis Lord Verulam, one of the greatest geniuses of his time. Voltaire calls him the father of experimental philosophy: and "his works are, for expression as well as thought, the glory of our nation and of all latter ages." His half-brother Nicholas received the first baronetcy ever conferred in this kingdom, now held
by his descendants.

But the obvious derivation from the Sires de Molai does not commend itself to the family. They "deduce their descent from Grimbald, a cousin of William de Warrenne, whose great grandson, according to their genealogists, assumed the name of Bacon in Normandy."—J. R. Planche. "Why," pertinently asks M. de Prevost, "do the English Bacons choose to deduce their origin from this Grimbald, in preference to the well-known Bacons of Molai?" It is a question that I, at least, am unable to answer. According to Betham's Baronetage, "their pedigree was transcribed out of a book belonging to Binfield Priory, which is at large inserted in the book of evidences concerning this family."

Broilem :

Brulin? I find in Anselme's Histoire Genealogique de la France a Seigneur de Brulin (of the house of Bussy) in the fifteenth century. Or it may simply be a contraction or abbreviation of Bruillemail in Normandy. A "Hervey de Brael," in 1183, occurs among the witnesses of Robert de Stafford's charter to Bordesley Abbey.—The Staffordshire Chartulary.

Broleuy :

from the fief of Broilly, near Valognes; one of the most ancient families of Normandy, mentioned in charters of the eleventh century, and fir st enrolled among the nobility in 1463. It is still represented. The arms are Azure, a chief Gules, and a lion Or, crowned and armed of the second. The coat of the English Bruleys is in one of the windows of the parish church at Stanford, Leicestershire. "Osbern de Broily held lands in Bedfordshire 1086; and Robert de Bruilli in 1178 witnessed the charter of Lindores, Scotland. (Mon. ii. 1052.) Simon de Broily held lands in Warwick (Testa de Nevill), and John de Bruilly, 1324, was summoned to a great council at Westminster."—The Norman People. "They acquired Waterstock, in Oxfordshire, by marriage, from the Foliots; Sir Henry Bruilly was in possession of it in 1279, and held it of the Bishop for one knight's fee. It remained with his descendants for six generations; and then passed to Joan de Bruilly, the daughter of the last heir, and through her to the Danvers."—Antiquities of Oxfordshire. William de Broly held in Kent in the time of Edward I. (Rotul. Hundred); and John de Broyli in Gloucestershire (Ibid.). The arms, as given in Hutchin's Dorset, are, On a bend Gules, three chevronels Or.

Burnell :

"That this family has been of great antiquity here in England," says Dugdale, "an old Martyrologe (sometime belonging to the abbey of Buildewas, county Salop) doth plainly demonstrate: for thereby appeareth that Sir Robert Burnell, knt, died 15 November, 1087; Sir Philip, 14 December, 1107; Sir Roger, 5 February, 1140; Sir Hugh, 7 January, 1189; Sir Hugh, 12 May, 1242; and another Sir Robert, 6 December, 1249."

This evidence is too minutely circumstantial as regards dates to be above suspicion;[71] and with the exception of Robert and Philip, none of the Christian names given are found in the records, nor even these at the same periods. An Ingelram Burnell was living in 1165; and a William Burnell attested one of the charters of Wenlock Abbey in 1170. (Eyton's Salop.) They were seated in Shropshire, where they have left their name to the village of Acton Burnell, and Eudon Burnell. The first mention of them at Acton (Actune, the oak town) is found in the Testa de Nevill, where it is stated that William and Gerain Burnell held half a fee there. A passage in the Hundred Rolls, evidently referable to the time of Henry III., proves that Robert Burnell then held it in fee of Thomas Corbet. William had joined the rebellious barons; but Robert, a churchman of remarkable ability, was the "secretary and confidential clerk" of Prince Edward, and his most trusted and valued counsellor when he became King. In 1272 he was nominated Archbishop of Canterbury, though, as the Pope refused to confirm his election, the see was left vacant for several years, and he had to content himself with the Bishopric of Bath and Wells. He was Chancellor of England from 1274 till his death in 1292, and twice received a visit from his Royal master at Acton Burnell. Edward was there for six weeks in 1283, when the Parliament summoned for the trial of Prince David met at Shrewsbury,[72] not choosing to be present himself, lest he might be supposed to influence the verdict. Yet there was no ambiguity in the language of his writs. When the unhappy Welsh sovereign had been sentenced to die the horrible death of a traitor, and dragged at his horse's heels to the place of execution, the Parliament adjourned its sittings to Acton Burnell. It was there they "passed that celebrated statute-merchant bearing its name, and from the preamble to which, as well as from an instrument in Rymer (vol. ii. p. 247) it is manifest that the three estates of the realm were not separated as has been usually supposed into two chambers, but were an undivided body of representatives."—C. E. Hartshorne. Mr. Hallam, however, says that while the Lords passed judgment upon Prince David at Shrewsbury, the clergy and Commons sat in Acton Burnell. An ancient building, of which merely the gables are left, still bears the local name of the Parliament House.

In the following year Bishop Burnell obtained license to crenellate, with permission to take timber from the Royal forest of Salop, and built the yet existing castle of Acton Burnell. He had been allowed to make a park of his wood of Combes, within the precincts of this forest, during the previous reign, and received from Henry III. the grant of a Tuesday market and two annual fairs, with free warren in all his demesne. Burnell's Brome, in Warwickshire, was purchased by him in 1279; and "'tis very like," says Dugdale, "that the Burnells, having here a manor-house with such great advantages for pleasure and profit, sometimes made it their abode, though their principall seat was at the Castle of Holgate in Shropshire." Crooke-Burnell, in Devonshire, was another of his possessions, as well as East-Ham Burnell in Essex; and it was found, at his death, that he held estates in nineteen different counties besides Shropshire, where his domain extended over thirty manors.

The whole of this splendid inheritance devolved on his nephew Philip Burnell, and from him passed to Edward his son, who was summoned to Parliament as a baron in 1311. "He served in many actions in Scotland under Edward I., and appeared with great splendour. He was always attended with a chariot decked with banners, on which, as well as on the trappings of his horses, were depicted his arms. He married Alice, daughter of Lord Despencer, by whom he had no issue. On his decease in 1315, his sister Maud became sole heir. She married first John, Lord Lovel of Tichmarsh, surnamed the Rich; he died in 1335. Her second husband was John de Handlo, who died in 1346, and left by her one son, Nicholas Lord Burnell, the subject of much contest in the court of chivalry with Robert de Morley, on account of the arms which Nicholas bore, in right of certain lands of the barony of Burnell, bestowed on him by his mother. These arms De Morley had assumed without any just pretence; but because, as he declared, 'it was his will and pleasure so to do, and that he would defend his so doing.' Probably he had no arms of his own, having been the first of his family that had appeared in a military capacity. He had served as esquire to Sir Edward Burnell, without any other domestic but one boy; and ever since the death of his master assumed the arms in dispute. It happened that they both were at the siege of Calais, under Edward III. in 1346, arrayed in the same arms. Nicholas Lord Burnell challenged the arms as belonging to the Burnells only, he having at that time under his command one hundred men, on whose banners were his proper arms. Sir Peter Corbet, then in his retinue, offered to combat with Robert de Morley in support of the right which his master had to the arms, but the duel never took place, probably because the King denied his assent. The suit was then referred to the court of chivalry, held on the sands of Calais, before William Bohun Earl of Northampton, High Constable of England, and Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, Earl Marshall. The trial lasted several days, when Robert, apprehending that the cause would go against him, took an opportunity, in presence of the King, to swear by God's flesh, that if the arms in question were net adjudged to him, he never more would arm himself in the King's service. On this, the King out of personal regard for the signal services he had performed in those arms, and considering the right of Nicholas Lord Burnell, was desirous to put an end to the contest with as little offence as possible. He therefore sent the Earl of Lancaster and other lords to Nicholas, to request that he would permit Robert de Morley to bear the arms in dispute for the term of his life only, to which Nicholas out of respect to the King assented. The King then directed the High Constable and Earl Marshal to give judgment accordingly. This they performed in the church of St. Peter near Calais, and their sentence was immediately proclaimed by a herald in the presence of the whole army there assembled."—C. E. Hartshorne.

It seems unaccountable that it should have been Nicholas de Handlo, the son of Maud Burnell by her second husband, the famous soldier John de Handlo, and not John Lovel, the issue of her first marriage, who took her name and bore her brother's title. Banks explains that John Lovel was deprived of his inheritance by fine, and Nicholas, thus becoming possessed of Holgate, the caput baroniae, Acton Burnell, &c, was summoned to parliament among the barons of the realm in 1350.

He was succeeded in 1382 by his son Hugh, with whom the line ended. This, Hugh, "being one of Richard II.'s favourites, was deemed amongst his evil counsellors, and banished the court. However, upon the deposal of that unfortunate king, he became popular; and by Henry IV. was made Governor of several Castles."—Banks. He died in 1420, having outlived his only son, whose three daughters became his co-heirs. Joice, the eldest, married Thomas Erdington; Margery, Edward Hungerford; and Catherine, Sir John Ratcliffe. The barony of Burnell fell into abeyance between them, and has never been revived.

Bellet :

William Belet held Frome—since Frome-Belet, of the King in 1086: (Domesday) and William Belet, perhaps his grandson, is entered in the Liber Niger as a baron in Dorset in 1165. "Michael Bellet was grand justiciary to Henry II. (Hov. i. 515). Robert Bellet was of Dorset in the thirteenth century. The name continually occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1180-98."—The Norman People. "The Belets were a family of great honour and worth. Hervey Belet lived in the reign of King Henry I., and was father to Michael Belet, cup-bearer to King Henry II., who served under the Earl Warren at the coronation of Alianore, wife to that King (he served that day for Hugh, Earl of Arundel) and married Emma, daughter and heir of John de Cheney, by whom he had Michael and Henry Belet, and other children. This Michael (as I take it) was a judge 32 Hen. II., and High Sheriff of Leicestershire for several years in the same reign. In 7 King John, he had a grant to himself and his heirs to be the King's Butler."—Blomfield's Norfolk. Another Michael Belet, early in the reign of Henry III. (about 1230), founded Wroxton Priory in Oxfordshire: it was dedicated to the Virgin, and consisted of a superior and six canons of the order of St. Augustine. "King John's patent to Michael Belet clears up the pedigree of this family, wherein he gives to Master Michael Beleth, son of Michael Beleth, and his heirs, the office of being his butler or cup-bearer (officium de pinc' nora n'ra) with all the rights belonging to it, to be held of the King and his heirs, freely, quietly, wholly, and honourably, as Michael, father of the aforesaid Master Michael held it; and that King further grants and confirms to the said Master Michael and his heirs all the lands which his grandfather Hervey Belet held."—Ibid. The Belets bore Argent on a chief Gules two crescents Or.

I can find no further mention of them in Norfolk; but one of the name—probably belonging to the Dorsetshire house—occurs in Cornwall during—the reign of Edward VI., when "Reginald de Mohun gave this barton of Bochym to one of his daughters married to Bellot. Since they came to Bochym," continues Hals, "the Bellots have intermarried with Monk, Pendarves, and the inheritrix of Spour of Trebatha; but their estate is all spent by riot and excess, and, as I take it, the name extinct in those parts." In 1703 Bochym belonged to the husband of the heiress of Trebatha, Renatus Bellot, who represented the borough of Michell in parliament, and died of a fever in 1709, leaving an only son of the same name, that soon after followed him to the grave. Their coat, Argent on a chief Gules three cinquefoils of the field, was very similar to that of the Norfolk family.

A scion of the latter, John Belief, "descended heir-male from William Bellot of Gayton," settled in Cheshire in the time of Henry VI., having married the heiress of the Moretons of Great Moreton. Their grandson James, unus Valectus camere nostre, was appointed by his Earl Bailiff of the Hundred of Edisbury 3 Ed. IV. They were several times Sheriffs of the county. Of this family was Hugh Bellot, Bishop of Chester, who died in 1596, the year after his translation from Bangor: and Sir John Bellot, created a baronet in 1663. This baronetcy expired in 1713."—Ormerod's Cheshire.

Beaudewin :

Baudyn, according to Leland. There were three, if not four, noble families of this in Normandy. Four Baudoins are at all events enumerated in the great gathering of the Ordre de Noblesse of the province in 1789; De Baudoin, Seigneur d'Avenel; De Baudoin, Seigneur du fief des Pins; Baudoin d'Espins; and Baudoin de Gouzeville.

"Baldwinus" appears among the tenants in capite in Gloucestershire (Domesd.). "This Baldwin held in capite only three virgates of land in Ampney, but there can be no doubt his name occurs elsewhere in the Survey, though there are no means of identifying him with certainty. Possibly he was the Baldwin to whom Queen Matilda had given lands in Fairford, and the Baldwin Fitz Herluin, who had had a manor in Bradeley hundred."—A. S. Ellis. Besides, "Baldwinus Vicecomes" (Baldwin de Brionne, see Brian), another of the name, Baldvinus quidam serviens Regis, is entered among the Domesday barons. All these are self-evident Christian names; and Baldwin, as a surname, is not to be met with till the thirteenth century. It is extremely common in the Rotuli Hundredorum of 1272, occurring in Berkshire, Norfolk, Essex, Northumberland, Kent, Huntingdon, and Oxfordshire. An old Shropshire family that bore it is supposed to have a Norman origin; but its first recognised ancestor is Roger Baldwin of Diddlebury in Corvedale, who died in 1398. In the last century these Baldwins removed to Staffordshire, and took the name of Childe by intermarriage with an heiress.

Beaumont :

When William of Normandy, preparing for the invasion of England, summoned his barons to the great council at Lillebonne, "he sent moreover for Roger de Vieilles, who was much honoured and esteemed for his wisdom, and was now of considerable age, having sons who were already noble and brave knights. He was lord of Belmont-le-Rogier, and possessed much land."—Wace. He is usually styled De Beaumont or De Bellomont; and "it is unanimously recorded," says Mr. Planche, "that he was the noblest, the wealthiest, and the most valiant seigneur of Normandy, and the greatest and most trusted friend of the Danish family. Son of Humphrey de Vieilles, and grandson of Thorold de Pont Audemer, he was a descendant of the Kings of Denmark through Bernard the Dane, a companion of the first Norman conqueror, Duke Rollo.[73] Illustrious as was such an origin in the eyes of his countrymen he considered his alliance with Adelina, Countess of Meulent, sufficiently honourable and important to induce him to adopt the title of her family in preference to his own." He furnished sixty vessels to the Conqueror's fleet, and Wace places him on the roll of the Norman chiefs at Hastings. "Old Rogier de Beaumont attacked the English in the front rank; and was of high service, as is plain by the wealth his heirs enjoy; any one may know that they had good ancestors, standing well with their lords who gave them such honors." But, both William de Poitou and Ordericus state that he remained in Normandy, as president of the council appointed by the Duke to assist his Duchess in the government, "sending his young son Robert to win his spurs at Senlac."[74] "Though then but a novice in arms," he greatly distinguished himself in the battle, was one of the first to break through the English stockade, and by his courage and conduct won for himself the surname of Prudhomme. "A certain Norman young soldier," writes William of Poitou, "son of Roger de Bellomont, making his first onset in that fight, did what deserves lasting fame, boldly charging and breaking in upon the enemy with the troops he commanded in the right wing of the army." His reward was a great barony of ninety manors, lying in Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Wiltshire, and Northamptonshire. On his mother's death in 1081, he became Count of Meulent, "did homage to Philip I. King of France for the lands to which he succeeded in that kingdom, and in 1082 sat as a peer of France in the parliament held at Poissy."—Planche. His first English peerage was conferred upon him by Henry I., who, soon after his accession, created him Earl of Leicester. He had been one of the hunting party in the New Forest where Rufus lost his life, and had ridden by the new King's side when he hastened away to Winchester to seize the royal treasure and make sure of his succession to the throne. He had remained Henry's "prime counsellor" and trusted friend, and commanded the army that achieved the conquest of Normandy in 1106. "He was in worldly affairs," writes Henry of Huntingdon, "the wisest of all men between England and Jerusalem; eminent for knowledge, plausible of speech, keen and crafty, a subtle genius, of great foresight and prudence, not easily over-reached, profound in counsel and of great wisdom, by which means he acquired vast possessions; honours, cities, castles, towns, and woods. The first of these he held, not only in England, but in Normandy and France, insomuch that he made the Kings of France and England friends or foes to each other at his pleasure. If he was displeased with any man, he forced him to submissive humiliation; if pleased, he advanced him as he chose, by which means he got an incredible proportion of money and jewels. Being urged by his confessor on his death-bed to make restitution of whatsoever he had got by force or fraud from any man, he answered, 'If I do so, what shall I leave my sons?'" This was suggestive, and Orderic tells an ugly story relating to his English Earldom. The town of Leicester had then four masters;—the King, the Bishop of Lincoln, Simon de St. Liz, and Ivo, the son of Hugh de Grentemesnil. "Ivo, having begun a Rebellion in England, wherein he had done much mischief by firing some Houses of his Neighbours; and being, through the King's excessive indignation towards him, fined at a vast sum, made his Addresses to this Earl of Mellent, who was the chief of the King's Council, hoping, by his means, to obtain some favour; who thereupon cunningly advised him to perform a long pilgrimage;[75] for effecting whereof, he would help him to Five hundred marks of Silver, keeping his Lands in pawn for Fifteen years; with promise, That at the end of that term, they should be wholly restored to his Son; and not only so, but that he would give him his Brother's Daughter (viz. Henry, Earl of Warwick) in marriage. For the performance of which Agreement, this Earl gave his Oath, the King himself likewise assenting thereto. But in this Pilgrimage, Ivo departing the World, his Son neither had the Woman (as was promised) nor any of his Paternal Inheritance." William of Malmesbury, on the other hand, grows eloquent in the great Earl's praise. "He was the supporter of justice, the persuader of peace," though "in war the insurer of victory; his advice was regarded as though an oracle of God had been consulted; and he could speedily bring about whatever he desired by the power of his eloquence." Like the Greek Emperor Alexius, he chose, on the score of health, to break his fast only once in twenty-four hours; and the whole nobility of England was emulous to follow his example. What genius, sage, or philosopher now-a-days could, by his gifts of persuasion, curtail the meals of even a single English man-servant? He had a taste for music, for, in a franchise to the monks of Bec, remitting certain import dues, he made it a condition that the masters of all boats passing the castles of Meulent and Mantes should play on the flageolet as they shot the bridges—an embarrassing moment for the performance!

His end was miserable. Left childless by his first wife, he chose, when he was between fifty and sixty, a new bride in the first bloom of youth, Isabel (or Elizabeth) de Vermandois, and became the happy father of a large family. "But in the height of his glory, another Earl" (William de Warreune) "seduced his wife by every intrigue and artifice;" and she deserted her old husband for his young rival. He never recovered the blow; but retired, "abandoned to sorrow and troubled in mind," to the Abbey of Preaux, where he took the monastic habit shortly before his death in 1118. He was buried among his brethren, but his heart was preserved in salt, and carried to Brackley, a monastery that he had founded in Northamptonshire.

The frail Isabel had borne him three sons, and four, if not five, daughters; of whom the eldest, Isabel, became one of the many mistresses of Henry I., and afterwards married Gilbert Earl of Pembroke. The two first-born sons were twins; Waleran, the elder, succeeded as Earl of Mellent; with all his father's domains in France and Normandy, and Robert, called Le Bossu, was Earl of Leicester. Hugh, the youngest brother, received from King Stephen the Earldom of Bedford, "with the Daughter of Milo de Beauchamp, upon the expulsion of Milo; Being a person remiss and negligent himself, and committing the custody of that Castle to Milo, he fell from the dignity of an Earl, to the state of a Knight; and, in the end to miserable poverty." He was dubbed "the Pauper." Waleran's was a troubled and turbulent life. He rebelled against Henry I., who burnt his towns of Brienne and Pont Audemer, captured both castles—the latter after seven weeks' siege—took him prisoner, and kept him in durance for five years. Then we find him in arms for King Stephen, and betrothed to his little daughter of two years old; next, signed with the cross as a pilgrim to Jerusalem; on his return, out of favour with the King, who fell in dislike with him," and in 1149; "took from him by assault the city of Worcester (which he had given him) and reduced it to ashes." This is the last we hear of him in England.

Robert, second Earl of Leicester, was another powerful and crafty chief, of whom it may be affirmed that his policy was as crooked as his back. It is true that he remained loyal to Henry Beauclerk to the last, and attended his deathbed at Lions; but he played fast and loose with his allegiance during the turmoil of the succeeding reign. He came to England with Stephen in 1137; then fell off to join the Angevins; presently came back, was welcomed with enthusiasm, and received the Castle, town, and (with some exceptions) the entire county of Hereford; "notwithstanding all which," says Dugdale, "in 1151 he was one of those Nobles who met Henry Duke of Normandy, at his first arrival in England, and supplied him with necessaries; and grew in such high esteem with him, after his attaining the Crown of this Realm, that he advanced him to that great Office of Justice of England." He was very liberal to the Church; for besides his benefactions to other religious houses, he founded two Abbeys and a Nunnery in his own co. of Leicester, and a Priory in Northamptonshire. He himself wore the habit of a canon regular of Leicester Abbey for fifteen years before his death in 1167: though, as he continued in secular employments, and was Justiciary at the same time, the strict observance of the rule of the cloister must in his case have been dispensed with. By his wife Amicia, the daughter of Ralph de Waet, Earl of Norfolk, and Emma Fitz Osbern, he had an only son, Robert, surnamed Blanchmaines, who on his uncle's death inherited the great Norman Honour of Breteville, that had been Fitz Osbern's. This white-handed Earl took part with Henry II.'s rebellious son, and landed at Walton in Suffolk with a body of Norman and Flemish mercenaries, but was defeated by the loyal Justiciaries, near St. Edmond'sbury, taken prisoner, and lodged in Falaise Castle with Hugh Earl of Chester, who had also been in revolt. The garrison he had left behind at Leicester gave some trouble; and the unhappy town, as usual, paid the penalty of its master's treason, and was burnt by the King's troops. In 1177 the Earl was pardoned and restored; carried the sword of state at Coeur de Lion's coronation in 1189, and died the year following at Duras in Greece, on his way home from Palestine. He had married a great heiress, Petronill de Grentemesnil (the descendant of the defrauded Ivo), who brought him, with the Honour of Winckley, the Great Stewardship of England. Their son Robert Fitz Parnel, fourth Earl, also made one, if not two, expeditions to the Holy Land, where he is said to have unhorsed and slain the Soldan in a tournament. King John granted to him the whole of Richmondshire, with its appertaining forests and fees, the castles of Richmond and Bowes alone excepted; and his wife Lauretta de Braose was dowered with twenty-five more knight's fees in Devonshire. But she was childless; and at his death in 1204 his great Earldom was divided between his two sisters. Amicia, the elder, married the celebrated Simon de Montfort, who was thereupon created Earl of Leicester; and Margaret was the wife of Saer de Quinci, who shortly afterwards was invested with the Earldom of Winchester.

All authorities are agreed that the subsequent Viscounts Beaumont, first summoned to Parliament by Edward II, had no connection whatever with this house.

Burdon :

or bourdon, a palmer's staff, which, with his scrip, always received a solemn benediction from the priest before he set out on his journey.[76] "Les Croises et les Pelerins ne manquaient pas, avant leur depart, d'aller faire benir a l'Eglise leur escarcelle avec leur bourdon, et Saint Louis fit cette ceremonie a S. Denis."—Le Grand Fabliaux: vol. i., p. 310.

This name, no doubt given or assumed in memory of some pilgrimage, was common both in Normandy and England. During the latter half of the twelfth century it occurs several times in the Exchequer Rolls of the Duchy; and William Burdon, according to Duchesne, held of the Honour of Grentemesnil. Four Bourdons—Bourdon de Gramont du Lys, Bourdon du Lys, Bourdon du Quesnay, and Bourdon de Pommeret—were present in the Assembly of the Norman nobles in 1789; the latter had only been enrolled in their ranks the year preceding, and bore D 'argent a trois bourdons de pelerins de gueules.

In the co. Durham we find the family seated very soon after the Conquest. Roger Burdon witnesses a deed in Bishop Flambard's time (1099-1133); and Elfer and Amfrid de Birdan appear in the Domesday of the North, the "Bolden Buke" compiled between 1153 and 1194. The name is retained by two villages in the Parish of Bishop-Wearmouth, East and West Burdon (otherwise Old Burdon and Towne Burdon), and was frequent in the county. In 1320 Hugh Burdon of Ivesley-Burdon left Agnes his daughter and heir. Rowland Burdon of Stockton in 1644 had a certificate "that he is well affected to the Parliament." Eve, daughter of T. Burdon of Old Burdon, was baptized in 1653. "The last descendants of this family," says Surtees, "were Quakers." They bore allusive arms: three palmer's staves, interseme of cross-crosslets. The Burdons of Castle Eden, still represented, descend from a Thomas Burdon who was nine times Mayor of Stockton-on-Tees in the time of Ed. IV.

The family is found in many different parts of the country. Arnulph Burdon held a mansion in Winchester, 1148 (Winton Domesday): and Robert Burdon was Lord of Kingsteignton, Devon, temp. Richard I. (Pole's Devon). Burdon, near High Hampton, retains the name in the county. Robert Burdon was of Yorkshire, in 1255 (Roberts, Excerpta): and at about the same date, or a little later, Roger Burdon of Burdon's Hall, Boscomb, occurs in Wiltshire. His last heir-male died in the time of Ed. III. (Hoare's Wilts). Mapledec or Malebec in Nottinghamshire was "held anciently by the Burdons." John Burdon witnesses a charter of Ameissa (Agnes) the wife of Eustace Fitz John, t. Henry I.: and a second John (probably his son) was a benefactor of Rufford Abbey. "The last of the line was Sir Nicholas Burdon, who fell at the battle of Shrewsbury in 1402, leaving Elizabeth, his daughter and heir, married to Sir Richard Markham, the son of the Judge."—Thoroton's Notts.

Berteuilay :

see Beteville or Bretteville.

Barre :

from La Barre in the Cotentin. (See also Delabere). Ralph Barre, the son of Godefridus, is mentioned in 1139, and was of Torlaston in Nottinghamshire. His wife must have been a De Lisle, for his son Richard, in one of his deeds, speaks of Ranulf de Insula, his grandfather, and Matilda Malebisse, his grandmother. Fifth in descent from Richard was Thomas, Dominus de Teversall (or Tearsall), who first called himself Barry, as the family continued to do till it ended with John Barry in the reign of Henry VI. A branch seated at Torlaston lasted about one hundred years longer. These Barres or Barrys were benefactors to the monks of Beauchief, and bore allusive arms. "The seal of Sir Galfrid Barre, with his name circumscribed, in 1244, was Barry of eight or ten, with a File of five Labels."—Ibid.

In Northamptonshire, William Barre, or Barry, of Great Billing, held one fee of Courcy in 1165 (Liber Niger) and gave Billing Church to Leicester Abbey (Mon. ii. 312). Sir Ralph, presumably his great grandson, held two fees of Ripariis and Mortimer in Billing (Testa de Nevill): and the next heir, Sir Robert, was returned as knight of the shire for Northants 12 Ed. II., and for Bucks 25 Ed. I. and 6 Ed. II. Third in descent from Sir Robert we find another Robert, who, in 1361, again represented Buckinghamshire. Baker, in his History of Northamptonshire, gives a pedigree in which, as he tells us, "the scattered notices of this family are embodied. But the accuracy of the connections may be doubted down to Sir Robert, who first occurs 4 Ed. I., and 25 Ed. I. is on the list of knights possessed of £20 per an. in lands and tenements in this county or elsewhere, summoned to meet the King with horse and arms at Portsmouth. Not a single marriage of this family can be retrieved; and it is entirely lost sight of after the reign of Ed. III."

Busseuille :

or Bosevile (Leland). "The Bosviles probably derived their name from Boschevile,[77] a town between Pont Audemer and Honfleur, now famous for its market and fair. A William de Boseville is a witness to a charter of Humphrey de Bohun in 1125. Michael, son of William de Boseville, was a benefactor to Warden Abbey, Beds, and is spoken of by Geoffrey, Comes de Maundevyle, as his knight, in the same chartulary. Again, a Richard and Ralph de Boseville were early benefactors to the house of De la Pre, near Northampton; and in support of the presumption that this Ralph was of the same family as the Bosvilles of Yorkshire, it is observed that the device upon his seal was an ox issuing from a holt of trees, a badge used afterwards by the Yorkshire family.

"Elias de Boseville, who flourished before the year 1159, when Henry II. confirmed his donation to Nostell Priory, was probably the ancestor of the latter. He appears to have been a person much connected with the Newmarches, to which connection the Bosviles owed the five fusils in fesse they bore on their shield, afterwards distinguished by three bears' heads, or some other figure in chief. Sir John Bosvile, living 1252 and '54, married the heiress of Darfield. They were afterwards seated at Ardsley and Newhall, Chevet, and Peniston-Coningsburgh, Warmsworth, Braithwell, and Ravenfield, Yorkshire, and Belhouse Grange, Notts. Their vast possessions must have placed them in the very first rank of the gentry of the North. Robert Bosvile was Constable of Pontefract in 1333. Thomas Bosvile, the last male, who died in 1639, desired in his will that he might be buried among his ancestors in the quire of the parish church of Darfield."—Hunter's South Yorkshire. At the east end of the south choir one of their monuments, with effigies of a knight and lady of the time of Richard II.—the knight wearing the collar of SS as a Lancastrian badge—is still to be seen.

The name did not perish with this Thomas, but continued to be represented by various junior branches; and one of them, that had been seated at Gunthwaite, in the same county, from the time of Henry VI., survived till 1813. The first Boseville there was Richard, who died in 1501, and had Gunthwaite and other lands by gift of his mother; but he and his two immediate successors chiefly resided at Beighton, in Derbyshire, where they were farmers of the estate of Lord Dacre of the South. In the following generation, Ralph, a younger brother of Godfrey (the first of that name of the family), acquired a large fortune as clerk of the Court of Wards, and "bought Bradbourne, near Seven Oaks and Eynsford in Kent, where the descendants of his two sons, Henry and Sir Robert, were among the principal gentry of the county as long as they continued." Another Bosville, the heir of Gunthwaite, "was a captain in Ireland, and there either slain or lost in a bog." His son, Godfrey, married Margaret Greville, a cousin of Lord Brooke, settled among his wife's kin, at Wroxall, in Warwickshire, and adopted their politics. He represented Warwick in the Long Parliament, held the rank of a colonel in the Roundhead army, and was present at the defence of Warwick Castle and the taking of Coventry in 1642. The last heirs-male were the two sons of another Godfrey Bosville (obt. 1784), and both of them soldiers; one was slain in Flanders, and the other died s. p. in 1813, leaving two sisters, married to Lord Macdonald and Viscount Dudley. The elder, Elizabeth Lady Macdonald, inherited the property, and her son Godfrey added the name of Bosville to his own.

At Rossington, a few miles from Doncaster, lies buried Charles Bosvile, one of this family, "still remembered in the traditions of the village as having established a species of sovereignty among the gypsies, who, before the enclosures, used to frequent the moors about Rossington. His word amongst them was law; and his authority so great, that he perfectly restrained the pilfering propensities for which the tribe is censured, and gained the entire good will for himself and his people of the farmers and the people around. No gipsy for many years passed near Rossington without going to pay respect at the grave of him whom they called their king; and I am informed that even now, if the question were asked of any of the people who still haunt the lanes in this neighbourhood, especially about the time of Doncaster races, they would answer that they were Bosvile's people..... He was a gentleman with an estate of about £200 a year, and is described by De la Pryme, of Hatfield, as 'a mad spark, mighty fine and brisk, and keeps company with a great many gentlemen, knights, and esquires, and yet runs about the country.'"[78]—Hunter's South Yorkshire. He was the predecessor of Bamfylde Moore Carew, who several years later, adopted a similar mode of life. The headstone on his grave had disappeared even before Hunter's time; but it continued for a number of years to be a place of pilgrimage for the gipsy tribes, who used to visit it once a year, and:here perform some of their accustomed rites. One of these (a curious survival of the old heathen libations) consisted in pouring a flagon of ale upon the grave.

I have met with the name in several other counties. "In 1180, 100s. rent in Higham and Wykin were given by Robert Bloet, in fee simple, to Guarinus de Busa. Villa."—Nichols Leicestershire. In Norfolk, Boseville's Manor (or Hedeston), was named from Walkelin de Boseville, who acquired it in 1199 by his wife, Agatha de Hedeston. It continued for nearly two hundred years in the name, for the last possessor, Adam de Boseville, died in 1363.

Blunt :

Wotton gives this great Norman house a classical ancestry. "They take their Rise," he says, "from the Blondi or Biondi in Italy, whom Historians derive from the Roman Flavii." But the origin of the distinctive name, Le Blond, would appear, like Le Brun or Le Roux, simply to denote a difference of hair or complexion. Two of the family are inscribed in Domesday (where the name is variously given as Blon, Blondus, or Blundus), whose father, according to the same authority, was the Lord of Guisnes. "He is said to have had three sons in the Conqueror's army. One returned to France; the other two, Robert and William, remained in England, and gave a Beginning to all the Blounts in this Kingdom." Sir Robert, Baron of Icksworth, in Suffolk, married Gundred, daughter of Earl Ferrers. He was Dux Manuum Militarum, and held Orford Castle, and several other manors in Suffolk. Gilbert, his son, whom Camden calls Magna Nobilitatis Vir, founded a monastery of the Order of St. Augustine at Icksworth, the head of his barony. But though his posterity spread and flourished throughout England, and continues numerous to this day, the duration of this elder line was brief. It expired with the sixth Lord of Icksworth, William le Blount, who fell bearing Simon de Montfort's standard at the battle of Lewes. He left no children, and his barony was forfeited under attainder, but his two sisters, Agnes de Criketot and Roese de Valoines, were, nevertheless, permitted to share his estates, lying chiefly in Suffolk and Lincolnshire.

After him, Dugdale mentions three others of the name not found in the family pedigree (which is variously given, and arduous to follow): Peter le Blount, Constable of the Tower in 1254; Andrew, engaged on the Baron's side at Evesham; and Hugh, Sheriff of Essex and Herts for the last half year of 14 Edward I. But the existing families are, by general consent, traced to Sir Stephen le Blount, first cousin of the last Baron, who married the heiress of Sir William le Blount, of Saxlingham, of Suffolk, the representative of that other Sir William who came over at the Conquest, and thus united the kindred houses. It was the first in the succession of rich marriages by which the fortunes of his posterity were rapidly built up. Their son, Sir Robert, Lord of Belton, in Rutland, in right of his wife, Isabel de Odingsells, was the father of 1. Ralph; 2. William, of whom presently.

Ralph, having married the heiress of Lovet, was seated at Hampton-Lovet in Herefordshire, and the father of Sir Thomas, Steward of the Household to Ed. II., and the second husband of the famous "Infanta of Kent," Juliana de Leybourne. She brought him not only very great possessions, but the claim to a barony that had been granted to her grandfather in 1298, and Sir Thomas was accordingly summoned to parliament in 1326 by Ed. II. Yet, not long after, he proved unfaithful to his unhappy master, on whose flight into Wales he joined the Queen and Mortimer at Bristol; and sat in parliament among the barons who voted his deposition from the throne. He was in the retinue of Henry Earl of Lancaster during Ed. III.'s first Scottish campaign, and twice again received summons to parliament; "after which," says Dugdale, "I find no more of him." He left two sons by his first wife; for the great Kentish heiress, though three times married, never had children; and the youngest, Nicholas, was deeply engaged in a plot for the restoration of Richard II., and changed his name to Croke in 1404, to shelter himself from the vengeance of Henry IV. The line of the elder expired in 1400.

The second brother, William, had two sons; Peter, Chamberlain to Ed. II., who had no issue; and Sir Walter, who married the heiress of Sodington, still the family seat in Worcestershire. His eldest son, Sir William Blount of Hampton Lovet, served in the Scottish wars, and was summoned to parliament jure uxoris in 1327, his wife Margaret being one of the co-heirs of a great baron, Theobald de Verdon; but he, again, left no posterity. Sir Walter's second son, Sir John, was the progenitor of all the families that now bear his name. Of his first marriage with Isolda de Montjoye came the Blounts of Sodington, and the now extinct branch of Kinlet; of his second marriage with Eleanor, co-heiress of John Beauchamp of Hache, the Lords Montjoye, the Herefordshire line of Grendon, Eldersfield, Orleton, &c, and the Blounts of Maple Durham.

Sir Walter Blount, his son by his second wife Eleanor, was a famous soldier, who served his apprenticeship in arms under John of Gaunt, and remained his faithful follower to the end of his life. He was with him in 1367 in his Spanish campaign, and brought home a foreign wife from the household of Constance of Castille, Donna Sancha de Ayala, daughter of the Alcalde Mayor of Toledo. As one of the Duke of Lancaster's most trusted knights, he was named executor to his will; and Henry IV., mindful of his father's friend, appointed him his Standard Bearer. He was slain in 1403 at the battle of Shrewsbury, together with Sir Hugh Shirley and two others knights, accoutred in the royal coat-armour:—

"Semblably furnished like the King himself."

Shakespeare introduces him in his Hen. IV. (Part 1, Act iv., Scene 3) as sent to offer terms to the rebels before the battle:—

"Hotspur. Welcome, Sir Walter Blunt;
And 'would to God You were of our determination!
Some of us love you well: and even those some
Envy your great deserving, and good name,
Because you are not of our quality,
But stand against us as an enemy.

Blunt. And Heaven defend, but still I shall stand so,
So long as, out of limit and true rule,
You stand against anointed Majesty!"

He has left his name to Barton-Blount, near Derby, which, with Elvaston and other estates, he bought of the family of Bakapuz. His Spanish wife had brought him four sons. The eldest, Sir John, was again bred in the wars; and surpassed his father in feats of renown. He was Governor of a Garrison in Acquitaine in 1412, and "being there besieged by the Marshal of France, with three hundred men vanquished all the Marshal's Army; took Prisoners twelve persons of Note, and others to the number of one hundred and twenty."—Dugdale. For this service he received the Garter in the ensuing year. His brother and successor Sir Thomas was Treasurer of Normandy, and the father of Walter, Lord Treasurer of England, who was created Lord Mountjoy by Edward IV., in 1465.[79] He had discarded the Lancastrian traditions of his house, and "became so active a person in the King's service in that troublesome time," that he received an ample share of the confiscated estates, including those of the Earl of Devon, Sir William Carey, and Sir William Vaux. But, although thus generously endowed, his posterity was not found among those devote'd families that "withered with the White Rose." His grandson, the fourth Lord Mountjoy, was called to the Privy Council on the accession of Henry VII.; and fourteen years afterwards had "a speciall Grant from the King of all the Preheminences, Dignities, Honours, Mannors, &c, which his Father enjoyed." Henry VIII. appointed him master of the Mint of the Tower of London, as well as "throughout the Realm of England and the Town of Calais." Both father and son employed him, and in the latter reign he subscribed the articles against Cardinal Wolsey, and the famous letter to Pope Clement VII. regarding the Queen's divorce. His son Charles, fifth Lord, served in the rear-guard of the army sent to France in 1544: and "by his Testament made at that time, ordained a Stone to be laid over his Grave in case he should there be slain; with this following Epitaph thereon, for a Memorial to his Children; to continue and keep themselves worthy of so much Honour, as to be called hereafter to dye for their Master and Country:—

'Willingly have I sought,
And willing have I found,
The fatal end that brought
Me hither, as duty bound.
Discharg'd I am of that I ought
To my Country by honest ownde;
My Soul departed Christ hath bought,
The end of Man is ground.'"

It does not appear, however, that he fell in battle, though he died in the following year. Second in descent from him was another Charles, who, as eighth Baron, succeeded in 1594 to "a fortune much sunk by the extravagance of his grandfather, his father's obstinate pursuit of the philosopher's stone, and his brother's profuseness." He was tall and extremely good-looking, and when he first appeared at Court at the age of twenty, made so agreeable an impression on Queen Elizabeth, that she gave him her hand to kiss, saying, "Fail not to come to Court, and I will bethink myself how to do you good." She was true to her word; and "having run one day very well at tilt," he received from her an enamelled chess-queen as a token of her favour. Lord Essex, seeing it on his sleeve, cried contemptuously, "Now I perceive every fool must have a favour;" and for these jealous words the aspiring young gentleman challenged and fought him, wounding him in the thigh. Yet soon after this—no doubt because Blount fell in love with the Earl's sister, they became fast friends. He was one of the commanders of the dauntless little fleet that encountered the Armada; succeeded Essex as Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1597, and within three years had "broken the hearts of the Irish rebels," and effected the conquest of the country. "He had," says Camden, "no superior and but few equals for valour and learning;" and was pre-eminently gifted with the genius of command. When he first landed in Ireland, revolt was rampant on every side, and he found himself master only of a few miles of the country round Dublin. But under his stern rule all was changed; the insurrection mastered and stamped out; a Spanish force sent to support it gallantly repulsed at Kinsale; its leader, Hugh O'Neill, taken prisoner and brought in triumph to Dublin; and the Earl of Desmond, who had attempted another rising, forced to fly for his life. King James, on his accession, re-appointed him as Lord Lieutenant, created him Earl of Devonshire, and made him Master of the Ordnance and a Knight of the Garter, with large grants both of money and land. But he did not long enjoy his honours and rewards, for he died in 1606 of a burning fever, "brought," as his secretary Morrison avers, "by grief of unsuccessful love to his last end." Yet he had, in the previous year, married his early flame, Lord Essex's sister Penelope, with whom he had exchanged lover's vows, and even promises of marriage before she became the reluctant wife of Lord Rich. At his solicitation, she broke her marriage vows, bore him several children, and was in the end divorced by her husband. She was then re-married to her paramour, the ceremony being performed by Lord Devonshire's chaplain, Laud; which "gave such a wound to the reputation" of the future Archbishop, that, though he strove to vindicate himself by a written apology, the sense of disgrace is said by his biographer Heylin to have shortened his days.

Penelope and her illegitimate children were well provided for by the Earl's will; and Mountjoy, her eldest son, 'received an Irish peerage from James I., and the Earldom of Newport in the following reign. But the title expired with the two next Earls.

Thus ended the Lords Mountjoy; but the senior house from which they sprung, the Blounts of Sodington, survive them, and are yet to be found at their ancient seat in Worcestershire. Sodington—once a place of some strength, moated round, with four drawbridges, was burnt to the ground by Cromwell's soldiers, because its inmates refused to make weapons for them at their forge. Sir Walter Blount, the first baronet, who was then its owner, had four sons in the King's army, and passed many years of his life in the Tower.

Two other junior branches, the Blounts of Orleton, and the Blounts of Maple Durham, likewise remain; for it has been the rare fortune of this great house to be still able to count up many descendants in the male line, and the renowned name brought to England eight hundred years ago runs no chance of extinction. Yet, by a strange anomaly, its actual representatives—the acknowledged heirs of its most ancient line—do not bear it. They are called by the name that was taken by their ancestor Nicolas in the reign of Henry IV. (see p. 153), and remain to this day the Crokes of Studley in Oxfordshire.

The family crest is striking: it is an armed foot in the sun, with the motto Lux tua, Via mea.

Beaupere :

Beaupre, or Beaupreaux, from Anjou. This family bore Argent, on a bend Azure a pellet between two 'cross crosslets Or; and was seated in Norfolk from the time of the Conquest. Beaupre Hall, in the parish of Outwell, which took its name from them, was brought to John de Beaupre, "whose ancestors had considerable possessions in these townships," in the thirteenth century by Christiana de St. Omer. Edmund Beaupre, the last heir male, who received a grant of West Dereham Abbey in 1553, died in 1567.

In Cornwall the Beaupres are mentioned as land-owners in 1323, but became extinct in the course of that century. The heiress married Trevanion.—Lysons. They are also found in Shropshire. Beaupre's Chantry in Ludlow Church, was founded by Peter Beaupre; and "one Oliver Beaupre presented thereto in 1518."—Eyton's Shropshire. Beaupre Castle, near Cowbridge, "the ancient and favourite seat of the Sitsylt family," was so named from the Welsh Maes Essylt, of which it is a translation.

Beuill :

or Boiville; variously spelt Boville, Boeville, Beeville, and Buvilla—in the Dives Roll it is Biville—from Beuville, near Caen. Two of this name are entered in Domesday: Humphrey de Buiville, a baron in Herefordshire; and William de Bocvilla, an under tenant in Suffolk. Their descendants must have been numerous, for "the family was widely spread in England, and in 1165 held sixteen knight's fees."—The Norman People. I find mention made of them in eleven different counties; and yet am only able to trace—and that tentatively—the posterity of the mesne-lord, William. Sir Philip de Boville (perhaps his son), in the time of Henry I., gave lands to Wykes Priory in Essex, his grant being confirmed by his suzerain, Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex; and William de Boville occurs in Essex and Herts in 1130 (Rot. Pip.). Paul de Boville lived in the ensuing reign; and in 1165 Otwell de Boville held—again in Essex—of the Honour of Mandeville and De Thame (Lib. Niger). Richard de Bovill, who gave his name to Bovill's manor, temp. Henry II., "was a considerable man in these parts, and a benefactor to St. Botolph's Priory, Colchester, in 1189. And both he and William de Bovill were also benefactors to the Abbey of St. Osith."—Morant's Essex. They held Letheringham, in Suffolk, of the Glanvilles, with whom they afterwards intermarried, and continued till the time of Edward II., when Nicholaa, one of the daughters of William de Bovill, carried Letheringham to Simon FitzRichard.—v. Page's Suffolk. A branch of the family, descended from Sir Philip, was seated in Norfolk till about the middle of the fourteenth century. The last heiress, Margery, married 41 Edward III. All bore Quarterly Or and Sable, the coat of their suzerains, differenced only in tincture.

None of the other considerable families of the name can by any possibility be connected with this, unless it be the Bevils of Chesterton, knights, in Huntingdonshire, "an ancient family," says Camden, "famous in this county, whose heirs general were married to Hewitt, Elnes, and Dryden."

We next meet with the Bevills in the remotest corner of England. "The first Bevill at the Conquest was an officer under the Earl of Morton and Cornwall. One of his descendants married a Gwairnick heiress, who brought him the land of that name, which became the seat of the Bevills for about ten generations."—Gilbert's Cornwall. They bore Ermine a bull passant Sable. The last heir died in the time of Henry VIII. "Guerneck a late was one of the Maner Places of Boville alias Beville. This Name cam out of Base Normandy, and long continued there, ontylle of late tyme it felle onto two Doughters of Boville, whereof the one was maryed unto Arundell of Trerice now lyving. The other to Granville; and so they devide almost three hundred Markes of Lande."—Leland. This latter, Maud Bevill, the wife of Sir Richard Grenville of Buckland, Marshall of Calais under Henry VIII., was the mother of an heroic race. Her son was the bold sea-captain that "courted danger as a mistress," and matched his single ship against the whole Spanish fleet: her great-grandson the Cavalier leader Sir Bevill, that hallowed her ancestral name with imperishable renown.

In Cumberland a family of Boyvills was seated at Skelton in the time of Henry I. "Those of the principal line were Lords of Levington. It soon came to be divided among female issue, and passed in six parts to the respective families with whom they intermarried."—Hutchinson's Cumberland. The father of Godard de Boyville (named in ancient evidences Godardus Dapifer) was enfeoffed by Ranulph de Meschines of the great manor of Millum, in that county, which was held by his heirs-male till the reign of Henry III., when it passed through an heiress to the Huddlestones. The Boyvilles are said to have been very near of kin to Ranulph, and a romantic legend is attached to their first possession of Millum. "The Baron of Egremont being taken prisoner beyond the seas by the infidels, could not be redeemed without a great ransom, and being for England, entered his brother or kinsman for his surety, promising, with all possible speed, to send him money to set him free; but upon his return home to Egremont, he changed his mind, and most unthankfully and unnaturally suffered his brother to lie in prison, in great distress and extremity, untill his hair was grown to an unusual length, like a woman's hair. The Pagans being out of hopes of the ransom, in great rage most cruelly hanged up their pledge, binding the long hair of his head to a beam in the prison, and tied his hands so far behind him, that he could not reach to the top when the knot was fastened to loose himself: during his imprisonment, the Paynim's daughter became enamoured of him, and sought all good means for his deliverance, but could not enlarge him. She understanding of this last cruelty, by means made to his keeper, entered the prison, and taking her knife to cut the hair, being fastened, she cut the skin of his head, so as, with the weight of his body, he rent away the rest, and fell down to the earth half dead. But she presently took him up, causing surgeons to attend him secretly, till he recovered his former health, beauty and strength; and so entreated her father for him, that he set him at liberty. Then, desirous to revenge his brother's ingratitude, he got leave to depart to his country, and took home with him the hatterell of his hair, rent off as aforesaid, which he commonly used to carry about with him, when he was in England, where he shortly arrived: and coming towards Egremont Castle about noon-tide of the day, where his brother was at dinner, he blew his bugle-horn, which (says the tradition) his brother the baron presently acknowledged, and thereby conjectured his brother's return; and then sending his friends and servants to learn his brother's mind to him, and how he had escaped, they brought back the report of all the miserable torment that he had endured for his unfaithful brother the baron; which so astonished the baron (half dead before with the shameful remembrance of his own disloyalty and breach of promise), that he abandoned all company, and would not look upon his brother, till his just wrath was pacified by diligent entreaty of the friends. And to be sure of his brother's future kindness, he gave the lordship of Millum to him and his heirs for ever. Whereupon the first Lords of Millum gave as their arms the horn and hatterell."—Ibid. They "held the manor with great liberties, and had Jura Regala there." A younger branch, seated at Kirksanton in the same county, continued till the reign of Edward II.

Nichols mentions a family of Boyvilles of Stockeston in Leicestershire, that bore Gules a fesse Or between three sattires humette Argent.

Barduedor :

Barbedor in Leland's copy; where we find it joined to Brette, the next name, curiously transformed into "Broth." It is impossible to identify this knight of the golden beard, even though bearded men were rare enough to be signalized in the Conqueror's army. Humphrey de Bohun was "Humphrey with the Beard:" Robert de Umfraville "Robertus Barbatus;" and the "Hugo Barbatus" entered in Domesday is supposed by Sir Henry Ellis and others to have been Hugh de Montfort. But him he assuredly could not be, for Hugh de Montfort with the Beard was slain in single combat with Walkelin de Ferrers more than thirty years before the Conquest. (See Wace.) Though the colour of the beard is in no case given, it is possible that the Hugo Barbatus of Domesday was this Barbe d' Or; but this can obviously be no more than a suggestion. Hugo was a baron in Hampshire.

Be this as it may, Barbedor occurs as a surname in the early part of Edward I.'s reign. Robert Barbedor was of Kent, William Barbedor of Kent and Northamptonshire, and Roger Barbedor of Kent and Huntingdonshire c. 1272.—Rotuli Hundredorum.

Brette :

from Brette in Maine, or possibly short for Breton. Roger Brito, or Brette appears in Domesday, holding land under the Church at Long Sutton in Somersetshire, where the family was afterwards seated at Sandford-Bret. "By what means Sandford came into their possession does not appear; but in the time of Henry I. it was held by Simon Bret, of the honour of Dunster, by the service of half a knight's fee. This Simon had two sons; Richard, who was called Brito, and was one of the persons principally concerned in the murder of Thomas a Beckett, and Edmund, who from this place had the surname of de Sandford."—Collinson's Somerset. Richard le Bret and three other knights left Henry II.'s court in Normandy on the same errand in December 1170, crossed over to England, and put the Archbishop to death in his own cathedral church of Canterbury, believing they would find favour with the king by ridding him of his redoubtable adversary. (See Fitzurse.) Fitzurse and Tracy first struck down Beckett with their swords, and as he lay on his face, bleeding and helpless, Le Bret dispatched him with one terrific blow on the head, that fractured the skull and completely severed the scalp,[80] exclaiming (in allusion to a quarrel of Beckett with Prince William), "Take this for love of my lord William, brother of the King!" The sword snapped in two on the marble pavement; and the broken point, found lying where it fell, afterwards became an object of special devotion to the Canterbury pilgrims. It was presented to each in turn to be kissed, and was treasured up in a wooden chest placed on the altar of "The Martyrdom," more commonly named from it Altare ad Punctum Ensis, or the "Sword's Point." Le Bret himself is said to have died in Palestine, where the Pope had sentenced him to do penance by fighting the Saracens. His daughter Maud and his grand-daughter Alice are mentioned as benefactors of Woodspring Priory (dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury by the grandson of another of his murderers) in the hope, expressed by Alice, "that the intercession of the glorious martyr might never be wanting to her and her children."

None of the usual judgments believed to be consequent upon sacrilege appear to have fallen on the Brets. They were among the principal barons of Somerset at the time of the murder, and remained in peaceful possession of Sandford-Bret till 1360. "Walter Brito, in the reign of Henry II., had the manor of Whitestanton by the grant of the Crown, and was progenitor of a respectable family who possessed it till the beginning of the present century. Richard, son of Robert Bret of Whitestanton, was one of the translators of the Bible now used in our churches and private families; he was well versed in the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, Arabic, and AEthiopian languages, and published several books of history, biography, and criticism. He died in 1637, and was buried at Quainton in Bucks, of which parish he was rector.—Collinson's Somerset.

The name appears in several other parts of the country; we find it in the thirteenth century in the chartulary of Brecknock Abbey: in 1309 Geffrey le Bret was one of the Barons of Ireland; and there were Le Brets in Cheshire up to the sixteenth century. The knight with the vermilion shield mentioned on the Roll of Carlaverock

"Mais Euermenions de la Brette
La baniere eut toute rougecte:"

who was held in great consideration both by Edward I. and Edward II., and constantly employed in diplomatic affairs, is said to have been of Gascon origin.

Barrett :

This name is written in Domesday. In the time of Edward the Confessor, "Baret" was the owner of some lands in Yorkshire, which he held after the Conquest as a subtenant of Ilbert de Lacy. The family was very widely spread. Hasted, in his History of Kent, enumerates six different counties in which they were settled. In Wiltshire, they were seated at Titherton Lucas till 1627. In Cornwall, Leland tells us, "Barret a Man of mene Landes dwellith bytwixt Gullant and Lantient Pile." But it is only with the Kentish family, the most considerable among them, that we have here to do.

Hasted does not trace them further back than 1335, when John de Barrett was seated at Perry Court, and held lands at Hawkhurst. His son Thomas was then dead, and he was succeeded by a grandson Robert de Barrett, who died 9 Ric. II., and was the father of Valentine and John.

Valentine left only a daughter behind him, married to John Darell of Cale Hill. He had served as Sheriff of Kent 6 Hen. IV.; and dying in 1440, was "buried in the chancel of Preston Church, where his portraiture in brass, habited in armour, with his sword and spurs on, still remains; as does that of Cicele his wife, who died two years afterwards." She was one of the co-heirs of the Leses of Lese Court.

John Barrett, the younger brother, transplanted the family into Essex, where he acquired "the ancient and fair seat" of Aveley Belhouse through Alice eldest daughter of Nicholas de Belhouse—a cadet of an ancient Cambridgeshire family—from whom the place derived its name. On the death of her brother John in 1397, she became his co-heiress; and from that date till 1644, a period of nearly two hundred and fifty years, her inheritance was transmitted in regular succession to seven generations of descendants. Her husband was probably the John Barret who lies buried in a chapel he founded in St. Mary's Church at Bury St. Edmund's, at the end of the north nave aisle, and the roof above it bears his mottoes, "God me guyde," and "Grace me governe," placed diagonally on the rafters. They are repeated over the place of the great rood; and his altar tomb, bearing a figure in a winding sheet, and some half-effaced inscriptions, stands at the east end of the south aisle. Another John, their great grandson, became "eminent in the Law," and is praised for his eloquence by Leland. He rebuilt Belhouse, and added to his estate. But in this respect, at least, his successor was even more fortunate, for his wife was the heiress of Thomas Dinely of Stoke-Dinely in Berkshire (whose widow became his father's second wife), and brought him, with several illustrious quarterings,—she claimed descent from the old Barons Fitzherbert and Milo Earl of Hereford—a very considerable property in Berkshire and Hampshire.

The most note-worthy of the family was its last representative, Sir Edward Barrett, who received a Scottish peerage from Charles I. He succeeded to his grandfather very early in life; and soon after coming of age in 1601 set out on his travels, spending several years abroad. "He was at Florence in 1606; and before that had been in Spain. King James I. knighted him; and in 1618, granted him a Charter of Free-warren in his Manor of Belhouse, &c, about which time he made the Park. In the beginning of the year 1625 he was appointed Embassador to France; but it doth not appear that he went thither. The 17th of October, 1627, he was created Baron Newburgh of Fife in Scotland; and 20th July, 1628, was sworn Privy Counsellor to King Charles I. The 20th of August following he took his seat as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Afterwards he was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, which he enjoyed as long as he lived. Upon Bishop Juxon's resigning the staff of Lord Treasurer, that office was put into the hands of the Lord Newburgh, with four other of the chief Officers of the Crown. He was a man of a very amiable and respectable character, and lived with great hospitality."—Morant's Essex. He was twice married, but left no posterity at his death in 1644, and bequeathed Aveley Belhouse to a remote kinsman, Richard Lennard, the younger son of Lord Dacre. From this Richard, who added the name of Barrett to his own, and quartered their coat, descended Thomas Barrett Lennard, seventeenth Baron Dacre.

Lord Newburgh's only sister Dorothy, the wife of Charles, second and last Lord Stanhope of Harrington, was childless.

Fuller quotes the following account of "an Esquire of signall note" belonging to this family: "Thomas Barryt Squyr to Kyng Harry the Sixt, oftentimes employed in the French warrs under the command of John Due of Norfolk, being alway trew leige man to his Soveraign Lord the King, having taken Sanctuary at Westminstre to shon the fury of his and the King's enemyes, was from these hayled forth, and lamentably hewyn a peces, about whilke tym or a lityl before, the Lord Skales late in an evening entrying a Wherry Bott with three persons, and rawghing toowards Westminstre, there likewise too have taken Sanctuary, was discride by a woman, where anon, the wherry man fell on him murthered him, and cast his mangled corpes alond by St. Marie Overy." This happened in 1461.

Weever, in his Funeral Monuments, identifies this murdered squire with Thomas, son and heir of John Barret and the heiress of Belhouse. But, according to Morant, "it is plain from an ancient deed bearing date twenty years before 1461 that he was then Dead."

Bonrett :

for Bourte.—v. Leland. Ralph de Burt, in 1165, held part of a knight's fee of Robert Fitz Hugh in Lincolnshire.—Liber Niger. Some subsequent—but very scanty—notices of the family are to be found in Blomfield's Norfolk. "Hamo, son of Burt, 5 King John releases to the Bishop of Norwich his right of commonage in the town of Elmham and Brisley. Sir Hamo de Burt witnesses a grant to Normansburgh Priory. One of the same name was Lord of Horningtoft 43 Hen. III., and had two sons, Ralph, and Thomas. Ralph granted this manor, by fine, to Sir Thomas his brother, who 18 Ed. I. disposed of it to Nicholas de Castello. Bourt's Manor, in the parish of Mendham, was held by Daniel Burt in 1345."

A very similar—if not the same name, occurs at about the same date in Worcestershire. "Birt's Morton, or Brute's Morton, took its name from Randolfe Brute, to whom it was granted by John, Baron of Monmouth. His son Walter, in the time of Edward I. had two daughters, and gave Birt's Morton to the youngest."—Nash's Worcestershire.

Bainard :

The author of "The Norman People," traces back this name to Bernard or Benard, a grandson of Ranulph, the deposed Duke of Acquitaine (living in the tenth century) whose grandsons were called Benard or Bainard after him. They were, 1. Hubert Fitz Ralph, Viscount of Maine, celebrated for his two years' resistance to the Conqueror's army, when besieged in his castle of Ste. Suzanne: 2. Ralph Bainard, Viscount of Lude, whose son lost the vast barony of Baynard's Castle: and 3. Geoffrey Bainard or de Beaumont.

Ralph, thus affiliated to the great Carlovingian house of Maine, was a powerful Domesday baron, holding forty-four manors in Norfolk, twenty-five in Essex, thirteen in Suffolk, and three in Hertfordshire. The head of his Honour was a castle that he built in the city of London, of which he was hereditary chastilian and banner-bearer. This office was held in fee by all the subsequent owners of Chastel-Baynard, or Baynard's Castle, and entitled them to the possession of a soke or ward in the city, with many feudal rights and privileges.—v. Blount's Tenures. In time of war the Chastilian was bound to come, "he being the twentieth man of arms on horseback," in full armour, with his banner displayed before him, to the great west door of St. Paul's, where the Mayor, with his Sheriffs and Aldermen, came out of the church to receive him, bearing the City banner, the image of St. Paul in gold, with the face, hands, feet, and sword, in silver. The Chastilian alighted from his horse, saluted the Mayor, and said: "Sir Mayor, I am come to do my service which I owe to the city." Thereupon the Mayor presented the banner to him, with these words: "We give to you, as to our banneret of fee in this city, the banner of this city to bear and govern, to the honour and profit of this city, to your power." He further received the gift of a charger, fully accoutred, and twenty pounds sterling for his expenses that day; and mounting with the banner in his hand, he called upon the Mayor to choose a marshal for the host, and bade him and the burgesses of the city "warn the commons to assemble and all go under the banner of St. Paul." Then, riding in state to Aldgate, he there committed the banner to "whom he thought proper" as his deputy.

There is little else to tell of Ralph Bainard. He was dead in 1104, when Juga, supposed to be his widow, was seized of his barony, and founded Dunmow Priory.[81] Geoffrey Bainard, in 1106, was her son and heir; and was succeeded by William Bainard, who, taking part with his kinsman Elias, Earl of Maine, Philip de Braose, William Malet, and others, against Henry I., was deprived of his barony. The King granted it to a younger son of Richard Fitz Gilbert, from whom descended the Barons Fitz Walter.

Some manors that the disinherited elder line had previously granted to a younger branch abone escaped forfeiture. Robert Baynard, a cousin of the attainted Baron, was Lord of Merton and some other Norfolk estates that had formed part of Ralph's possessions in 1086; and in 1165 his son Fulk was certified to hold eight and a half knight's fees in the county of Robert Fitz Walter, as of his barony of Baynard's Castle. From Fulk descended a second Robert Baynard or Banyard, as the name was sometimes spelt, a man "of great note in the time of Edward II.," who entrusted him with the custody of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, as well as of Norwich Castle, and summoned him to parliament in 1313. "Moreover, he was likely the same Robert, who, being one of the justices of the King's Bench, in that capacity had summons to parliament, 2 and 3 Ed. III., among the judges, and the rest of the King's council."—Banks. His son Fulk left only three daughters and coheiresses, Isabel, Emma, and Maud; of whom the eldest married Sir Thomas de Grey, and brought him Merton, the present seat of his descendant and representative, Lord Walsingham.

Contemporary with Robert Baynard of Merton was another Robert Baynard, likewise a Norfolk man, who in 1313 had license to embattle his manor-house at Hautboys, "a circumstance while it tends to point out two distinct persons, leaves a degree of doubt as to which was the identical Robert who had the summons to parliament among the barons of the realm."—Ibid. His line, too ended in the next generation. His son died s. p., and Joan his daughter inherited, and married Edmund de Thorpe.

The name that had perished in Norfolk lingered on in the adjacent counties. There was a Thomas Baynard who was Lord of Hardebergh, in the parish of Messing, Essex, in the year 1200, and left descendants that continued in the male line for two hundred and seventy-three years. The last of them, Richard Baynard, left as his sole heir his daughter Grace, twice married; first, to Thomas Langley: and secondly, to Edward, son of Sir Thomas Daniel, Baron of Rothmare, and Lord Deputy of Ireland under Edward IV., by Margaret Howard, daughter of John Duke of Norfolk. They have left their name to Baynard's manor.—Morant's Essex. Another family was seated at Spexhall, in Suffolk. One of the daughters and coheirs of Henry Baynard of Spexhall married John Throgmorton of All-Hallows, who died in 1510.—Suckling's Suffolk.

Barniuale :

from Barneville, a castle in the arrondissement of Valognes, on the seacoast adjoining Carteret. No remains of it now exist, unless the mound near the church on which it once stood may be so called; and from the nature of its position, it can only have been a poor and indefensible place. Yet it gave birth to the renowned crusader,

"Ruggier di Balnavilla infra gli egregi,"

whose praises have been sung by Tasso. He followed Robert of Normandy to the Holy Land in 1096, and is cited by the historians of the crusade as the best and bravest leader in the Christian army. All prized and honoured him—both friend and foe; for he won the respect and confidence of the Moslem, even while proving himself the most formidable of their adversaries. He signalized himself by his feats of arms at the siege of Nicea, and was one of the heroic band that scaled the walls of Antioch. But when, shortly after, the Christian host was itself beleaguered within them by a vast body of Saracens, Roger de Barneville, leading a successful sally, and in his headlong courage adventuring too far in the pursuit, fell into an ambuscade, and was slain. The funeral honours paid to him by his sorrowing comrades, and the mourning and lamentation that filled the whole Christian camp, are fully detailed in the Gesta Dei per Francos.

"We lose sight of this family," writes Sir Francis Palgrave, "in England, but they subsequently settled in the Scottish Lowlands." Yet William de Barnevile witnesses the foundation charter of Kirkham Abbey in the time of Henry I. (Mon. Angli.). We find them in Scotland in the following generation, for in a treaty made in 1175 between Henry II. and King William, Robert de Barnevile was one of the Scottish hostages. Henry de Barnevile held of the Bishop of Winchester 1189-90 (Rot. Pip.) and Richard Barnevile, 21 Ed. I. granted lands in Chale, Isle of Wight (County History).

One of the Barneviles—Burke calls him Sir Michael—crossed over to Ireland in the time of Henry II., took from the O'Sullivans Berehaven in the county of Cork, and founded one of the most powerful families of the English pale. The dispossessed clan had their revenge; they concerted a secret rising, fell upon their invaders unawares, and put all but one of them to the sword. Some say this rescued heir was absent in England; others that he was a posthumous child at that time unborn, whose mother had escaped the general slaughter; it is only certain that he was the sole survivor, and settled at Drumnagh, near Dublin, where some of his descendants remained till the reign of James I. His name has not been preserved; but he left two sons, Hugh, who died s. p. in 1237, and Reginald, the ancestor of the existing family. Fourth in descent from this Reginald was the Sir Ulfram, who first took up his abode at Crickston, co. Meath, for twelve generations the seat of his successors. From his eldest grandson, Sir Christopher, the families of Crickston and Trimleston both derived; from the second, John, of Frankston, came the Viscounts Kingsland.

Of these three lines, the elder alone is now represented. Sir Patrick Barnewall of Crickston, the head of the house, was created a baronet by Charles I. in 1622. His son took an active part against Cromwell; was "excepted from pardon for life or estate" by a special act of Parliament in 1652; and only lived long enough to see the Restoration, and recover his land. His posterity has never failed.

Sir Christopher's second son Robert married an Irish heiress, and was created Baron of Trimleston on the accession of Edward IV., "in consideration of the good and faithful service done by him in Ireland for that King's father." His grandson, John, third Lord, an eminent lawyer, was appointed in 1522 Vice Treasurer, in 1524 High Treasurer, and in 1534 High Chancellor of Ireland; and the fifth Lord was, according to Holingshed, "a rare nobleman, endowed with sundry good gifts, well wedded to the reformation of his miserable country." This title was borne for four hundred and eighteen years, only ending in 1879 with the sixteenth Lord Trimleston.

The Viscounts Kingsland, descended from John Barnewall of Frankston, had become extinct nearly fifty years before. Their title was conferred in 1645 on Nicholas Barnewall of Turvey, who, on the breaking out of the Great Rebellion, had been commissioned to raise forces for the defence of the city and county of Dublin, as a reward for his zeal and loyalty. His grandfather, Sir Patrick, who built the manor house of Turvey, and is called by Holingshed "a deep and a wise gentleman, the lanthorn and light as well of his house, as of that part of Ireland where he dwelt; of nature mild, rather choosing to pleasure where he might harm, than willing to harm where he might pleasure," could boast of a family of four sons and no less than fifteen daughters! The fourth and fifth Viscounts, as members of the Church of Rome, were disqualified from taking their seats in Parliament; but the fifth Lord Kingsland, "being early initiated in the principles of the Protestant religion as by law established," was admitted to the House of Lords in 1787. This line terminated with his son in 1833.

Bonnet :

Fuller tells us that "Bonet, or Benet, was one of such persons as, after the Battle, were advanced to Seigneuries in this land of Glamorgan," when he held Penelawdd, in Gower. From him Sir Bernard Burke somewhat vaguely derives the Bennetts of Laleston in Glamorganshire.

But I very much doubt whether Bennett is the name here intended. A family of Bonett, said to have come from the neighbourhood of Alencon, is found in Sussex very soon after the Conquest, and held of De Braiose. Roger Bonitas, in 1073, witnessed a charter of William de Braiose (Mon. i. 581). "In 1268 Haymen Bonet paid to William de Braiose eighteen marks of silver to exonerate his lands in Wowend and Wappingthorpe from the claim of murage. In the Testa de Nevill we find Robert Bonet possessed of Steyning, held of the Honour of Bramber, and in 1351 Margaret, wife of William Bonet, died seized of it."—Dallaway's Sussex. This is all he can tell us of them.

The name is, however, forthcoming in other counties. John Bonet was Sheriff of Staffordshire 1224-1227: and Custos of Salop 1225-1227: and possibly the same John Bonet, who, with William Earl of Salisbury, was Joint-Sheriff of Lincoln in 1217, and the four following years. This implies him to have been a person of wide possessions and weighty influence.

Barry :

"Camden, in his Britannia, says that this name is derived from the island of Barry, in Glamorganshire (so called from Baruch, a holy man buried there); but the common ancestor is considered to be William Barry (otherwise de Barri), who married Angareth, daughter to Nesta, the daughter of Rhese ap Griffith, Prince of South Wales, and sister to Robert Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz Gerald, two persons of great eminence in the annals of Ireland.[82] By her the said William had issue several sons, viz. Robert, Philip, Walter, and Gerald or Gerard Barry, well known by the name of Giraldus Cambrensis, and so denominated from the word Cambria, the ancient name of the county of Pembroke, within which he was born at Tenby, about the year 1146. He was afterwards Bishop of St. David's, and wrote a description of England, Ireland, and Wales."—Banks. His name marks a distinct epoch in the history of English literature. "Gerald is the father of our popular literature, as he is the originator of the political and ecclesiastical pamphlet. Welsh blood mixed with Norman in his veins, and something of the restless Celtic fire runs alike through his writings and his life. A busy scholar at Paris, a reforming archdeacon in Wales, the wittiest of Court chaplains, the most troublesome of bishops, Gerald became the gayest and most amusing of all the authors of his time. In his hands the stately Latin tongue took the vivacity and picturesqueness of the jougleur's verse. Reared as he had been in classical studies, he threw pedantry contemptuously aside. 'It is better to be dumb than not to be understood,' is his characteristic apology for the novelty of his style; 'new times require new fashions, and so I have thrown utterly aside the old and dry method of some authors.'.... His tract on the conquest of Ireland and his account of Wales, illustrate his rapid faculty of careless observation, his audacity, and his good sense .... His profusion of jests, his fund of anecdote, the aptness of his quotations, his natural shrewdness and critical acumen, the clearness and vivacity of his style, are backed by a fearlessness and impetuosity that made him a dangerous assailant even to such a ruler as Henry II."—Green.

In recounting the conquest of Ireland, Cambrensis gives a great character to his elder brother Robert, "a young knight of courage and resolution," who was conspicuous among the conquerors, serving under the banner of his maternal uncle, Robert Fitz Stephen. Sir William Pole claims him as a Devonshire man. "He was, as one proveth, a native of this county, and so it may well be, for that name was possessed of large and fair inheritance in the time of the three first Edwards, and their armories yet in many places extant. He was one of the chief conquerors of that kingdom; of whom I find this special remembrance:—He chose rather among the first to be chief indeed than seem chief. He, in winning Ireland, put himself into sundry dangers and received many wounds, yet was the first that brought the hawk to hand."

Banks, on the other hand, places his domicile at the opposite extremity of England. "After his services in Ireland, he is represented to have seated himself at Sevington, in Kent; but however that may be, he returned again to Ireland, and about the year 1185 was killed at Lismore in the county of Waterford." He was succeeded by his next brother Philip, who "had a grant of three contreds of land in the county of Cork from his uncle, Robert Fitz-Stephen, whose daughter, it is said, he married. This Philip built the castle of Barry's Court, and endowed the friery of Ballybeg, co. Cork, 'in memory whereof his effigies on horseback were cast in brass, and set up in the church there.'" He had two sons, William and Robert; to which William, King John confirmed his uncle's gift of lands. He is said to have been one of the Recognitores Magna Assizae of the county of Kent, and to have lived at the Moate, where several of his successors, who were lieutenants of Dover Castle, and conservators of the peace in that county, had their residence. The Magna Britannia, p. 1125, relates that the daughter and heir of Robert Barry, of this line, carried the manor of Sevington, by marriage, into the family of Ratcliffe.

"But it seems," continues Banks, "that Robert Barry, younger brother of William, founded the honours of the family." The Irish estates had been made over to him by agreement; and his grandson David, Viscount of Buttevant, "a rich noble baron," was appointed by Henry III. in 1267 Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, and forced into subjection the turbulent MacCarthys and Geraldines. From him came another David, who, with other great Irish landowners, had summons to attend the parliament held at Westminster in 35 Edward III. "But, though Sir William Dugdale has included this summons to an extraordinary council among his list of summons of the barons to parliament, it cannot be from thence concluded, that David Barry has any pretension to be ranked in the number of English nobility."—Ibid.

The Barrys had no further connection with England, and though, as a rule, they remained loyal to English interests, became thoroughly naturalized in their Celtic home. They had great possessions, and lived in lavish splendour. One of them (according to Sir Bernard Burke) gave an entire barony (or English hundred) to an Earl of Desmond as the marriage portion of his daughter. Another, who sat as Premier Viscount in the Irish Parliament of 1490, fell by the hand of his own brother. No uglier story is to be met with even in those troubled and terrible annals. The ruffian that shed his brother's blood was a consecrated priest!—more than that, one of the highest dignitaries of the Irish Church; for he was Archbishop of Cork and Cloyne. He, in his turn, was murdered by a third brother, Thomas Barry; and after his body had laid in the grave for twenty days, it was dug up and publicly burned at the ferocious command of Maurice Earl of Desmond.

In the time of James I., David Fitz-James, Viscount Buttevant, who, after beginning life as a rebel, had done good service subsequently to the Crown, received a grant of great part of the MacCarthy lands. His grandson and successor was created Earl of Barrymore in 1628; and the line was carried on to the present century, only expiring with the eighth Earl in 1824. His predecessor, though a man of some talent, had made himself notorious "by freaks which would have disgraced Buckingham or Rochester, until the accidental explosion of his musket, while he was conveying some French prisoners from Folkestone to Dover, as captain of the Berkshire Militia, put an end to his troubles and follies in 1793."—Sir Egerton Brydges.

This ancient stock is still represented by collateral branches.

Bryan :

or Brionne, from Brionne, Normandy; "a branch of the Counts of Bryonne, and the Earls of Clare and Hertford, descended from Gilbert, Count of Brionne, son of Richard I. of Normandy. Wido de Brionne, an ancestor of this branch, acquired a seignory in Wales about 1090. Baldwin de Brionne was Viscount of Devon in the Conqueror's time, and Wido de Brionne, of the Welsh line, held five fees of the barony of Oakhampton in 1165."—The Norman People. From him descended another Guy, a Welsh marcher-baron, who in 1257 was summoned to attend the King with horse and arms at Chester, "to repel the invasion of that unruly people." When the Baron's War broke out, he sided with the barons, who, after their victory at Lewes, committed to his charge Cardiff, and two other castles in Wales; but within two years he had "returned to due obedience," and in 1266 became one of the sureties for the peaceable conduct of Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford. He married the heiress of Barnstaple, Eve de Tracy, whose barony passed to her only daughter; but by a second marriage he had a son named after himself, who in 1331 was found to be of unsound mind, and the great Welsh fief was then transferred to the next heir. This latter, Guy or Guyon, the son of the lunatic, and appointed by Edward III. Constable of St. Briavel's, and Warden of the Forest of Dean, fought in his French and Scottish wars and was the father of the famous soldier with whom the line terminated. Guy IV. was one of the heroes of an heroic epoch; and from the time that he gained his earliest renown as Standard Bearer to Edward III. at Calais, in 1349, till his death in 1390, there is scarcely a break in the long succession of his services by land and by sea. He was a baron of the realm by writ in 1350; a banneret in 1355; a Knight of the Garter in 1375; three times sent on embassies, twice Admiral of the Fleet; and ever foremost in the victorious train of the last Edward and his son. But on the accession of Richard II., the aspect of the war changed; and his last mission must have been bitter to the soul of the old soldier, for it was to treat for peace with John, Duke of Brittany. He married Elizabeth de Montacute, daughter of the first Earl of Salisbury (who was then, for the second time, a widow) and had two sons; but his race was not fated to endure, for no single descendant remains of him even in the female line. His younger son left no issue; and two little grand-daughters, the children of the elder, Guy (who had died in his lifetime), remained his sole representatives. They were very young—Philippa not more than twelve, and Elizabeth nine—when, at their grandfather's death, they succeeded to a splendid inheritance, comprising lands in Devon (where Torre Brian still bears his name), Wales, Surrey, Middlesex, and Dorset.[83] In the end it came wholly to Elizabeth, for Philippa, who married John Devereux, remained childless, while her sister, who was the wife of Sir Robert Lovell, had one daughter, named Maud. This second heiress was twice married; first to John Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, and then to Sir Richard Stafford; by her first husband she had a son, Humphrey, Earl of Arundel; by her second, a daughter, Avice, Countess of Ormonde. But both son and daughter died s.p.

Bodin :

Raoul Botin on the Dives Roll: "a name well known in Richmondshire, and more generally afterwards, as the progenitor of the Fitz Hughs."—Whitaker. This Bodin appears in Domesday as the holder of a large estate in Yorkshire, including Tanfield (afterwards the lordship of the Marmions), which, "from the beauty of its situation, and the fertility of its soil, was one of the gems of the Earldom of Richmond," and Kirkby-Ravenswath, where he built his castle. He was a relative of Earl Alan, his feudal lord, and had come in his train from Brittany. Like some others of the Conqueror's companions-in-arms, he renounced the world, and ended his days as a monk of St. Mary's Abbey, York, having made over his lands to his younger brother, Bardolf, whose posterity held them for at least four hundred years. They ranked among the foremost of the great Yorkshire barons, and were a dominant and dauntless race, lording it over many a mile of the wild dales and moorlands of Hope and Arkendale, and present on every battlefield—whether within or without the four seas—where duty was to be done, or honour won.

"The Baron of Ravensworth prances in pride
As he views his domain upon Arkendale side;
The mere for his net, and the land for his game,
The chase for the wild, and the park for the tame."

Nothing now remains to mark their former state and sway but the crumbling ruins of their seignorial castle.

Bardolf followed his brother's example, and was shorn a monk in the same Abbey, on which, at Bodin's earnest solicitation, he had bestowed the churches of Patrick-Brompton and Kirkby Ravenswath. His son, Akaris, was the founder of another religious house, Fors Abbey, or the "Abbey of Charity," in Wensleydale; which, when it was translated by Conan, Earl of Richmond and Brittany (by permission of his heir, Hervey Fitz Akeris) to the field of East Wilton, in the green valley of the Yore (now the Ure), was thenceforward known as Jorevaulx. Fourth in descent from him was Hugh Fitz Henry, whose son, Henry Fitz Hugh, summoned to Parliament by Ed. II. in 1320, first transmitted this surname to his successors. He had taken part in five Scottish campaigns, and been appointed to hold Barnard Castle—one of the most important strongholds in the North—during the minority of the Earl of Warwick. There is extant a singular agreement that he made in 1327 with Sir Henry Vavasour, discharging him, by special instrument under his seal, of a debt of five hundred marks, on condition that Sir Henry's son should take to wife his daughter, Amabel. His grandson, who succeeded him in the barony, served for ten consecutive years in France under Ed. III., and had a son killed at Otterburne. The younger brother of this latter, who thus became heir, and was the third Lord Fitz Hugh, proved the most considerable man of the family. On the accession of Henry IV. he had been retained to serve the King for the term of his whole life; and he was thenceforward actively employed in peace and war. He helped to negotiate the truce with Scotland in 1403, the amount of the Princess Philippa's dowry on her marriage with Eric, King of Denmark, in the following year; the peace with Scotland in 1411; and represented England at the great Council of Constance in 1414. He was at that time Lord Chamberlain of Henry V.'s household, and had officiated at his coronation as Lord High Constable of England. He received two separate grants of ,£100 a year, one of them during the preceding reign; and all Lord Scrope of Masham's forfeited lands in Richmondshire were further bestowed upon him. He followed the King to France in 1415 and 1418, each time with a great train (on the latter occasion he had a retinue of eighty-eight men-at-arms, and two hundred and forty archers): was with the Duke of Exeter at the siege of Rouen; and three years later again in arms against the French. Nor did this by any means complete the tale of his services in the field. It is reported "that he travelled more than once to Jerusalem, and likewise beyond it to Grand Cairo, where the Souldan had his residence; and that in his return he fought with the Saracens and Turks; as also that by the help of the Knights of Rhodes he built a castle there, called St. Peter's Castle."—Dugdale. He married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Grey (son of John, Lord Grey, of Rotherfield, and brother and heir of John Grey, called Lord Marmion), by Lora, daughter and co-heir of Herbert de St. Quintin, by whom he had no less than eight sons and five daughters (Burke generously accords him six, and even intimates that he had "other issue"). But of the eight sons, at least six left no posterity. Three died young: Robert was Bishop of London; Henry was drowned in the Humber; and Ralph died in France. The first-born, Sir William, succeeded his father in 1425, and was followed in the next generation by Henry, fifth Lord, who received from Henry VI. the offices of Seneschal of the Honour of Richmond, and Chief Forester of Arkilgarth and La Hoppe, that had escheated to the Crown through the attainder of Richard, Earl of Salisbury. Though he remained a staunch Lancastrian, "yet did King Edward IV. look upon him with fair respect," and even occasionally employ him. He married Lady Alice Nevill, daughter of Richard, Earl of Salisbury, and died in 1472, leaving another goodly family of five sons and five daughters. But the same curious fatality pursued the sons—four died issueless; and it was their sister's descendants that eventually inherited. Richard, the eldest brother, was appointed Constable of Richmond, Middleham, and Barnard Castle, when Henry VII. came to the throne, and died about 1508, his only son, George, who was never married, only surviving him four years. With this seventh and last Lord Fitz Hugh the line ended, and the proud name died out that for so many centuries had shone with undimmed lustre in the North. His cousins and next heirs were found to be Alice, wife of Sir Sir John Fiennes, the eldest daughter of his grandfather, Henry, Lord Fitz Hugh, and Sir Thomas Parr, son of Elizabeth, another daughter, who re-married Nicholas, Lord Vaux. She was the grandmother of Henry VIII.'s Queen.

Beteuile :

Bertevile in Duchesne's copy; Bretteville, as it is twice given by Leland. In the Liber Niger it is spelt, as here, Betevile: for we there find Ralph de Betevill holding one fee of Hubert de Rie in Norfolk.

The barony of Bretteville was near Caen, and had been granted by the Duchess Gunnor to Mont St. Michel.—Recherches sur le Domesday. The name is entered among the "Gentilshommes Normands" in the Nobiliaire, as Sieurs de Francourt, bearing D'azur a trois glands d'or.

Gilbert de Bretteville was a Domesday baron, holding lands in Hampshire, Wiltshire, Oxfordshire, and Berkshire. The Hampshire Estate was in the hundred of Andover (the "Anna" country), for the most part on the Wiltshire border, at Bramshill, Stratfieldsaye, &c, and he likewise owned three houses at Southampton, of which the Conqueror granted him the customs.—Woodward's Hants. Of his posterity we hear nothing; but it seems likely that the William de Bretteville of Oxfordshire entered in the Rotuli Cancellarii of 1202, was his descendant. Hugh de Bretteville, in 1165, held half a fee of the old feoffment of Simon de Beauchamp in Bedfordshire; and in 1316 William de Bretteville, Bretvile, or Brutteville, senior, was one of the Lords of Barford in Bedfordshire and Yafforth in Yorkshire, and received a writ of summons to serve against the Scots in 1322. His son, William de Bretteville, junior, attended the great Council held at Westminster two years afterwards.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Four of the name are found in the Testa de Nevill: Eustace de Brutvil, who held, or had held, Bromley in Surrey; Galfrid de Bretteville, in Bettislow Wapentake, Lincolnshire: Robert, in the same county, holding one fee of John de Bayeux and another of the Archbishop of York; and Guy de Bretteville, a tenant of Reginald de Valletort's in Devonshire, holding eight knight's fees of his Honour of Totness.

Bertin :

"Helto Bertin was bailiff of Falaise in Normandy, about 1195. In 1165 Alexander de Bertona held lands in Kent (Lib. Niger), and the family was seated at Berstead, in that county, temp. Hen. II., and sometimes bore the name of De Berstead—(Ibid.). Walter de Berstede, 1257, was Viscount of Kent (Roberts, Excerpta), and in 1266 was a justiciary. In 1433 William Bertin was one of the Kentish gentry; and Simon Bertyn, who died 1530, devised lands at Bersted. Another branch, seated at Bersted also, altered the name to Berty or Bertie. Thomas Bertie, of this line was Captain of Hurst Castle, temp. Hen. VIII., and from him descended the Dukes of Ancaster, Earls of Lindsay, and Earls of Abingdon."—The Norman People. This derivation has at least the merit of verisimilitude, entirely wanting in the astonishing genealogy given in the Peerages, which declares that the Berties "first landed in England in company with the Saxons," and "descended from a family of free barons of Bertisland in Prussia." "For some centuries past a Freiherr von Bertisland would not be an impossible being: but in what age of the world would any one guess that these free barons lived who were the forefathers of the Berties of Kent? Unhappily from the fifth century to the eleventh, we have no mention of this remarkable stock; but in the time of AEthelred, by some astounding forestalling of language, fortification, and everything else, Leopold Bertie was not only Constable of Dover Castle, but had a private castle at 'Bertie-sted, now Bersted.' (The old form of Bersted happens to be Berhamstede)." This Leopold has a quarrel about tithes with the monks of Canterbury; a fray ensues, in which his son is slain: "the King gives Leopold no satisfaction:" and he induces Sweyn of Denmark to invade England: "then the Danes join Leopold's forces in Kent;" the siege of Canterbury and the captivity of Alfheah are the result. "Burbach Bertin, the only surviving son, flees to France:" but a descendant comes back in the twelfth century and recovers Bersted. To crown all in the time of Henry V. "Hieronimus Bertie" is excommunicated for trying to kill a monk for "assertions injurious to his ancestor Leopold." "On the whole," concludes Mr. Freeman, "this is perhaps the most monstrous of all our fictions."

Bereneuile :

Berneville in Leland's copy; Berville in the Dives Roll; and Bereville in Domesday, where Nigel de Berville is entered as a baron. He also held in Drayton under Bishop Odo.—Lipscomb's Bucks. The name was represented in Normandy up to the end of the last century, for it appears among the nobles of the Pays de Caux in the Assembly of 1789. William de Berneville was of Surrey in 1199 (Rot. Curiae Regis): and three of the family are entered in the Testa de Nevill:—all of them in Lincolnshire. Ralph de Berevill held in capite; Peter de Berevill, also of the King, at Kirkby and Shapwick; and Robert de Barevill was an undertenant at Barton. Hugo de Bernevall, of the same county, and Henry and William de Bernevile, of Essex, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum of Edward I.; and during his reign, a Sir Henry Bernevill (perhaps identical with the above) was seated at Hockworthy, in Devonshire. Robert de Barville or Berville held of the honour of Hoton-Paynell, and Thomas de Berville of George Luttrell, both in Yorkshire.—Kirkby's Inquest. Sir Henry Bernevile was succeeded at Hockworthy by Hugh, William, Henry, and Henry V.—Polwhele's Devon. In the uncertainty of mediaeval spelling, it is almost impossible to distinguish this name from Barneville.

Bellewe :

from Belleau, or Bella Aqua, in Normandy. "In 1165 this family held knight's fees in Kent, Berks, and York. Gilbert de Bella Aqua witnessed a charter of the Archbishop of York, c. 1140 (Mon. i. 476)."—The Norman People. "Gascoign and Bellew," says Hunter, in his History of South Yorkshire, "have both attempted to throw in exact genealogical detail what is known of the family of Bellew. They differ; and by both the absence of evidence has been supplied by conjecture. They appear to have inherited from an Adam de Sancta Maria, who lived before the age of private charters, and in him, as it seems from the long continued dispute about Bolton between the Annesleys and Bellews, who were both descended from him, Bolton was vested about the reign of Henry I. A William de Bellew appears holding Bolton of Newmarch, and also of Normanville, in Kirkby's Inquest. As late as 18 Ed. III. a John de Bellew was living, whose daughter Lucy married Sir Thomas de Burgh, and ultimately succeeded to his inheritance." They also held Warmsworth and Barnborough of the Newmarches. "In 23 Edward I. John de Bella Aqua or Bellew had summons to parliament among the barons of the realm, as also in the 24th of the same reign, to a great council to be holden at Newcastle-upon-Tyne; but only in those years, and not afterwards. He married Laderina, youngest of the four sisters and coheirs of Peter, the last Lord Brus of Skelton; and in her right, upon the partition of that inheritance, had the lordships of Carleton in Balne, Ramlesforth, Thorpe-Arches, Tibthorpe, and certain lands in Sethbarne—all in the county of York. They had issue three daughters and coheirs; Alicia, who married William Hunke, but died without issue. Sibilla, who married Milo de Stapleton; and Joan, who wedded Aucher Fitz Henry of Copped Hall, Essex; which last mentioned two coheirs divided the share of Laderina. But, according to a MS. in the Bodleian Library, he had two other daughters, namely Alicia and Lucia; of which the latter married Sir Thomas Burgh. Alicia, the other, appears to have died unmarried, and to have been buried in the Church of the Dominican Friars at York, being thus described, Dame Alys de Bella Aqua. In the same church are interred two others of the family, viz., Thomas de Bella Aqua, Chev. and Thomas de Bella Aqua. The said John died 29 Ed. I."—Banks. In spite of the confusion in the dates, this baron is clearly the John de Bellew spoken of by Hunter. One of the two Thomases above-named, living in the reign of Edward I., was the grandfather of Robert, Lord of Golborne-Belleau, whose heiresses were his two grand-daughters, Cecily and Margaret.

In Ireland the Bellews were very early established at Bellewstown, and are still represented at the present day. The common progenitor of all the different branches, Sir John Bellew of Bellewstown, lived in the latter end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century. From his eldest son Christopher descended another Sir John, who was raised to the peerage in 1686 by James II. as Baron Bellew of Duleck. He died in 1692, of a wound received at Aughrim; and was followed by his two sons, Walter and Richard, and his grandson John, the fourth and last Lord Bellew, who was three times married, but left only daughters. The title expired at his death in 1770. He bore Sable, fretty Or.

A second barony was granted in 1848 to Sir Patrick Bellew of Barmeath, co. Louth, who derived from the third son of the first-named Sir John; and has now passed to his son, as second Lord Bellew.

Beuery :

Hugh de Beverde was an undertenant in Suffolk 1086 (Domesday). Perhaps this name represents the Flemish Seigneurie of Bevere, mentioned by Anselme as held by the Seigneurs de Praet, descended from one of the illegitimate sons of Louis III. of Flanders. The next mention of the name in this country is c. 1163, when Everard de Bevere witnesses a charter of Baldwin de Bethune, Earl of Albemarle, to Monk's Horton Priory. Nicholas de Bouvere, 24 Ed. I. held the third part of a knight's fee at Brampton.—Bridge's Northants. John Bevere is mentioned among the gentry of Herefordshire in 1433. There is a place called Bevere, near Hampton-on-Thames, with which this family may possibly have been connected.

Busshell :

or Bussell; Buscel, according to Leland; Barons of Penwortham in the county of Lancaster. "Penwortham, the most northern of the parishes of Leyland hundred, contained one of the ancient castles of Lancashire, erected to guard the estuary of the Ribble when the channel of that river was wider than at present, and when the ancient city of Ribchester formed a Roman station. It was bestowed by William the Conqueror on Roger de Busli, joint lord of the hundred of Blackburn, and it is highly probable that the castle of Penwortham was one of the baronial residences of that favourite of his sovereign. Warine Bussel, supposed to have been the son (or brother) of Roger de Busli, was his successor, and ranks as the first Baron of Penwortham."—Baine's Lancashire. In Kenion's MS. he is styled Warinus Busli or Bushel. His son Richard was in possession in Henry I.'s time, and either he or his father founded a small Benedictine monastery there, which became a cell of Evesham Abbey. Richard left only daughters, and "to him," says Dugdale, "succeeded Albert his Brother: who had Issue Hugh. Which Hugh, being dispossess'd by John Earl of Moreton, had a Suit with him for it, and recovered it: But when John came to the Crown, he was constrained to give him XX Marks, for a Confirmation of his Title; and in 4 John four hundred Marks more, for a new Grant; having forfeited his Title, by some default, as was pretended. But long he enjoy'd it not; for in 7 Joh. Roger de Laci, Constable of Chester, had a Grant of it from that King." According to Baines, however, Hugh's brother Robert, was the last and fifth baron of the name of Bussel. The principal branch of the family ended soon afterwards. "Warin Bussel, the second of the name, had Robert Bussel of Leyland, whose heiress Avicia was married in 14 Henry III. to John de Farrington." But some of his kin evidently survived; for Baines tells us that "Spout, in the township of Euxton, was formerly the residence of the Bushels; of whom was Dr. Bushel, the founder of Goosnargh Hospital."

"Roger Buissel" is entered in Domesday as holding Sutton in Somersetshire. "This Roger," says Collinson, "was progenitor of the family of Bingham, who resided in this place, and gave it the addition of their name:" but why they called themselves Bingham he does not inform us. The Somersetshire line ended with an heiress in the time of Henry III.; but the family was of longer continuance in Devonshire. "Newton-Bushell was named from the Bushells, its possessors in the latter half of the thirteenth century. Teignweek was given in 1246 to Theobald de Englishville, and by him to his foster child and kinsman Robert Bushell. The Bushells continued until Richard II., when their heiress brought it to the Yardes. Bradley has long been the seat of the Lords of Newton-Bushell, and although much mutilated, still remains an interesting example in many of its details of a fortified mansion in the 13th century."—Worth's Devon. Other branches of the Bushells existed in Dorsetshire, Warwickshire, Hertfordshire, Nottinghamshire, and Kent.

Boranuille :

for Bourneville, though Leland makes it Bromevile. William de Bournaville held in Norfolk and Suffolk (Domesday): and settled in the latter county. "This most ancient family of Burnaville," say the Jermyn MSS. for Suffolk, "was seated at Livington, in Colnes Hundred, and very early extinct; for Sir William Burnaville died without issue male in the reign of Edward I., and left Margaret his sole daughter and heir, married to Jo. Weyland." In the Rotuli Hundredorum of Edward I. occur Robert de Burnavill in Yorkshire, Galfrid de Burnival in Kent and Norfolk, and John de Burnivile in Somersetshire. Robert and Reginald de Burnavile, in 1240, were tenants of the Chapter of St. Paul's at Belchamp.—Domesday of St. Paul's. Robert de Burnetvilla witnesses the foundation charter of Kelso in 1128.—Monastic Annals of Teviotdale. "Sire Johan de Burneville" bore "De Gueules, ove j. sauter engrelee, ove iiij. quintfoils."—Boroughbridge Roll of Arms.

Browe :

or Broy, as Leland gives it; "an ancient baronial family of Champagne,[84] settled in England 1066, and which held fiefs in 1165. (Lib. Niger.)"—The Norman People. Robert de Broy witnesses Simon de Beauchamp's grant to Chicksand Priory, Bedfordshire; Pagan de Beauchamp's d° to Thorney Abbey; and was himself, with Ralph de Broy, a benefactor to Rokesden (Mon. Angl). There is a William de Broie entered in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of 1198-1203; and in the Great Roll of the Pipe of 1189-90 Robert and Ralph (above-mentioned) occur as land-owners in Bucks and Beds. In the former county the name still existed in the following century; for, about 1272, we find Robert and William le Broy, and Reginald de Broie, holding in Essedon Hundred, mentioned in the Rotuli Hundredorum. A contemporary Robert de Broie—if not the same—was employed in Wales, where Montgomery Castle, about 1233, was repaired "under view of Robert de Broy."—Eyton's Salop. Some years later, the family appears in Cheshire, where William Browe—whom again I am disposed to identify with the Buckinghamshire land-owner—was of Tushingham in 1295, and a second William was living in 1323. Sir Hugh, probably his son, was a Knight Banneret, and one of the men of note in the county summoned to give evidence in the great Scrope and Grosvenor suit. He served abroad, in the retinue of Richard Earl of Arundel, Admiral of England 10 Ric. II.: was commissioned in 1398 to raise archers to go to Ireland; and in 1400 was one of the two Lords Marcher mentioned by Hotspur as having helped him to rout the Welsh rebels at Cader Idrys. "He was a great purchaser and lessee of lands in various townships in Broxton Hundred, as well as a farmer of offices. He forfeited his estates to Henry IV. for rebellion between June 12 and August 18, 1402, in which interval he appears to have died, and his widow, and mother of his children, married again. Probably only a small portion of Sir Hugh's property descended to his posterity, being chiefly some land in the township of Tushingham. It remained vested in the Browes for several generations, as they are mentioned there 8 Henry VII."—Ormerod's Cheshire.

Beleuers :

or Belvoir. The first Lord of Belvoir, Robert de Todeni, is styled Robert de Belvedeir in the Coucher Book of Belvoir (v. Dugdale) and "Comes de Bever" in a grant to Belvoir Priory. Dugdale calls him only "a Noble Norman," omitting all account of his lineage, and seems altogether unaware that Toeni and Todeni, which he enters as two distinct families, were in reality one and the same. The names are identical: Toeni is invariably spelt Todeni by Duchesne; and their arms betoken their relationship; for the two chevronels borne by the Lords of Belvoir, and the single chevron of the Staffords, are only distinguished by a counter-change of the tinctures, then commonly used to mark a different branch of the same house.

I have elsewhere[85] given some account of this memorable family, which derived from Malahulc, an uncle of Rollo's; and if any additional proof were needed that Robert de Todeni was of the royal blood of Normandy, it would be found in the splendid grants both he and his son received at the Conquest. "Though there is no direct evidence, there can be little doubt that he was the younger son of Randolph or Ralph, Sire de Toeni 1027, and brother of Roger, surnamed the "Spaniard" because he had married Godchilda, sister of Berengar Count of Barcelona, father of Ralph and Robert de Stafford."—A. S. Ellis.

Robert's great barony, as entered in Domesday, included lands in thirteen different counties, comprising eighty manors in all. His chief estate lay on the skirt of Lincoln and Leicestershire: and there, on "that stately ascent overlooking the beautiful valley adjacent, thence by him called Belvoir, from the fair view it hath of the Country there abouts," he built his castle.

No more magnificent situation could be devised for a feudal fortress than this beacon-hill, overtopping the country round, from whence the eye of the Lord of the fief might travel over the whole broad sweep of domain unrolled and mapped out before him. Even now that eight hundred years have gone by, the Vale of Belvoir remains the patrimony of the Lord of Belvoir, and the representative of Robert de Todeni looks down from the same lofty eyry on the same bounteous inheritance that he first transmitted to the long line of his descendants.

He died about 1088, and was buried in the chapterhouse of a Priory he had founded near his castle, as a cell to the Abbey of St. Albans. Besides a daughter, married to Hubert de Rie, he left four sons: 1. William: 2. Berenger, who held a great barony, chiefly in Yorkshire, and d. s. p.:[86] 3. Geoffrey, two of whose sons bore the name of De Chauveni: and 4. Robert. I have given their names as I have found them given by Dugdale, though it seems likely that Berenger was in reality the eldest brother. Yet the birth-right of William is spoken of as an unquestioned fact in the Baronage. "That this William was any other than the immediate Son and Heir, I doubt not at all; though it doth not appear for what respect he bore a different surname from his Father, being named William de Albany, with the addition of Brito: for that Robert de Todenei had a Son and Heir, named William, is evident enough; as also that he was heres honoris, the heir to this Barony."

No one has explained why he took the name of De Albini, to which he could have no possible right; but it was retained by his remotest posterity, and borne continuously for close upon five hundred years. Brito, or Le Breton, was, according to Dugdale, added to distinguish him from his contemporary,

William de Albini Pincerna. The name of Belvoir or Beauvoir,[87] probably borne by some of the descendants of his younger brothers, appears in the chartulary of the Priory during the twelfth century; others, it would appear, were styled De Chauveny and De Albini. Berenger alone used the patronymic of the illustrious Norman house from which they sprung.

William de Albini Brito—the first of four great barons of this name—was one of the commanders at the battle of Tinchebray, where, according to Matthew Paris, his single-handed valour decided the fortune of the day. "In this encounter chiefly deserveth Honour the most valiant William de Albini the Britain; who with his sword broke through the Army and put an end to the Fight." He was a lawyer no less than a swordsman, and, with Richard Basset, a Justice Itinerant in Stephen's time; but having adhered to the Empress Maud, his castle of Belvoir, with his whole barony, were taken from him and given to the Earl of Chester. He had been a great benefactor to Our Lady of Belvoir, "desiring that he might be admitted into their Fraternity, as his Father and Mother had been." He died not long after the accession of Henry II., having, it would seem, been reinstated in his barony, for William de Albini Brito II., sometimes called Le Meschin (the little), his son and heir, possessed it in 1165, and died two years afterwards. Nothing is recorded of the latter beyond his benefactions to the Church; but his son, William III., whom he left a minor in ward to the King, played a great part in the history of his time, and was one of the illustrious conservators of Magna Charta. He joined the insurgent barons under Lord Fitz Walter, Mareschallus Dei et Ecclesiae, and was entrusted by them with the defence of Rochester Castle. "Which, when he entred," writes Dugdale, "he found neither Armes, Ammunition, nor Victual therein: As also discerning, that those who accompanied him thither, had no minde to stay in it, he told them how dishonorable it would be so to leave it; and therefore suddenly got in all the provision of food that could be found in the Town. But, having not time to look out into the Countrey for more; in regard the King came within three days upon them with his Army, and begirt it with a straight seige: they defended themselves with all valour imaginable; making divers bold sallies; with hope to have relief from the rest of the Barons of their party, who then were in London. Howbeit, when they saw no likelyhood thereof, and that the King's forces had, by undermining, thrown down their outer Walls, and made upon them a fierce assault; such was their valour (though wearied with long watchings, and weakened by hunger) that they courageously beat them off. And at the last this hardy William, and those other of the Nobles who were then with him, accounting it most dishonourable to perish by Famine, when they could not be vanquished by force (all their food being spent) came out of the Castle, and submitted themselves to the King, upon the feast day of S. Andrew the Apostle.

"But the King, by reason of the vast charge he had been at in that seige (which continued little less than three Months), and loss of many of his Souldiers, that had been slain therein: was so highly enraged, that without any mercy, he commanded that all the Noble men should be hanged. Which severe sentence was so distasted by Savaricus de Malloleone, a noble Poictevin (then one of the chief commanders in the King's Army) that he boldly told the King, that the Warr being not yet ended, he ought well to consider the uncertain chance thereof; adding, that if he hanged these, the Barons (his adversaries) might upon the like advantage, deal as cruelly with those of his party, which might occasion a total desertion of him. Where upon the King, well weighing the Danger, forbore the execution of that his sharp sentence;" and committed William de Albini to the custody of Mauleon, who sent him to Corfe Castle.

One anecdote of him is preserved by Matthew Paris. "The King, with some of his chief commanders, one day going about this Castle of Rochester, to view the strength thereof, was discerned by an excellent Bowman, who there upon asked this William de Albini whether he should kill him with his Arrow, that he had then in readiness; and that he answered No. As also, that the Bowman replied, He would not spare us, if he had the like advantage. To whom William returned, 'God's will be done, who will dispose, and not he.'"

King John's method of warfare was essentially different. He lost no time in marching to Belvoir, and summoning the castle, which its lord had left well garrisoned, well provisioned, and in trusty hands. His imperious demand for the "speedy delivery" of so strong and well-guarded a place might have been flung back in open defiance, but for one terrible threat that brought its defenders to their knees. He signified to them, "that if they insisted on any conditions, the Lord of the castle should never eat more. Whereupon Nicholas de Albini, one of his sons (who was a Clerk in Orders), taking with him Sir Hugh Charnels, Knight, to preserve his Father from this miserable Death, carried the Keys of this Castle to the King, and delivered them to his hands; upon condition, that his Father should be mercifully dealt with, and they with their Horse and Arms remain at peace."

Though he escaped the slow agonies of a death by starvation, William de Albini must have undergone much tribulation in his dungeon at Corfe, for it is grievous to record that "his stout heart being at length humbled," he instructed his wife Agatha (one of the three Trusbut heiresses) to raise the six thousand marks required for his ransom, and ever after "thought it his safest way to be quiet." He was a faithful liegeman to Henry III., for though he was at first mistrusted, and his wife and son detained as hostages, these doubts soon vanished, and he was named one of the principal commanders at the battle of Lincoln in 1217, where he found himself in arms against his former friends and allies. He died "full of days" in 1236, leaving, by his first wife, Margery de Umfraville, four sons; William IV., Odonel, who was taken prisoner with him at Rochester, Robert, and Nicholas the priest.

William de Albini IV. was the last who possessed the magnificent appanage of Belvoir, and with it passed away the glory and greatness of his house. He was twice married; but the only child born to him was a daughter, Isabel de Albini, one of the most famous heiresses of her day. At his death in 1247, she was under age, and in ward to the King, who bestowed her in marriage (not "without a round compensation") on Robert de Ros, Baron of Hamlake. According to the custom of feudal procedure, her uncles were shut out from all share in the succession, and Dugdale takes no further notice of them, passing on to a second baronial house, derived from Ralph, a younger son of the first William de Albini.

This Ralph, who held fifteen knight's fees of the Honour of Belvoir in 1165, and founded a nunnery at Urford in Lincolnshire, died in the Holy Land in 1190. Philip, his successor, was greatly favoured by King John, who appointed him Constable of Ludlow and Bridgenorth, and Governor of Jersey and Sark, with a grant of all the lands in Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, and Somersetshire, forfeited by Maurice de Gant in 1215. Yet in that same year he joined the Barons that claimed their liberties, sword in hand; was present at Runnymede, and took the oath of fealty to the twenty-five Conservators of Magna Charta. Dugdale says he was among those who, "being most moderate, inclined to the King:" and not long after, he deserted his friends to follow John on his devastating northern campaign, and remained his ever faithful henchman to the day of his death. "Nor was he less obsequious to his Son and Successor, King Henry III.," to whom he did good service at Lincoln and elsewhere. He was a scholar, praised by Matthew Paris as "a faithful Teacher and instructor of the King," and so constantly in attendance upon him that he had to employ his nephew Philip as his deputy in the Channel Islands, of which he had been appointed Governor. In 1221 he was signed with the Cross and went to the Holy Land, where he spent two years; and he was making ready for a second pilgrimage thither at the time of of his death in 1232. He was followed by two nephews, Philip and Elias; the latter of whom was a baron by writ in 1294. Elias' son Sir Ralph likewise received summons to parliament, but the next four generations were all passed over, and it is not till we reach Giles, the fifth in descent, that we find the title revived. It is curious to note, that these baronies by writ, which it has now become the practice to "call out of abeyance" after the lapse of centuries, were then so little considered hereditary that Giles, instead of being the sixth Baron by right of succession, was created Lord Daubeny in i486. He had been instrumental in placing Henry VII. on the throne, and was one of his chief counsellors and most approved commanders. He served by sea no less than by land; was Captain of Calais; sent to Flanders with three thousand men in aid of the Emperor Maximilian; fought Lord Audley and the Cornish rebels at Blackheath, and routed Perkin Warbeck's adherents at Taunton. He was a Knight of the Garter, Lord Chamberlain of the King's Household, Justice Itinerant of the Royal Forests S. of Trent, and Constable of Bridgewater. He died in 1507, leaving one son and two daughters; Henry; Cecily, Countess of Bath: and Anna, married to Alexander Buller. Henry was created Earl of Bridgewater by Henry VIII. in 1538, but died without issue.

James, the only brother of Giles Lord Daubeny, was (according to Banks') the ancestor of the Daubenys of Wayford in Somersetshire, and Gorwell in Dorsetshire.

The name of Belvoir or Beauvoir is occasionally to be met with in official records. William de Beauvois and Richard de Beauver witness a grant of Philip Kyme to Belvoir Priory about 1177. John de Belvoir was Rector of Charlton, Oxfordshire, in 1361. The old Yorkshire family of Belver or Beevor, long seated in the parish of Peniston, that received a baronetcy in 1784, bear arms wholly different from those of the great Leicestershire house, with an allusive "beaver" as their crest.

Buffard :

This name occurs more than once in the Norman chartularies as Buffart, or Le Buffart, and is three times entered in the Liber Niger. William Buffare, in 1165, held two and a half fees of Gervase Paganell in Staffordshire; Rotland de Butfard three fees of Hugo de Laci, in Herefordshire; and Roger Buffard part of a fee of Ralph Halselin in Nottinghamshire. William left his name to Penne Buffare, or Buffary's Penne in Staffordshire, held in 1261 by his descendant Robert, one of the Reguardors of Kinver Forest. Yet he himself was fined and imprisoned as a trespasser against the forest laws. In 1272, on the day of St. Nicholas, he and others "entered the forest with bows and arrows, and killed a doe, and carried away the venison and divided it:" and a second time, the same year, "entered the Haye of Aswode with bows and arrows for the purpose of taking venison, and were there all day; and towards evening, in leaving the forest they were challenged by the foresters, who wished to attack them; and they insulted the foresters, and at length, through the darkness of the night, they escaped."—Staffordshire Historical Collections. The name is generally given Buffare, and sometimes Buffary or Buffray. The male line of this family became extinct in the reign of Henry IV. (Original deeds at Wrottesley.) In addition to their Staffordshire estate, they held Paddington-Bray in Surrey, of the Barony of Dudley. "On the Fine Roll of 11 Henry III., the Sheriff of Surrey is ordered to take into the King's hands the land of William Buffare in Padinden."

"The Testa de Nevill states that Padindem, in Surrey, was taken into the King's hands on the occasion of the outlawry of Amice Wylekun, who was received into his house by William Buffari, and was found there."—Ibid. For harbouring this unfortunate woman, he suffered the additional penalty of four years' imprisonment.

Among the shields of the knights of "Estaffordeshire" of the time of Edward II. in an ancient Roll preserved among the Cotton MSS., and headed "Ces sunt les Noms e les Armes a Banerez de Engleterre," appears that of Sir John Buffery, Argent, a chevron between three annulets Sable.

Reginald Buffard, who was of Shropshire c. 1272 (Rotul. Hundred.), does not occur in their pedigree, but probably belonged to the same family.

Botelere :

a duplicate.

Bonueier :

This most probably stands for Bouerer, "Drogo de la Bouerer," as the monks of Meaux give the name. It is from their Chronicle that we learn what little we know of this mysterious Fleming. He probably held the seigneury of La Beuvriere, near Bethune, and is styled "miles probus et in armis probatus." He had married a cousin of the Conqueror's, and it was doubtless to this alliance, no less than to his services in the field, that he owed his great English barony. He received the whole of the so-called "isle" of Holderness—at that time a dreary and marshy district, but comprising no less than eighty-seven manors, with twenty-four others in Lincolnshire, of which the most valuable had been Earl Morcar's. He built Skipsea Castle, and must also have had a manor-house at Burstwick, afterwards the caput of the seignory of Holderness. "At either one or the other must have taken place the tragedy that sent Drogo in all haste to court, before the tale might be told, or justice overtake him."—A. S. Ellis. Of this tragedy I have given an account elsewhere,[88] but nothing beyond the bare facts has been preserved. Not even the name of the wife whom he "unhappily killed" has come down to us. We cannot tell who she was, or why she was made away with: whether he was stung to sudden frenzy by jealousy, or planned beforehand how she was to die. That the deed was wilfully done, his own conduct proves: for he escaped to Flanders with the money he had obtained from the King, and was seen in England no more. Little is known of his descendants, but, according to Mr. Planche, he is "presumed to have been an ancestor of the De Brewers or De Briweres, so powerful in the thirteenth century." "Theodoric or Thierry de Bevera, lord of that place and Castellan of Dixmue, his heir probably, occurs several times early in the twelfth century, and married Beatrix, daughter of Baldwin de Gand, 'le Grand,' Lord of Alost, nephew of Gilbert de Gand of the Survey."—A. S. Ellis.

Botteuile :

from Boutteville, in the canton of Sainte-Mere-Eglise, arrondissement de Valognes. The foundations of the castle may still be traced; and the fief pertaining to it—a considerable one—was held, about 1070, by Walter de Botteville, of the honour of Sainte-Mere-Eglise. The family are chiefly known in Normandy as benefactors of the Abbey of St. Sauveur.'—M. de Gerville. In England they were established in the counties of Somerset and Bedford: where Rob. de Butevill. debet servicium honorii Walterii de Wahull.—(Lib. Niger.) They gave their name to Langford Budville, in Somersetshire, which was held by William Boteville as late as 2 Hen. V.

In Norfolk, Robert de Buteville (no doubt the same) held in 1165; and in 1316, John de Buteville was possessed of the lordship of Cheddingstone, Bucks. (Palgrave's Parl. Writs.)

The Marquesses of Bath have no connection with this family. According to Francis Thynne, Lancaster Herald, their ancestor, Geoffrey de Boteville, "came into England from Poitou in France, to serve under King John," who sent for foreign troops to aid him in his wars with the Barons.

Bellire :

from Bellieres, near Alencon. "In the south aisle of the church of Melton Mowbray, under a round arch, is a cross-legged knight in a round helmet of mail with a band, his shield on his left arm, bearing Gules a lion rampant sable; his sword is under it; his belt is plated, and there is a dog at his feet. Over him is inscribed, in modern characters,

"This is the Lord H anion,
Brother to the Lord Mowbray."

This latter was the son of Nigel de Albini, Roger, who, by command of Henry I., took the name of Mowbray."—Nichols Leicestershire. The tomb of Hamon's grandson, Rafe (date 1170) is also there, and is "erroneously ascribed by Mr. Le Neve to Adam de Vilers." I can find no mention of a third brother of Roger, Lord Mowbray's, in their pedigree, but it seems certain that Hamon de Beler received his Leicestershire lands by his grant, and bore his arms in different tinctures, though most probably only as those of his suzerain. Their ancient seat, Kirkby Belers, retains their name. One of them founded a chantry in the church at Kirkby, and either he or his widow, Alice, a Priory there in 1359. Their son, Sir Roger Beler, was Sheriff of Derby and Notts in 1373, and six former years, and had the custody of the county of Lincoln committed to him by Henry III. "during pleasure." He died some time before 1380, and lies under a gorgeous tomb "in a pointed helmet, mail gorget, and coronet under his head; a lion rampant on his breast: his sword and dagger are gone, but his belt remains, and a lion at his feet looking up. His lady has the double cordon, veil, head-dress, gown, and mantle; and at her feet two dogs playing together." He had no less than four wives, but left only two daughters. The family appears, however, to have lingered on till 1475, when John Beler died s. p. They bore Party per pale Gules and Sable, a lion rampant Argent.

Bastard :

Robert le Bastard, a son of the Conqueror, received from his father a barony in Devonshire, where he is still represented in the direct male line, though Sir William Pole tells us that none of the ten manors he held in 1086 are now possessed by his descendants. "There is a curious local tradition attaching to a little corner of land—some acres in extent—at Splatt Cove, in Salcombe Harbour. It belongs to the Bastard family; and the legend is that their Norman ancestor had command of one of the vessels of the Conqueror's fleet, which was driven by a gale into Salcombe, and that it was upon this very spot that the leader and his men landed. The retention of the land by the Bastards is ascribed by the country folk to this historical connection. Mr. Karkeek, however, has shown not only that the legend has no pedigree, but that it is inconsistent with the known facts. None of Robert the Bastard's Domesday manors can be connected with Splatt Cove."—Worth's Devon.

The Bastards have given their name to the small village of Loveton-Bastard, and several times appear as Sheriffs of Devon. Their original seat, held from the Conquest, was Efford, in the parish of Egg-Buckland, where they certainly continued up to 1315. In Sir William Pole's time, William Bastard, "learned in the laws," was living at Wolston, in West Allington. Garston, or Gerson, in the same parish, afterwards became their chief residence, and "was occupied till the year 1773, when Lady Bridget Bastard, who held it in dower, died. It is now a farm-house. The gardens were famous for orange and lemon trees, trained against the walls, which are said to have produced as fine fruit as any in Portugal."—Lysons. The head of the house had previously removed to their present home at Kitley, brought to William Bastard in the beginning of the last century by the heiress of Edmund, the last of the Pollexfens, who died in 1710.[89] Since then they have acquired several adjoining estates, including Bowden, Coffleet, Lyneham, &c. In the parish church of Yealston is the monument of John Pollexfen Bastard, obt. 1816, who represented the county in seven successive Parliaments.

The only title of honour ever proffered to them was "modestly declined." In 1779, the appearance of the combined fleets in the offing caused the greatest consternation at Plymouth. Not only was the dockyard believed to be in jeopardy, but much anxiety was felt on account of the thirteen hundred French prisoners of war then collected in the town. At this critical juncture, William Bastard of Kitley came forward, and offered to raise five hundred men for the King's service. This was on the 16th of August. On the 18th he had to make his selection from fifteen hundred young men, all contending for the honour of serving under him for the defence of the country; and on the 19th his regiment, officered by the principal gentlemen of the neighbourhood, was complete. He was then appointed to convey the French prisoners to Exeter, and safely delivered them over to the commanding officer there on the 25th of the same month. For this prompt and signal service, the King ordered a baronet's patent to be made out for him, which had passed the Great Seal and been gazetted three days before the honour intended for him had been notified to Mr. Bastard. He, however, refused to receive any recompense for the loyalty.

Bainard :

Again a duplicate.

Brasard :

probably the same name given by Leland as Busard, and still preserved by the town of Leighton Buzzard in Bedfordshire. "It has been conjectured," says Lysons, "that the addition of Bussard or Buzzard is a corruption, of Beaudesert, which name, indeed, occurs in some old papers; but in the most ancient records the name of the town is written Leighton-Bosard, and sometimes Busard or Buzzard. The family of Bosard or Bossard, from whom it seems to have derived its additional name, were of consequence in the county, and knights of the shire, in the reigns of Edward II. and Edward III." Sir Hugh Bossard, Lord of Shelton and Knotting, had a writ of military summons to serve against the Scots in 1332, and again in 1325, to pass into Guienne under the command of Earl Warren. He twice served as knight of the shire. His armorial bearings are entered upon the roll of the battle of Boroughbridge.

The name appears in many other parts of the country. Gilbert Bochart, in the time of Henry II., held Bourton, Salop, under Shrewsbury Abbey; and was succeeded there by a son and a grandson. Roger, the grandson, "died about Easter 1194; and having been a tenant in capite at Pulley, his two infant daughters became wards of the Crown."—Eyton's Shropshire. It appears that he held Pully by Serjeantry as Custos of the Royal Haye, then known as The Lye, but now called Lythwood. The eldest of his two co-heiresses married the son of her guardian, Elias de Echingham; the second Ralph Mareschal.

But the name continued in the county. Hervicus Boscard occurs in 1194-98 (Rotuli Curiae Regis). Engelard Boscart and Sir Henry Boscard were both under-tenants of Bourton in 1195; and the latter was still living in 1227. His son Ralph is mentioned about 1241. Sibil Bossard held in 1247.

In Nottinghamshire Thorpe-Bozard, or Buzzard, was named from John Bochart, who held it of the Earl of Arundel, and died about the beginning of Henry III.'s reign.—Thoroton's Notts. In the Hundred Rolls of Edward I., I find John Busard and his brother William in Lincolnshire; the latter also of Norfolk and Hereford: Peter Busard of Suffolk: and Eustace Busard and William Bochard of Kent.

Beelhelme :

Belhelme in Duchesne's copy; mis-spelt for Belesme. "So uncertain was the orthography of that age, that Belesme is actually written Bethlehem in the Testa de Nevill, not two hundred years after the time of Roger de Montgomerie's death."—Owen and Blakeway's Shrewsbury. This must stand for Robert de Belesme, the eldest son of the first Earl of Shrewsbury, who was probably with his father at the battle of Hastings, though he did not settle in England before 1098. (See Montgomery) Baines, in his History of Lancashire, tells us that "the castle of Lancaster is said, in a patent of the first Edward, to have been held by Roger de Poitou's elder brother, Robert de Belehem, the powerful and turbulent Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury, in the reigns of the Conqueror and the two succeeding Monarchs."

Braine :

from Braine in Anjou. Matthew de Brain occurs in Yorkshire in 1199 (Rotuli Curiae Regis): and Hugh Brayn and Alice his wife were of Ludlow in 1277. At about the same date we find John, Simon, and William Brayn living in Kent, and Roger Brayn in Huntingdon.—Rotuli Hundredorum. Henry Brein witnesses a charter of Walter de Clifford to Dore Abbey, Herefordshire.—Mon. Anglicanum. William Brayne of Aston occurs in an Inq. p.m. taken at Chester in 1516: and John Brayne in another taken in 1549.—Earwaker's East Cheshire. The family is likewise found in Worcestershire, where they bore Argent, three piles in point Vert.; on a canton Sable a lion's head erased Or. In Gloucestershire the Braynes were seated at Little Deane as early as the fifteenth century. "In 13 Hen. IV. the chapel on the N. of the chancel of Little Deane Church was built and dedicated to St. Ethelbert by a member of the Brayne family; and at the altar in this chapel a perpetual 'Brayne Chantry' was endowed."—Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeologia, vol. vi. Richard Braine was Sheriff of the county in 1556, and Forester of Dean. He survived his eldest son, and was succeeded in 1572 by a grandson, Thomas, who, though four times married, left only a new-born daughter that died twelve days after her father in 1604. Richard's younger brother Henry had a son named Robert, who was in his turn Sheriff of Gloucester in 1568, and died two years later s.p., leaving as his co-heiresses two sisters; Anne, married to George Winter; and Emma, the wife of Sir Charles Somerset. But the family was not extinct; for both the uncles of the last Thomas Brayne left descendants. John Brayne was a captain in the Parliamentary army during the rebellion. They bore Azure on a fesse between three bugle horns stringed Argent a hemp-hackle Gules. Robson assigns a different coat to this name in Gloucestershire, viz. Argent on a pale Gules three leopard's heads of the field.

Brent :

from Breaunt, Breant or Breaute, near Havre. "The family remained in Normandy in the sixteenth century as Viscounts of Holot (La Roque, Maison d'Harcourt, ii. 1583-4). Fulco de Breaute or de Brent was of great power, temp. Henry III. (Roger Wendover)."—The Norman People. William Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke, gave him the honour of Luton in Bedfordshire, and he obtained a confirmation of it from King John, with whom he was high in favour, in 1216. "It is probable," says Lysons, "that the castle built at Luton in 1222, which is represented in the chronicle of Dunstaple as having been very prejudicial to the neighbouring town, was one of the fortresses of this haughty and oppressive baron." In 1216, he had obtained possession of one of the strongest castles in the kingdom, Bedford, then held by William de Beauchamp for the rebel barons. "The King having sent his favourite, Faukes de Brent, to summon the castle, it was surrendered within a few days, and given to him for his good service. Matthew Paris informs us that (being thus possessed of the barony by the King's gift) he re-built and fortified the castle, for which purpose he pulled down the collegiate church of St. Paul; and that the Abbess of the neighbouring convent of Elstow, hearing of his sacrilege, took the sword out of the hand of that saints' image in her church, and would not replace it till justice had overtaken the offender; but a charter of I Henry III. entirely exonerates Faukes de Brent from this charge."—Ibid. The church had, it then appears, been demolished by order of King John. "It is certain that Faukes, presuming upon the impregnable strength of his castle, set at nought all law and authority; and having been fined by the King's justices itinerant at Dunstaple in 1224, for his various outrages and depredations upon the property of his less powerful neighbours, he sent a party of soldiers, who seized Henry de Braybroke, one of the King's Justices, and after treating him with great barbarity, brought him prisoner to the castle of Bedford." Upon this the King himself, attended by Archbishop Langton and the "principal peers of the realm," marched to "this nursery of sedition" (as Camden calls it), and laid siege to it with all the engines of war then in use;—Petrerias, Mangonellas, and tall wooden towers for the crossbow-men and scouts. It sustained four assaults; first, the barbican, next the outer bail, and then the inner bail were carried; lastly the keep tower, being fired, began to yawn asunder in ominous cracks, vollying smoke and flame, and the garrison surrendered at discretion. Fulk himself had fled to Wales; but two of his brothers were taken prisoners, and one of them, William de Brent, was put to death; Culmo, the other, received the King's pardon. "Faukes hastened to Bedford to crave for mercy, under the protection of the Bishop of Coventry, and was pardoned on condition of being banished the realm." The castle was dismantled by the King's order, and the ditches filled up. Several years before, this audacious rebel, whom the King had to put forth his whole power to subdue, had received a sound whipping from the monks of Warden. A dispute had arisen concerning his rights to a wood; during which according to his usual practice, he had carried off and incarcerated thirty of the brethren in Bedford Castle. But "such was the ascendancy of the Church at that period, that he who set the civil power at defiance, was glad to make his peace by submitting to receive manual discipline from the monks in the chapter house at Warden, at the same time confirming to them the wood, and promising them his protection ever after."—Ibid. Dugdale tells a somewhat similar and extremely characteristic story. One night at Luton, Fulk dreamed that a great stone fell, with the crash of a thunderbolt, from the tower of St. Alban's Church upon his head, shivering every bone in his body; and awaking terror-stricken, he recounted the vision to his wife. She duly interpreted its meaning, reminding him how grievously he had offended St. Alban by the plunder of his Abbey; and exhorted him forthwith to reconcile himself with the Holy Martyr. "Whereupon he went to St. Alban's, and having sent for the Abbot, fell upon his knees with tears, and holding up his hands, besought leave to ask pardon of his Covent in Chapter. Whereunto the Abbot consented, admiring to see such Lamblike humility in a Woolf; therefore, putting off his apparel, he entred the Chapter-house, bearing a Rod in his hand; and confessing his fault, received a lash by every one of the monks upon his naked Body: And when he had put on his cloathes again, he went and sate by the Abbot, and said, 'This my Wife hath caused me to do for a Dream; but, if you require restitution of what I then took, I will not hearken to you.' And so departed, the abbot and monks being glad that they were so rid of him, without doing them any more mischief."

This pious wife was Margaret de Redvers, a widowed heiress whom King John had married to him sorely against her will; and who, when judgment was passed upon him, threw herself at the King's feet, entreating that, "in regard she had been taken by violence, in time of hostility," she might now be divorced.

Fulk, "entering the ship with tears," was conducted to Normandy, whence being signed with the cross, he was permitted to go on a pilgrimage to Rome; and there, with "large gifts" and oblations, made his peace with the Church. The Legate then interposed on his behalf, and he was actually on his way back to England when he died at St. Ciriaco—some say, of poison taken in a fish he had eaten at supper.

Of his posterity, Dugdale can only tell us that he had a daughter named Eve, married to Llewellyn-ap-Jorwerth, Prince of North Wales. His former residence, Fawke's Hall, is now known as Vauxhall.

Braunch :

from St. Denis de Branche. "The Norman family of Branch, whose estates lay in the Caux, accompanied William de Warrenne to England 1066, where Ralph Branche received a grant of two knight's fees, of which Gresham was the chief seat."—The Norman People. Sir Nicholas de Branche held Peperharow, Surrey, temp. Ed. 1. (Manning's Surrey). About the time of King John, William Braunche married the heiress of Ralph Fitz-Bernard, and "in her right became possessed of the hundred, Manor, and town of Frome, with other property in this and the neighbouring counties; and 23 Hen. III. paid 100s. for his relief of the lands of his wife's inheritance. This William bore on his seal a fleur de lis, surmounted with a file of three points. He died 8 Ed. 1. and was succeeded by Nicholas Braunche" (probably the Nicholas above-mentioned) "who with Roberga his wife, held the manors of Frome and la Valice, with the hundred of Frome, by the service of one knight's fee, 7 Ed. II. Sir Andrew Braunch, son and heir of Nicholas, 19 Ed. III., granted two mills in Frome, and the bailiwick of the bedelary of the hundred of Frome, to Robert Adymot for life, which mills and bailiwick were certified to be held of the King as parcel of the manor of Frome-Braunche. He died 23 Ed. III., leaving issue Thomas his son and heir; but he dying in his minority, the manor became the property of Richard Winslade, who had married Alianor sister of the said Andrew Braunche."—Collinson's Somerset. In Norfolk we find Branch's Manor, held under the De Wauncis. "Sir Peter Branch married Joan, the inheritrix of the Manors of Kenton, Cornerd, and Brandon, and Suffolk, held of the family of De Limesey by four knight's fees, and lived about King John's time. Sir Nicholas, 16 Ed. 1, sealed with a lys and label of five points. Thomas Branch died lord about 1361."—Blomfield's Norfolk. This was, most likely the same Thomas who held in Somersetshire, and died young. The name continued more than two centuries longer in Essex, where, as Morant tells us, John Branche, of Chingford Comitis, died in 1588, leaving three sisters his co-heirs. William Braunche is on the list of the gentry of Lincolnshire made out for Henry VI. in 1433. In Yorkshire, Roger Branch, and Custance his wife, gave some lands in the territory of Couton-Magna to Maryke Priory (North Riding.)—Burton's Mon. Ebor. John de Braunch, Sussex, and Ralph de Branch, Kent, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum about 1272. In 1278, Peter Branche of Barningham, in the North Riding, "killed John, son of Conan of Redmere, in the town of Brignal with a certain sword, and afterwards fled and was suspected."—Harrison's Yorkshire.

Belesuz :

Bolesur in Duchesne's copy: a puzzling name. Simon de Bellosarto is among the Norman knights enumerated in the Feoda Normanniae, Belleserre was one of the Seigneuries held by the Marquis d'Escars, Governor of Honfleur, who died in 1692 (Anselme, ii. 233). A Petronelle de Beuserre occurs in the Norman Exchequer Rolls about 1189: and "Magister Alanus de Belleshour" in the Testa de Nevill. Roger de Beausire held at Covenhope in Herefordshire of the Honour of Wigmore.—Ibid. Beausire or Belsyre (if this is the name here intended) signifies grandfather or ancestor. It still survived in the sixteenth century, when Canon Belsire, the first President of St. John's College, Oxford, and Rector of Tingewick, Bucks (1540) was deprived by Queen Elizabeth.

Blundell :

a duplicate. Leland also gives the name twice, but each time misspelt "Blundet."

Burdett :

or Bordet: Bourdet on the Dives Roll. Two brothers of this name came to England at the Conquest, Robert and Hugh, who both appear in Domesday as sub-tenants in Leicestershire, where Hugh held considerable estates of the Countess Judith. The wife and son of Robert are also on the list of land-owners. "The first of this name," says Dugdale, "of whom I have found mention is Robert Burdet, one of the witnesses of that notable Charter made by Geoffrey de Wirce to the monastery of St. Nicholas at Angiers, which beareth date at Monks Kirby, in Warwickshire, in the twelfth year of King William the Conqueror's reign. Whether the said Robert was paternal ancestor to those of this family of whom I am to speak, I cannot certainly affirm; but the next that I meet with, viz. William, who flourisht in Henry II.'s time, undoubtedly was." He held of the Earl of Warwick, and founded Ancote Priory in 1159. "The said William Burdet being both a valiant and devout man, made a journey to the Holy Land for subduing of the Infidells in those parts; and his Steward, whilst he was thus absent, solicited the Chastitie of his Ladye, who resisted these his uncivil attempts with much scorn; whereupon he grew so full of envie towards her, that so soon as he had advertisement of his Master's arrivall again in England, he went to meet him, and to shadow his own foul crime, complained to him of her looseness with others, which false accusation so enraged her husband, that when he came home, and that she approacht to receive him with joyful embraces, he forthwith mortally stab'd her; and to expiate this same unhappy Act, after he understood it, he built this Monastery." She was, it is said, buried in Seckington Church, where her monument remained in Dugdale's time , "a very ancient thynge, and her statue excellently cut out of free stone." If, however, it in reality represents the murdered wife of the crusader, it must have been placed there long after her demise, for Seckington was not acquired by the Burdetts till the time of her great great grandson.

She left two sons: Hugh, whose line expired in the next generation, and Richard, who died in 1223, and was the father of Sir William Burdett, a commissioner for assessing the tillage upon all the King's demesnes in Warwick and Leicestershire in 1251. "He bore for his Armes az. two barrs or, within the compass whereof the Cressant and Star are put, as a badge of his service in the Holy Land." Sir William had four sons: 1. Richard, of Loseby and Newton Burdett in Leicestershire; 2. Robert, died s. p.; 3. William, of Shepey and Cosby; and 4. Hugh, married to Elizabeth Tuchet, the ancestor of the existing family. The two elder branches both died out during the reign of Edward III. Richard had a son, slain at Dundee in 1311 during the Scottish wars, whose grand-daughter Elizabeth carried Loseby to the Ashbys; and William's last heir male died in 1338. Thus, of the four brothers, the posterity of Hugh alone endured.

His successor, Sir Robert, found a richly-dowered bride in Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Sir Gerard de Camville, who brought him, with Arewe, &c, Seckington, in Warwickshire, where he took up his abode. It passed to their second son, Sir Gerard; while the elder brother held Huncote, also in the right of his mother; but in this case, again, the senior line soon collapsed, and its possessions were transferred through an only daughter to Sir Humphrey Stafford in 1400.

Of the surviving younger branch, being third in descent from Sir Gerard Burdett of Seckington, was Sir Nicholas, Great Butler of Normandy, who in 1427 "had a command under the Duke of Somerset, and laid waste the towns on the coast of Brittany." He was slain in that country, at the battle of Pontoise, in 1439, leaving by his wife Joan Brayn (who brought him Bramcote in Warwickshire) a son named Thomas. "This Thomas," says Dugdale, "having in 17 Ed. IV. incurred the King's displeasure for his good affection to the Duke of Clarence, so strict were the eyes and ears that were set over him, that an advantage was soon taken to cut off his Head; for, hearing that the King had killed a white Buck in his Parke at Arewe" (Arrow), "which Buck he set much store by, passionately wishing the Homes in his Belly that moved the King so to do: being arraigned and convicted of high Treason for these Words, upon inference made that the meaning was mischievous to the King himself, he lost his life for the same, his Body being buried in the Chapell of All Saints within the Grey Friers Church near Newgate, with this memoriall in their Martyrologie, viz. that he was valens Armiger Dominii Georgii Ducis Clarenciae." Stowe, in his Annals, states that poor Thomas was attainted "for Poysoning, Sorcery, and Inchantment; which agreeth with what Mr. Trussel saith, that 17 Ed. IV. Richard Duke of Gloucester, in order to attaining the Crown after his Brother Ed. IV., began to withdraw the King's Affections from his Brother George Duke of Clarence, and to that purpose whispered unto him that some of Clarence's followers were Sorcerers and Necromancers." It seems plain that the heedless words "spoken and so wrested were but the colour of his death, for the true cause was the hard conceit and opinion which the King had of him, for that he had ever been a faithful friend and true counsellor to George Duke of Clarence his brother, between whom there had been bitter enmity."—Burton. He was beheaded at Tyburn, declaring his innocence with these parting words, "Ecce morior, cum nihil horum fecerim;" and "patiently and cheerfully took his death, affirming that he had a bird in his bosom (his own good conscience) that sung comfort to him."

He was twice married, and had a son by each wife; but it was again through the younger, Sir John, who was restored in blood in 1510, that the Succession was carried on.[90] The next heir, Thomas, had a bitter quarrel with Thomas Cockayne of Poley, near Polesworth, "who so irritated him that Burdett killed him in Polesworth churchyard." Sixth in descent from him was another Thomas, who received a baronetcy in 1618. His wife, Jane Fraunceys, brought him Formark, in Derbyshire, since the chief residence of the family, where her son, Sir Francis, built and endowed a church. She was an accomplished woman, the correspondent of some of the most eminent divines of the day: "particularly the famous Archbishop Sheldon, who found an agreeable sanctuary at Bramcote during the exile of King Charles II." Sir Robert, the fourth baronet, married the heiress of Sir Charles Sedley of Nuthall, Notts., and lost both his sons in early life. The elder, Sedley, who had inherited a large fortune from his mother, was drowned with young Lord Montague in 1793, in a fool-hardy attempt to shoot the falls of the Rhine at Laufenberg.—(See Browne.) Francis, the younger, was the father of the well-known Sir Francis Burdett, "the pride of Westminster, and England's glory," who succeeded his grandfather in 1797, and for many years represented Westminster and Middlesex in Parliament. He used to say that he had spent £90,000 on his Middlesex elections alone. As a politician he was intrepid, zealous, and uncompromising—not to say violent. "In 1809 he revived the question of Parliamentary Reform. Only fifteen members supported his motion; and a reference to the House of Commons in a pamphlet which he subsequently published, as 'a part of our fellow-subjects collected together by means which it is not necessary to describe,' was met by his committal to the Tower, where he remained till the prorogation of Parliament."—Green. He married Sophia, daughter of the rich banker, Mr. Coutts, by whom he had one son, Sir Robert, who died unmarried, and five daughters. The youngest, Angela, inherited her grandfather's great fortune under the will of his widow, Harriet (afterwards Duchess of St. Albans), and added the name of Coutts to her own. Thirty-four years afterwards—in 1871—she was created Baroness Burdett Coutts, of Highgate and Brookfield, in Middlesex, in recognition of the princely beneficence and public spirit with which she dispensed her wealth. Her cousin, Sir Francis, seventh baronet, now represents, as head of the house, the ancient and honourable name that has been upheld, in unbroken male succession, from the time of the Conquest to our own.

But there is yet another existing line, which branched off from the parent stock at so early a period that the date is obliterated. Wotton commences its pedigree with John Burdet of Hasilthorpe, in Lincolnshire, whose posterity removed to Yorkshire. His descendant in the fourteenth generation, Francis Burdett of Burthwaite, in that county, received a baronetcy from Charles II. in 1665. Their arms are differenced with a band Gules bearing three martlets Or.

The Bordets, or Burdetts, were Barons of Cuilly in Normandy. For some account of the family in their native Duchy, see Cuilly.

Bagott :

"derived from the Carlovingian Counts of Artois, whose descendants were Advocates of Arras, Lords of Bethune, and Castellans of St. Omer, and were amongst the greatest nobles of Flanders."—The Norman People. Bagod Dominus medietatis de Bramele, holding of Robert de Toeni, Baron of Stafford, is recorded in Domesday; and this same manor of Bagot's Bromley is still held by his descendants in the direct male line. Few indeed of our great English houses can rival so rare a distinction as an uninterrupted tenure of more than eight centuries. In the time of Coeur de Lion, one of its cadets, Herve de Bagot, married the heiress of his suzerain, and was the founder of the illustrious line of Stafford, Dukes of Buckingham, so prominent in the history of our Plantagenet and Tudor kings (see Toesni). The brilliant fortunes of the younger branch shed no ray of reflected splendour on the elder, but this, on the other hand, was not wrecked on their sudden collapse. The Bigots remained safe from attainder or forfeiture, in their first Staffordshire home, till, in the latter years of Edward III.'s reign, they removed to Blithfieid, another house in the same county, brought by Elizabeth, the heiress of the Blithfields, to her husband, Sir Ralph. From that time to the present it has always been their seat, and generation after generation has been laid to rest and duly recorded in the church, which is full of their memorials. The next heir, Sir John, was appointed Lieutenant of Calais, under Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, in 1407; and both Henry V. and Henry VI. retained "notre trescher et biename Bachelier Johan Bagot" to serve them for the term of his natural life, covenanting to pay him forty marks yearly "le lendemain de pasq." His descendant, Sir Hervey, was created a baronet in 1627. He was a zealous loyalist, who had to compound for his estate by a fine of £1000; and one of his brothers, Colonel Richard Bagot, was Governor of Lichfield for the King, and fell at the battle of Naseby. The second baronet, Sir Edward, "one of the knights of the shire for Stafford in that memorable Parliament that restored all," lost his eldest son Hervey "of that noble family the twentieth heir, and more (had he survived) than the twentieth knight; a youth of excellent hopes, and intractable to ill; a saint, though a child; a scholar, though an heir," at the age of fifteen. The whole epitaph—a very long one—reads like the dirge of the last hope of the family; yet, happily, eleven younger brothers were left to carry it on. Only one of them, however, was married—Sir Walter—who represented his native county in seven Parliaments, and was the great-grandfather of William, created in 1780 Lord Bagot of Bagot's Bromley. The present lord is his great-grandson. Several other manors retain the name, such as Morton-Bagot and Preston-Bagot, in Warwickshire.

The famous old chase of Bagot's Park, some miles from Blythfield, is believed to contain the grandest oaks in all England. One of them, known as the Squitch oak, is sixty-one feet high and forty-three feet in girth. It is a remnant of the old Forest of Medwood, from which it was detached in very early times, and was long the residence of the family, who had a moated manor-house here.

Beauuis :

or Beaufitz, the English rendering of Beaufils, as Anselm gives it. Here, for once, is a complimentary nickname. "Beau fils," or "Bel fils," was the term of endearment used by Queen Isabel when supplicating Edward III. for the life of the "Gentil Mortimer."

This was a Kentish family, originally seated at Acton, in the parish of Charing. Hugh Beaufiz occurs temp. Edward I. in the Rotuli Hundredorum: and Henry Beaufiz was returned from Kent and Wilts to attend the great Council held at Westminster in 1324.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. This may have been the same Henry Beaufiz who was Lord of Chipston, Yorkshire, in 1316. Robert Beaufitz, in 1364, removed to Twydale in Gillingham, which he had acquired through his wife Joan, and lies buried in the chancel of Gillingham Church. His portrait, with that of John Beaufitz "the younger," wearing a garland of roses, and another John, kneeling, with his open breviary before him, were still to be seen in 1621 in the painted glass of the windows, which "appear to have been most beautifully ornamented with Scripture history, as well as with the names and arms of the family of Beaufitz, most probably its principal benefactors. In the chancel were formerly many brasses, with figures, arms, and inscriptions for the family, all of which have been, with one exception (that of Robert Beaufitz) now lost. At the foot of one of the main beams of the church are their arms, which shows perhaps that the roof was made at their charge."—Hasted's Kent. They bore Or, on a band three bells, quartering Gillingham, Quarterly Ermine and Gules. One of these Johns founded a chantry dedicated to St. John Baptist, in 1483; and the line ended with another of the same name during the reign of Henry VII. This last Beaufitz, who, according to Nichols, was Sheriff of Leicestershire, 17 Ed. IV., left two daughters his co-heirs, of whom Joan, the eldest, conveyed the Kentish property to Robert Arnold of Sussex.

A family of that name was seated at Estlegh in Worcestershire; but how connected with the above I am unable to state.

Belemis :

Beaumis, Beaumeys, or Beaumetz, from Beaumetz, near Alencon.

Three brothers of this name, William, Richard, and Walter, came to England at the Conquest. Richard, a clerk in holy orders, "was, in the first instance, largely and confidentially employed by Roger Montgomeri, Earl of Shrewsbury; and we find him prominent among the great men who attested his charters, and a witness also of all the charters, genuine and doubtful, which are assigned to Earl Hugh, in the Register of Shrewsbury Abbey."—Egton's Shropshire. His name is affixed to its first foundation charter, in 1067. In a precept of Henry I. it is also mentioned among "the King's Barons of Sussex;" and his great-nephew Philip de Belmeis, held three knight's fees then of the honour of Arundel (Liber Niger): but his home appears to have been generally in Shropshire. When the next Earl, Robert de Belesme, rose in rebellion against Henry I., De Belmeis remained loyal, and received as his reward two of the manors thus forfeited, Tong and Donington. The latter, it is presumed, was held under him by his brother William; at all events, it was so held by the posterity of the latter. In 1102, Richard de Belmeis was one of the King's commissioners for treating with the Welsh princes, and showed such rare ability that he was appointed Viceroy of Shropshire and Warden of the Marches. He was elected to the vacant see of London in 1108; and the King, who was then waiting on the coast of Sussex for a fair wind to embark for Normandy, was so urgent to send him back to the Western Marches before he himself left England, that he sent to beseech Archbishop Anselm "for the love he bore him, to consecrate Richard, the Bishop elect" as speedily as might be. De Belemis was accordingly, to please the King, consecrated in the Archbishop's private chapel at Pageham; and returned forthwith to watch over the distracted Welsh frontier. Within his province, he held Royal jurisdiction; and he governed with great success for twenty-five years, though, according to the Welsh chroniclers, his policy was pervaded with the grossest treachery. He devoted all his episcopal revenue to the building of St. Paul's Cathedral, yet it "seemed as though he accomplished nothing in proportion to such a prodigal outlay," and naturally "grew weary and despairing" as years went on. He died in 1127. The two sons of his brother Walter shared his property, and together founded Lilleshall Abbey about 1145. Richard, the elder nephew, who was a priest, inherited his churches and church-lands in Shropshire, and eventually became Bishop of London in his turn, while Philip, the younger, was his temporal heir. The line ended with Philip's sons, and their only sister Adelicia married Alan la Zouch, who thus become Lord of Tong.

The branch enfeoffed at Donington proved of far longer continuance, Hugh de Belmeis, the last mentioned there, about 1329 sold the manor (as is presumed) to Henry de Belmeis of Limbergh Magna in Lincolnshire. It is expressly stated that he was not Hugh's heir; nor, indeed, any relation of his; though Eyton suggests it as probable that he was descended from a third son of Walter, the Viceroy's brother. At all events, these De Belmeis held under the Lords of Donington, and resided in the neighbourhood. "It was, I imagine, to the estate of this branch of the Belmeis family that the messuage still known as Beamish Hall belonged. It is in Albrighton parish. The old manor house was taken down some years since. The name Beamish is yet to be found among the poorer classes of Tong and its neighbourhood." Henry's son John, and his daughter-in-law, Tecia Fitz Peter, are the last spoken of in the county history.

The manor of Beams or Beaumys, near Reading, in Wiltshire, must have been named from this family; but I can find no mention of any earlier owners than the De la Beches, who had a castle here in the fourteenth century. "On a small elevation in the adjoining parish of Swallowfield, is an ancient moat, which, it is probable, was the site of Beaumys Castle."—Lysons. Sawtrey Beaumes, in Huntingdonshire, claims to have been the birthplace of the first Bishop of London, Richard de Belmeis. The name continued there till the first years of Richard II.'s reign.

Beisin :

from Beisin, in Normandy. This family, again, was settled in Shropshire. One of their manors, "Ashfield, must, I think, have been granted to the ancestor of the Beysins at least as early as the time of Henry I. It was a member of their Serjeantry, and held by service of keeping the King's hawks."—Eyton's Shropshire. The first mentioned is Robert de Beysin, deceased before 1194, whose widow, Petronilla, survived him for twenty-six years. Their son, Adam, married a great grand-daughter of Warine de Metz, the first Norman sheriff of the county, Mabel, the eldest co-heiress of the Fitz Warines, who brought him the vill of Broseley, then called Burwardsley. This, with their other estates in Shropshire and Staffordshire, were handed down from father to son till 1630, when Elizabeth, the wife of Sir Roger de Cherlton, was left sole heiress of the Beysins. They held Broseley of the Prior of Wenlock by a singular tenure. "The Lord of the vill was to dine with the Prior on St. Milburg's Day, and carve the principal dish at table. In the time of Edward II. the service was performed on Christmas Day, and the Beysin of that time was to pay a three days' visit to the Prior, and to be entertained, together with his suite, at the Prior's charge."—Ibid.

Bernon :

[91] most likely for Brenon. Hugo de Brenone witnesses one of Ivo Tailboy's charters to Spalding Abbey (Mon. Angl.). There was a family of Beron or Berru in Lincolnshire, that bore Argent three bends Gules, the arms of the Byrons. In the Boroughbridge Roll of Arms, "Sire Richard Beroun's" coat is given "D'argent, ove j. sauter d'Azur, label de Gules."

Boels :

"from Bodies, or Buille, now La Buille, near Rouen. Osbert de Boel was of Lincoln, 1138 (Mon. ii. 326). Osbert de Boelles, 1165, held lands in Devon (Liber Niger): Lambert de Boelles in the Eastern Counties (Ibid). The family afterwards appears in Bedford, Warwick, Southants, Stafford, Rutland, and Salop. In the latter, William di Buels (descended from Helias de Buel, living temp. John) sold estates in 1290 to Robert Burnel, Bishop of Bath (Eyton, Salop). His son William and his family settled at Hereford, and hence sprung Ludovick Buel, or Boyle, of Hereford (Harl. MS. 1545), ancestor of the Earls of Cork, Burlington, Orrery, Shannon, and other great houses."—The Norman People. The genealogy of the Boyles, however, only goes back to this Ludovick, who lived under Henry III.; and their coat of arms is as different as it is well possible to be from that of the Boelles or Bolles, so long resident in Lincolnshire. The Boyles bear Party per bend crenelle Argent and Gules; the Bolles bore Azure out of three cups Or as many boar's heads couped Argent.

The "antient and unblamed Family" of Bolles remained for six hundred years in the county of Lincoln. Osbert de Boelles is (as we have seen) mentioned there in the first part of the twelfth century; and the last heir male, John Bolle, of Thorpe Hall, died in 1732. Their original seat was a manor-house, to which they gave its name of Bolle Hall, in Swineshead, where they held large possessions by knight service of the Earls of Richmond; and in the beginning of the fourteenth century they were also tenants in capite of the Crown of lands in Conningesby, parcel of the manor of Scrivelby. Towards the close of Edward IV.'s reign they divided into two branches. "The elder, by an intermarriage with the heiress of the family of Hough, became settled at Hough, or Haugh, near Alford, and the other at Gosberkirke, now Gosberton. Before the division of these branches, the Bolles family had several times represented the co. of Lincoln in parliament, and had filled the offices of sheriff and escheator of the same county; and we find them erecting chantries and bestowing lands to charitable uses at Algarkirke, Wygtoft, and other places; a clear indication of the wealth of this family in those early times."—Illingworth's Parish of Scampton. The elder line afterwards became seated at Thorpe Hall, near Louth; and many of the name lie buried in Haugh and Louth churches. Sir John Bolle of Thorpe was the hero of a romantic adventure told in a contemporary ballad as "The Spanish Ladye's Love."[92] He was a gallant soldier, who served Queen Elizabeth in Spain and Italy; was knighted after the taking of Cadiz; commanded at the storming of the Irish castles of Lifford and Donolong, and was appointed Governor of Kinsale by the Earl of Essex. "Amongst the prisoners taken at Cadiz, it fell to his lot to take charge of a lady of extraordinary beauty, and of great family and wealth;" and he endeavoured, as best he might, to cheer and lighten her captivity. He succeeded so well, that the lady fell in love with the young English captain who treated her so kindly, and who—if I may judge from an engraving of his portrait—was a handsome and high-bred man. "In his sweet company was all her joy;" and when the unwelcome order came for her release, she fell at his feet and besought him to take her with him to England. He made many objections. He told her of the hazards of the sea; of the "great charges" of travel, and his lack of gold and silver; and of the shame it would be accounted to an English soldier to carry off a woman. But the lady answered them all readily. The sea had no terrors for her, as she "could find in heart to lose her life" for him; she would cure his poverty by the gift of "ten thousand pounds in gold that lies unknown"; and she would disguise her sex, and follow him in the garb of his page. Then, at last, Sir John was moved to tell her the truth:—

"Courteous lady, leave this fancy;
Here comes all that breeds the strife;
I in England have already
A sweet woman to my wife;
I would not falsify my vow for gold or gain,
Nor eke for all the fairest dames that live in Spain.

"O how happy is that woman
That enjoys so true a friend!
Many happy days God send her!
Of my suit I make an end:
On my knees I pardon crave for mine offence,
Which did from love and true affection first commence.

"Commend me to thy lovely lady,
Bear to her this chain of gold,
And these bracelets for a token
Grieving that I was so bold;
All my jewels in like sort bear thou with thee,
For they are fitting for thy wife, but not for me."

High-born, rich, "lovely, young, and tender" as she was, she had loved and sued for love in vain. "Like a true knight, he returned whither faith and honour called," and she retired to a nunnery, where she took the veil. "She sent as presents to his wife a profusion of jewels and other valuables, amongst which was her portrait, a beautiful tapestry bed wrought in gold by her own hands, and several casks full of plate, money, and other treasure. Some articles are still in possession of the family, though her picture was unfortunately, and by accident, disposed of about half a century since. This portrait being drawn in green, gave occasion to her being called in the neighbourhood of Thorpe Hall the 'Green Lady,' where to this day there is a traditionary superstition among the vulgar that Thorpe Hall was haunted by this Green Lady, who used nightly to take her seat in a particular tree near the mansion, and that during the life of his son, Sir Charles Bolle, a knife and fork were always laid for her at the table, if she chose to make her appearance."—Ibid. The effigies of Sir John and his wife, Elizabeth Waters, with their three sons and four daughters, may be seen on his monument in Haugh Church; and his portrait, painted by Zucchero, with the gold chain of the poor Spanish lady hanging round his neck, as well as a curious gold thumb ring, engraved with his sixteen quarterings, which he probably used as a seal, remained in 1810 with his descendant, Colonel Birch (Ibid). His second son (of the same name) was, like himself, a soldier, and commanded, with great credit, a regiment that had been raised by the elder brother during the Civil War. He was killed fighting against desperate odds at Alton in Hampshire; and it is recorded in his epitaph that the King, when he heard of his death, cried out, "Bring me a mourning scarf, I have lost one of the best commanders in this kingdom." The last Bolle of Thorp survived the extinction of the junior branch by eighteen years.

This latter had acquired the manor and lands of Scampton, about five miles north of Lincoln, through the marriage of Sir George Bolles with a rich City heiress, the daughter of Sir John Hart, Lord Mayor of London in 1590. Their son was the first of four baronets of this name, of whom Sir John, with whom the title ended, "lived in great splendour at Scampton, and represented the city of Lincoln in five successive parliaments. He died unmarried in 1714, and with him vanished all the grandeur and hospitality which this little village had witnessed for more than a century and a half, during the residence of this respectable family ."—Ibid.

"Bolle" is found among the tenants in capite of Domesday. He held in Apleford in Hampshire: and there is an entry respecting some of his land that had been thrown into the New Forest. But nothing further seems to be known of him.

Belefroun :

probably Belfou. "Robert le Sire de Belfou" is on Wace's list of the Norman knights present at the battle of Hastings. "Beaufou, Beaufoi, or Belfai, latinised Bellofago, is in the neighbourhood of Pont-l'Eveque. Its lords were descended in female line from Ralph, Count d'Ivry, uterine brother of Duke Richard I. of Normandy; and Sir Henry Ellis, in his Introduction to Domesday, suggests that the Radulphus of that book was a near relation, if not a son, of William de Beaufoe, Bishop of Thetford, Chaplain and Chancellor of the Conqueror. I consider him more to be the son of Robert, the combatant of Senlac, and nephew of William the Bishop. No particulars are known of either, and, except through females, no descendants are traceable in England."—Planche. William de Beaufoe, Lord of Swanton Morley in Norfolk, 1086 (Domesday) and of many other manors in the county, is also said to have been "a near relation, if not son" of the Bishop's.—Blomfield's Norfolk. His daughter and heir, Agnes, married Hugh de Rie, Castillan of Norwich. Fulk de Beaufoe, Lord of Hockwold and Wilton in the time of King John, had also no male heir, but left four daughters. Nevertheless, in the Rotuli Hundredorum. of Edward I. we find Galfrid de Beufou in Huntingdonshire, Ralph de Bellofago in Rutland, and Richard de Beaufou in Oxfordshire. The latter, who married the heiress of Whitton, was the son of John de Beaufoe of Barford St. John; and his descendants continued for six generations, seated at Edmonscote and Guy's Cliffe in Warwickshire. The last heirs were three childless brothers, whose sister Martha was the wife of Sir Samuel Garth; and her only daughter, adopting her name as the representative of the Beaufoes, married in 1711 William Boyle, a grandson of the first Earl of Orrery.—Atkyn's Gloucester.

John de Beaufoe sat in parliament for Derby in 1320: and another (or was it the same?) John was Viscount of Lincoln in 1349.

Brutz :

for Bruis: a duplicate.

Barchampe :

Matilda de Bercampo occurs in the records of 1198 (Rotuli Curiae Regis). This would appear to be merely an English local name: formerly given to the manor and hundred of Barcombe in Sussex. "Bercamp" was held before the Conquest by Earl Godwin, and afterwards included in the Rape of the Earl of Moreton. William Bardolf, 38 Hen. II. procured a charter of free warren at Bercamp and his other manors in the county. But here we need concern ourselves with it no further.

Camois :

early seated in West Sussex, where Andrew de Camoys was Lord of Broadwater in the time of King John. His son Ralph, with whom Dugdale commences his account of the family, was among the rebellious barons who "returned to obedience" on the accession of Henry III, and served as Sheriff of Sussex in 1241. He died in 1258, seised of Wodeton in Surrey, Ditton (formerly known as Ditton-Camois) in Cambridgeshire, and Burwell in Oxfordshire, leaving Sir Ralph, his son and heir, then forty years of age. This second Ralph was again in opposition to the king during the Barons' War, and one of the Council of State that governed the realm after the battle of Lewes. Shortly before his death in 1276, he had a grant of the manor of Trotton, which "then obtained the distinction of Camois Court, and included Woolbeding and other members."—Dallaway's Sussex. The next in succession, Sir John was twice married, and both times to an heiress named Margaret; his first wife being the daughter of Richard Foliot, the second, of John de Gatesden. Each gave him a son; but the second Margaret, "better affecting Sir William Painell, departed from this her husband, and lived adulterously with him." Sir John accepted the position with true philosophy, and in a practical and business-like spirit. He "came to an accord with Painell," and by a deed, given under his hand and seal, formally made over to him all his right and title to his wife, and to all her goods and chattels. This curious charter, which has been preserved by Dugdale, is duly drawn out in legal form, and attested by eight witnesses. There can be little doubt that the contracting parties held it to be valid; for the right of a man to sell his wife long continued to be a favourite article of belief in England, and among the ignorant classes is far from having yet died out.[93] On the death of Sir John, the frail Margaret was formally married to her paramour; and in 1299 petitioned Parliament for her dower, which had been withheld from her by the King's Attorney on the ground that she had forsaken Camoys of her own accord, and never been reconciled to him. She pleaded that she had committed no adultery, but "abode with Painell in virtue of that grant before recited." Nor was her claim at once disallowed, but referred to the next Parliament, and the decision was only given against her two years afterwards. A statute was at the same time passed to prevent any similar transaction for the future.

Sir John's son by his first marriage with the Foliott heiress, Sir Ralph, was a soldier from his earliest years. He had already been in the Scottish and Gascon wars, when, in 1305, he and many others received the honour of knighthood with Prince Edward "by bathing and other sacred ceremonies;" and went with him again to Scotland in the retinue of the elder Hugh Le Despencer. He was summoned to Parliament in 1313: in 1319 was Governor of Windsor Castle and Warden of Windsor Forest, and received in the same year a grant to himself, Elizabeth his wife, and Hugh their son,[94] of Westbury in Hampshire, then forfeited to the Crown. "But," concludes Dugdale, "as he had been of the retinue of Hugh Despencer the elder, so was he an adherent to Hugh the younger; wherefore in 1 Edward III. he procured the king's pardon for that transgression." His eldest son, Sir Ralph II., who had married Joan Le Despencer, a daughter of the luckless favourite, and served in the French wars in the retinue of Henry Earl of Lancaster, was knighted in 1364 by John of Gaunt's own hand during his Spanish campaign, but never received a writ of summons. He left three children; a son who d.s.p.; a daughter who was Abbess of Ramsey; and another married to Edmund Courtenay.

Thus ended the elder line; but there still remained the descendants of Sir John by his second wife, the discarded Margaret de Gatesden. Her grandson, Sir Thomas, was summoned to Parliament in 1383 [95] as Lord Camoys of Broadwater, and stood so high in the good graces of Richard II., that he was among the obnoxious favourites subsequently removed from Court by the indignant nobles. Yet he was no ignoble minion, but a tried and most gallant soldier. He fought the French by sea and land; followed John of Gaunt on his romantic expedition to Castile; was retained to serve Henry V. in his wars with two knights, twenty-seven men-at-arms, and sixty archers; and commanded the left wing of the army on the glorious day of Agincourt. On this last occasion, he received the Garter as the meed of his services. His wife was Elizabeth Mortimer, eldest daughter of Edmund, third Earl of March, by his royal wife Philippa Plantagenet, and the widow of Harry Hotspur:—Shakespeare's Lady Percy, whom he, by a strange error, invariably calls "gentle Kate." Their son Sir Richard died in his father's life-time, leaving a boy-heir who never lived to come of age, and two daughters; Margaret married to Ralph Rademilde of Rademilde in Sussex, and Eleanor, married to Sir Roger Lewknor. Lord Camoys himself died in 1430; and his wife, surviving him, held Trotton in dower, and lies buried under a stately tomb in the chancel of the parish church, which had been rebuilt by him about thirty years before. The slab of Petworth marble on which her brass rests is probably the largest ever taken from that quarry. She is represented in the stiff winged coif and flowing mantle of the time; her husband, in full armour, lies by her side, with his left hand on his sword-hilt, and the right clasped in hers; each wears the collar of SS fastened by a padlock round the throat; and a diminutive effigy of a praying monk stands at Lady Camoys' knee.

The two grand-daughters shared the estates; and after the lapse of exactly four centuries, the barony of Camoys was called out of abeyance in favour of Thomas Stonor of Stonor in Oxfordshire, a descendant of the elder of these coheiresses. Lord Camoys had, however, probably a younger son; the "Sir Roger de Camois who in 22 Henry VI. was taken Prisoner in the Wars of France, and there detained in great misery. Whereupon Isabell his Wife had an Assignation of ,£40 per Annum for her life, to be paid by the Mayor and Commonalty of the City of London." There is no mention of his posterity.

Camuile :

"from Camville or Campville, near Coutances, in the Cotentin. Richard de Camville, surnamed Puignant, had a grant of Middletune and Godendune, Oxford, in barony. William de Camville, his brother, held Godintune from him in 1086 (Domesd.)."—The Norman People. The ancient castle of Middleton Stoney is "supposed to have been built in the reign of Stephen by Richard Camvil, a loyal and powerful baron, and Lord of this town, en the site of a Saxon military work, and continued the residence of his descendants for nearly one hundred years."—Bullington and Ploughley's Oxfordshire. No vestige of it is now to be seen, though some fragments remained in Leland's time. "The village and castell of Middeltune in Oxfordshire is two myles by west from Burchester (Bicester)) and the castell stood hard by the churche. Sum pices of the walles of yt yet apeare, but almost the whole site of it is overgrowne with bushys." This Richard, who also held Lilburne Castle in Northamptonshire, and gave his name to Charlton-Camville (now Charlton Horethorne) in Somersetshire, founded Combe Abbey in Warwickshire. His son—another Richard—received a royal grant of Cornbury Forest for five years at an annual rent of £3; and in 1164 "was summoned to the great council of Clarendon, where he signed the famous constitutions enacted for reducing the monstrous pretensions of the clergy." He was several times employed by Henry II.: "the last public commission which he received from him was to convey intelligence to the King of Sicily of his sovereign having granted him his daughter in marriage." Richard Coeur de Lion appointed him one of his admirals in the expedition to the Holy Land in 1190; and afterwards joint Governor of Cyprus with Sir Roger de Turnham; but, "becoming soon tired of this inactive life, without waiting for the permission of the King, he followed the army to Palestine, and joined the besiegers before the walls of Acre, where he died the same month." The next in succession, Gerard, acquired with his wife Nichola, daughter and co-heir of Robert de Haia, a vast fortune, and the offices of Constable of Lincoln Castle and Sheriff of Lincolnshire. During Coeur de Lion's absence abroad, he plotted treason with Prince John, and on the King's return, was "disseized of his castle and shrievalty of Lincoln; and, within a week after, accused of harbouring and abetting thieves who robbed the tradesmen going to Stamford Fair, and likewise of high treason." He only obtained the King's pardon by a payment of 2,000 marks. But John made him ample amends on his accession, and Gerard basked in the smiles of royalty till his death in 1214. Richard, his son, married another heiress, Eustacia, daughter of Gilbert Basset, Lord of the neighbouring town of Bicester, and Idonea, their only child, carried Middleton and all their possessions to her husband William Longespe, a son of the Earl of Salisbury.

A younger brother of Gerard's had, however, left descendants in the male line. His name was William, and he was seated at Clifton-Campville in Staffordshire, which according to Erdeswick, was held by the Camvilles from 1200 to 1315. His wife Albreda, the daughter and heiress of Geoffrey Marmion, brought him three sons: 1. Geoffrey; 2. William, of Arewe (Arrow) and Seckington in Warwickshire, whose line expired with his grandson Sir Gerard; and 3. Thomas, Presbyter, Justic. Reg. 13 Henry III. Geoffrey, the eldest, who received a writ of military summons in 1293, and a summons to parliament in the following year, married a second and greater heiress, Maud, daughter and heir of Sir Guy de Bryan, by Eve, daughter and heir of Henry de Tracy; and in 1258 held in her right twenty-eight knight's fees "for that part of the honour of Barnstaple that had belonged to Oliver de Tracy." Their son William was likewise a baron by writ, but left none but female heirs. Erdswick accords him only a single daughter, Maud, first married to Sir Richard Vernon of Haddon, and then to Sir Richard Stafford of Pipe in Staffordshire, whose son was summoned to Parliament in 1371 as Baron Stafford of Clifton. On the other hand, Burton, in his History of Leicestershire, gives a separate wife to each of these sons-in-law, for he says, that besides Maud, who, being the eldest co-heiress, conveyed Clifton Camville to the Staffords, Lord Camville had a younger daughter named Margery, wedded to Vernon of Haddon Hall.

Chawent :

or Champvent: a baronial name, of which I have been unable to find any trace in Normandy. Ralph de Chament, in 1165, held two knight's fees of the Honour of Wallingford in Berkshire (Liber Niger). "Waltero de Campo Avene," in the time of Stephen, witnessed a charter of Richard de Camville, the founder of Combe Abbey, Warwickshire. The daughter and heir of Ralph de Dols of Berry, and widow of Baldwin III., Earl of Devon, was given in marriage by Coeur de Lion to Andrew de Chavenni or Chauvens. In this latter case, however, I am disposed to think the name intended is Chauvigny.

It was not till quite the end of the following century that the family was enrolled in the baronage. Peter de Champvent or de Chauvent, who had done Edward III. good service in the Gascon wars, was summoned to parliament in 1299, and died three years afterwards. He was succeeded by John de Chauvent, whom Courthope calls his son, and Morant his cousin, but who in either case was incontestably his heir. According to Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs, this John was Lord of Stopham and Offham in Sussex, with part of the Cambridgeshire manor of Impington, and was summoned in 1308 and 1314 for military service against the Scots. He had been in Scotland before that, for in 1307 he went with Sir John de Bouttetort and others on a raid through Nithsdale and Galloway in search of Robert de Bruis. But he was not, like his predecessor, a baron by writ. He is supposed by Courthope to be the same John de Chauvent who died in 1371, leaving his two great grand-daughters his heir. As it is distinctly stated that he was thirty at the time of Sir Peter's death, this would give him a patriarchal lease of life, bringing up the tale of his years to ninety-nine. His coat is given in Guillym's Roll of Arms, as Paly of 6, Azure and Or, a fess Gules.

Chauncy :

from Canci, near Amiens. The pedigree of this family is clearly and minutely given by Sir Henry Chauncy, in his History of Hertfordshire. Two brothers, William and Auschar de Canci, flourished temp. Henry I. "William, the eldest, purchased the manor of Schripenbec, in Yorkshire, of Balistarius, a great Norman, who held it by grant of William the Conqueror (Domes. Ebor. xxiv.) and this William lived there with Walter his son, who was his successor." Walter, Lord of Schirpenbec, the first named by Dugdale, gave fifteen pounds fine in 5 Stephen for license to marry whom he pleased. We are not informed as to the lady of his choice; but he left two sons, Anfrid and Simon, who both appear in the Liber Niger as holding five knight's fees; Anfried in the co. of York, and Simon in Lincolnshire. Anfrid's younger grandson, or probably, from the length of time, his great grandson, was Lord of Upton in Northamptonshire.

Thomas de Chauncy, the representative of the elder line, had a writ of military summons 25 Ed. I. in which he is styled Baron de Skirkenbek, the manor being held of the King in capite; "but it does not appear that either he, or his descendants had ever afterwards summons to parliament as barons of the realm."—Banks. He married the heiress of his Lincolnshire kinsman,[96] Isabel, sister of the last Gerard de Chauncy, who brought him Wylughton and other lands in Lincoln, and Hoghton in Notts. In the time of Henry VI. the Chauncys migrated into Hertfordshire, where they acquired a considerable property through a Gifford heiress. The historian of the family, Sir Henry Chauncy, knight, sergeant-at-law, eminent as a learned and assiduous antiquary, died in the early part of the last century, and left descendants by two of his three wives. But in the third generation these had completely died out; and the sole survivor in the male line then in England, Nathaniel Chauncy (the grandson of a younger brother who was Vicar of Ware and had gone out to America with the Puritan emigrants in the seventeenth century) ended his days in 1790. His heiress was his second daughter Amelia, the wife of her cousin Charles Snell, who took the name of Chauncy, and transmitted it to two sons. Both the sons, however, left daughters; and the greater part of the inheritance devolved upon one of these, who married Henry Edward Surtees, of Redworth Hall in the co. of Durham.

Charles Chauncy, the Vicar who settled in New England, had been imprisoned in his own country for refusing to rail in his communion table. "Dying in America in 1671, as President of Harvard College, he bequeathed through his children, the following names to the land of his adoption—Isaac, Ichabod, Sarah, Barnabas, Elnathan, and Nathaniel. The younger Chauncys married and begot children. A grandson of Isaac Chauncey died at Boston, in 1787, aged eighty-three. He was a great patriot, preacher, and philanthropist at a critical time in his country's history." The name spread, and became as popular a baptismal name in America, as Sidney is in England. "It was a memorial of Charles Chauncey, of Boston, and has now an average place throughout the eastern border and the older settlements. I take up the New York Directory for 1878, and at once light upon Chauncey Clark, Chauncey Peck, and Chauncey Quintard; while, to distinguish the great Smith family, there are Chauncey Smith, lawyer, Chauncey Smith, milk-dealer, Chauncy Smith, meat-seller, and Chauncy Smith, junior, also engaged in the meat-market. Thus, it is popular with all classes."—Bardsley's Curiosities of Puritan Nomenclature.

Conderay :

in Duchesne's copy, Couderay. "The Coudrays were a branch of the Beaumonts, Viscounts of Maine.—(See Anselme, art. Beaumont) Benedict de Coudray was witness of a charter of Roger de Menilwarin to Deulacresse Abbey (Mon. ii.); Fulco de Coudray held one fee from Abingdon Abbey (Testa); and Matthew de Coudray one fee from Ralph de St. Amand (lb.)."—The Norman People. Lawer tells us that "the name of Coudray, signifying a grove or 'hurst' of beech trees, is still common in Normandy." We find the family seated at Herriard, in Hampshire, as early as the twelfth century; for in 1280 Peter de Coudray, being challenged to show his title to free chase in Basingstoke hundred, proved that the right had belonged to his ancestors from the time of Coeur de Lion. Some dozen years previously, this same Peter had "leave to enclose Cufald in Schyreburne within Pembere Forest," and make himself a park. Edward Coudray was Sheriff of Hants 1403 and 1417; and bore Sable, ten billets Or, 4, 3, 2, and 1. From the Coudrays, Herriard passed by marriage to the Paulets.—Woodward's Hampshire. Padworth in Berkshire "was, at an early period, in the family of Coudray, who held it by the service of finding a sailor to manage the ropes of the Queen's vessel, whenever she should pass over into Normandy. The Coudrays continued to possess this manor in 1465."—Lysons. In Buckinghamshire, Fulk Coudray held Moulsoe, or Mulshoe, in the time of Henry III. (Testa de Nevill), and transmitted it to five generations of his descendants in the male line. The last heir—another Fulk—was childless; and Margery, daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Cowdray, married Sir Roger Tyringham, a knight banneret, who was Sheriff of Bucks and Berks in 1317 and 1322.—See Lipscomb's Bucks. Matthew de Coddray was joint-Sheriff of Herefordshire from 1237 to 1240. The name of Robert de Cowdray frequently occurs in Cheshire charters in the time of Randle Blundeville. He married a county heiress, Maud, Lady of Worleston, and left an only daughter, Jane de Cowdray, who married, first, Sir William de Esseby, and secondly, Walter de Worleston. This was in the time of Edward I.—Ormerod's Cheshire. Benedict de Coudrey was Bailiff of Macclesfield 1245-1251. In the Roll of Arms of the knights who fought at Boroughbridge, we find "Sire Thomas Coudray's," Gules, billety Or.

Coluile :

from Colleville, near Bayeux. "Guillaume de Colleville" is on the Dives Roll, and held lands in Yorkshire (Domesday). His son of the same name was Lord of Colleville t. Henry I., holding of Ranulph the Viscount and the Church of Bayeux (Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de la Normandie). This second William's eldest son, Philip, was in arms against King Stephen at York, and obliged to take refuge in Scotland, where he witnessed a charter of Malcolm IV. to Dunfermline Abbey before 1154, and was one of the hostages given for the release of William the Lion in 1174. The first possessions he obtained in his new country were in Roxburghshire; but his grandson, Sir William de Coleville, settled at Morham in East Lothian; and it would seem to have been the latter's daughter, Eustacia, the wife of Sir Reginald Chene, who, according to Nisbett's Heraldry, was "the heir of the principal house of Colvill." Sir John de Colevyle—how nearly related we are not informed—held Oxnam (Oxenham) in Roxburghshire, and Uchiltree or Ochiltree in Ayrshire, in the time of Alexander III. (1249-1285); and his descendants were styled, first of the former, and afterwards of the latter place. In 1449 Sir Richard de Colville set upon James Auchinlech, with whom he had a private feud, and slew him and several of his retainers. Auchinlech had been "a near friend" to the powerful Earl of Douglas, and the Earl solemnly swore to be revenged. Collecting his followers, he ravaged Colville's lands, laid siege to his castle, captured and plundered it, and put all that it contained—its lord included—to the sword. Sir James Colville, of Easter Wemyss (for which his grandfather had exchanged Ochiltree), who served with "no small reputation" under Henry of Navarre in the French wars, and obtained a grant of the lands of Culross Abbey, was created Lord Colville of Culross in 1609. In his old age, he went back to France, and appeared at Court in the antiquated uniform he had worn in the wars, to the surprise—and probably the derision—of the courtiers; but the King knew his old comrade at once, and came forward to embrace him. His latter years were chiefly passed at his seat at Tillicoultry, where he had a favourite walk along a beautiful terrace, and a favourite seat under a thorn-tree, whose venerable trunk still keeps its place there. One day in the year 1620, that the old soldier, standing under this tree, was discoursing of his campaigns, and "living his battles o'er again" with all the fire and animation of early days, he fell back over the sloping bank of this terrace, and was killed on the spot. The line failed with his successor, and the title reverted to the descendants of his uncle as heirs general; but for several generations they did not assume it. At last, after an interval of more than one hundred years, John Colville, an officer in the army, was served heir to the second Lord Colville of Culross in 1722, and was the immediate ancestor of the present and eleventh Lord.

The grandfather of the first Lord had left an illegitimate son, on whom he bestowed much of his property, including the barony of Cleish; and the great grandson of the latter, Robert Colville of Cleish, was created Lord Colville of Ochiltree by Charles II. His nephew and great nephew succeeded him, and with them the title appears to have become extinct.

The existing English family claim descent from a brother (Burke will have it an elder brother) of the Philip de Colville who went to Scotland in the twelfth century, named Gilbert. Dugdale, however, does not notice this Gilbert (whom, in fact, I find mentioned only in the pedigree given by Sir Bernard), but passes on to give some account of William de Colville, who 10 Ric. I. held fifteen knight's fees in Lincolnshire. In the next reign he was in arms against the King, and excommunicated by the Pope; and in 1216 taken prisoner at Lincoln. "Whereupon Maud, his Wife, being sollicitous for his Redemption, obtain'd Letters of Safe-conduct to come to the King, for treating with him to that purpose; and thereby making his Composition, had the King's Precept to William Earl of Albemarle, to render his Castle of Bitham, in Com. Lincoln, which had been seised for that Transgression." His son Robert, who had also sided with the barons, and been sent by them, with Roger de Jarponville, to treat of peace with the King, was taken prisoner in the same year by Falk de Breant; and the next heir, Walter, "of no less turbulent Spirit," again rose in rebellion, and was imprisoned, as his father and grandfather had been before him. He was one of "the fiery-spirited Men" that fought under the banner of Simon de Montfort; but surrendered at Kenilworth, and was allowed to compound for his lands. He died in 1276, and with him the vicissitudes of his family were brought to a close. His grandson, Edmund, acquired Weston-Colville in Cambridgeshire, through Margaret de Ufford, his wife; and his great grandson, Robert, who served in Edward III.'s French wars, was a baron by writ in 1342. This barony expired with Robert's grandson, at whose death no nearer heirs were to be found to his estate than the descendants of Robert's great aunts, the two sisters of Edmund de Colville. Elizabeth, the eldest, was represented by Ralph Basset; and Alice, by John Gernon.

Though the barony had thus come to an end, there was still a collateral branch of the house "of great antiquity in Cambridgeshire. Sir Henry de Colville was Sheriff of Hunts and Cambridge 35 Henry III. Philip de Colville, 53 do. defended the castle of Gloucester against that King's son, and had a pardon the same year."—Blomfield's Norfolk. They had been early enfeoffed of Carlton Colville, in Suffolk; and Sir Henry's son, Sir Roger (who first assumed the lion rampant since borne by the family) obtained a market and fair there in 1267. He had been Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk the preceding year. "He was," says Suckling, "a person of tyrannical and arbitrary character. Upon the return of Edward I. from the Holy Land, he was charged with an undue exercise of his right of free-warren, raising a weir in the river and appropriating it to his own use, extorting money, &c. There is a charter extant which shows the vast estate possessed by this family in Carlton and its neighbourhood. Carlton Hall passed away from them early in the fourteenth century, when they retired to estates obtained by marriage with the heiress of De Marisco in West Norfolk and Cambridgeshire." This Desiderata de Marisco was the wife of the next Sir Roger, styled "the rapacious knight," of Caxton in Cambridgeshire, to whom she also brought Newton Colville in Norfolk, which became the principal residence of their descendants for nearly five hundred years. One of them was killed in France in the wars of Edward III.; another, a devoted loyalist in the Great Rebellion, was one of the intended knights of the Royal Oak. Like most Cavalier families, they probably suffered in purse what they gained in reputation. At last, in 1792, Robert Colville sold the old place in Norfolk that had been so long their homestead; and Newton Hall was pulled down. His son, Sir Charles, married a Derbyshire heiress, who brought him Duffield Hall and Lullington, near Burton-on-Trent, their present seat.

The Colvilles were formerly to be met with in several other counties. They were "the most ancient possessors of land that are recorded at Ancroft, in Northumberland."—Mackenzie. Thomas de Colville, of Eversley, or Ifferley, in Yorkshire, granted lands to Byland Abbey (Burton, Mon. Ebor 72). Of him probably came the Colevilles of the Dale, who took their name from a narrow valley and hamlet buried among the moors of the Cleveland Hills, about two miles north of Old Byland. Many of them lie buried in Byland Abbey. In the time of Edward I., William de Coleville held one-half a knight's fee at "Engleby-juxta-Arncliffe" of Walter de Fauconberg, Lord of Skipton.—Kirkby's Inquest. Sir Robert de Coleville (probably his son), who was concerned in the death of Gaveston, married the heiress of the Ingelrams, of Arncliffe, and obtained license from Edward II. to enclose two thousand two hundred acres for his park there. A mutilated effigy in the church is supposed to be his; the arms of Coleville, Or, three torteauxes above a fesse Gules, are on the stone. One of his successors, "that most furious knight and valorous enemy, Sir John Colevile of the Dale," took part in the rising of the Percies and Archbishop Scrope, and was beheaded at Berwick. Shakespeare introduces him, as the prisoner of Falstaff, in his Henry IV. (Part II., Act IV.: Scene 3):—

"Prince John. Is thy name Colevile?
Colevile. It is, my lord.
Prince John. A famous rebel art thou, Colevile.
Falstaff. And a famous good subject took him,
Colevile. I am, my lord, but as my betters are,
That led me hither; had they been ruled by me,
You should have won them dearer than you have."

His grand-daughter Joan, the wife of Sir William Mauleverer, became the heiress of the family, for his great grandson, another John, who married Sir Piers Tilliol's daughter, died s. p.

Chamberlaine :

Camerarius, an official title. We encounter in Domesday a bewildering number of Chamberlains. Besides two mesne-lords, Adeloldus and Girardus (one in Kent, and the other in Gloucester), no fewer than twelve held in capite; Aiulphus in Dorsetshire; Alwold in Berkshire; Albericus (the Queen's Chamberlain) in Wilts and Hampshire; Bernard, Goisfrid, and Herbertus, all three likewise in Hampshire; Gondwinus in Suffolk; Hunfrid in nine different counties; Siric again in Hants; Turstin in Hants, Wiltshire, and Bedfordshire; Willelmus in Bucks, Gloucester, and Beds; and, finally, Odinus in Wilts. From their names, we may judge that two or three of these were of Saxon origin; and Aiulph had been Sheriff under Edward the Confessor. His barony consisted of seventeen manors—one of them named from him Ham Chamberlayne—and Blankney was the head of the honour. Herbert was the ancestor of the Herberts (see Fits Herbert). Goisfrid was the chamberlain of a princess unnoticed by any of our historians, Matilda, the daughter of William the Conqueror. Of the others that held in Hampshire, I can find nothing in Woodward's history of the county, except (as is probable) the following notice should refer to one of their descendants: "About 1296, a leading landowner in the neighbourhood of Southampton was Robert Chamberlain, or de Chaumberlyn, as he is on one record oddly enough called. He held Netley by service of the King's chamber. At Farley-Chamberlyne, by the same service, he held of the King's gift lands worth 40 s. His grandfather Peter Chamberlyne had held three fees temp. Hen. II." Compton-Chamberlyne, in Wilts, took its name from "D'n's Rob'tus le Chaumberlayne." Morant tells us that "before the year 1165 Hen. II. had given the Honour of Eudo Dapifer to Henry, son of Gerold the Chamberlain, who married Ermentruda, daughter and heir of Robert Talebot of Gainsborough in Lincolnshire. He left Alice his daughter and sole heir, married to Robert de Lisle, from whom descended the Lisles Lords of Rugemont in Bedfordshire."—History of Essex.

Chamburnoun :

De Campo Arnulphi: a knightly family of great possessions and high antiquity in Devonshire. "There have been," writes Prince, "many eminent persons of this house, the history of whose ancestors and exploits, for the greater part, is devoured by time, although their names occur in the chronicles of England, amongst those worthies who with their lives and fortunes were ready to serve their King and country." Their original seat was at Clyst St. George—often called Clist Champernoun, where they are found in the time of Henry II., and at Ilfracombe; and though this elder line died out in about six descents, there were several prosperous offsets from the parent stock. One of these younger sons, Jordan de Champernoun, had married, in the first years of the thirteenth century, the heiress of Soleigny, who brought him Umberleigh, which passed away to Sir R. Willington temp. Edward III. Another married "the heiress of Sir Alexander de Okeston, by his wife Joan, relict of Richard de Valletort, which Joan is supposed to have been a concubine of Richard, King of the Romans; and the son had a grant of Modbury, where he settled."—Lysons. The two next in succession, Sir Richard and Sir Thomas, again advanced their fortunes by marriage. Sir Richard's wife was the eldest of the four coheiresses of the great house of Valletort (Lysons says that the second sister also married a Champernoun); and Sir Thomas' was a Leicestershire heiress, the daughter of Sir Roger Rohand of Kimcote. The grandson of the latter took up his abode at Bere-Ferrers, acquired by a Ferrers heiress, and transferred, in the next generation but one, to the first Lord Willoughby de Broke. "The last of the House of Campernulphe of Bere left a Doughter and Heire caullid Blanch, and she was first maried onto Copestan of Devonshire; and after devorcid and maried onto the Lorde Broke, Steward onto Henry the VIJ., and he had by her a seven hundred Markes of Land by Yere."—Leland. Younger branches survived, seated at Modbury, Dartington, and Inswerke in Cornwall; but all of them are now extinct. Modbury, which was garrisoned for the King in 1642, lost its last lord in 1697; and though "Dartington still glories in the knightly name of Champernoun," it is only by female descent. There has been no heir-male since Rawlin Champernowne died in 1774.

In Cornwall, Carew tells us that the Benedictine Priory of Tywardreth was founded before 1169 by Champernulphus or Chambernon of Bere;[97] and the Champernouns had "a great and magnificent house at St. Issey."—Gilbert's Cornwall.

"On the door of Haccombe Church were formerly four horse-shoes, relics, according to the legend, of a wager between a Carew and a Champernowne, as to who would swim on horseback the farthest to sea. Carew won the wager, and with it a manor, and nailed the shoes of his horse to the church door 'in everlasting remembrance.'"—Worth's Devon.

Comin :

from Comines in Flanders. Rodbert or Robert de Comines was named Earl of Northumberland, or, according to Ordericus, Earl of Durham in January, 1069, and at once set forth, with a following of less than one thousand men, to take possession of his new domain:—a perilous errand, for Durham had not as yet submitted to the Conqueror. He marched as through an enemy's country, slaying some of the tenants or bondmen of St. Cuthbert's church on the way; and though the city, by the good offices of its friendly Bishop, AEthelwine, opened its gates to him without resistance, "he allowed his men to deal with the town as with a place taken by storm. The spirit of the people was now aroused. The news spread during the night, and towards morning the gates of Durham were burst open by the assembled forces of Northumberland. A general massacre followed. In the houses, in the streets, the Normans were everywhere slaughtered. No serious resistance seems to have been offered except in defence of the Bishop's house, where the Earl and his immediate companions withstood their assailants so manfully that they were driven to have recourse to fire. The palace was burned; the Earl and his comrades all died, either by the flames or by the sword. One man alone contrived to escape with his life, and he was wounded."—Freeman.

This ill-fated Earl must have left either sons or kinsmen, for the name long' survived in the North of England. Richard and Walter Comyn are mentioned among the Northumbrian barons in the reign of Henry II.: and "in 4 H. III. William Cumin was one of the Coheirs to Andrew Giffard, for the Barony of Funtell, in Com. Wiltes. And in 17 H. III. Isabel the wife of David Comin became one of the Coheirs to Christian the wife of William de Mandeville Earl of Essex. Which David in 26 H. III. receiv'd Summons from the King to attend him into Gascoine."—Dugdale. Newbold-Comyn in Warwickshire took its name from Elias de Comyn, who obtained it through an heiress; but the line failed with his grandson John. He died s. p. in Ireland 16 Ed. I. One of this family held Snitfield in the same county by grant of Hugh Fitz Richard in the time of Stephen: his last male descendant died 13 Hen. III., leaving an heiress named Margerie, "then within age and in ward to William de Cantelupe," who, according to the custom of the time, married her to his younger son.

The Comyns migrated across the Border—at the same time as did so many of their countrymen—during the reign of David I. William Comyn, a younger son, who had been bred as a clerk by Gaufrid Bishop of Durham, Chancellor to Henry I., was appointed High Chancellor of Scotland in 1133. He usurped the see of Durham in 1140, and held it for four years, when he surrendered it by agreement to the lawful Bishop, Wm. de Sta Barbara. He had two nephews: William (obt. 1144) a young knight hotly engaged in the contest for his uncle, and Richard, who in the settlement of the dispute, Obtained from the re-instated Bishop the castle and honour of Northallerton. He also inherited the family estates in Northumberland, and received from King David the manor of Linton Roderick in Roxburghshire—the first possession that the Comyns, afterwards so all powerful, ever had in Scotland. Though he throughout retained his English lands, he seems at once to have adopted it as his country, for he served in the Scottish army that invaded England in 1140, was taken prisoner with William the Lion at Alnwick; became one of his sureties in the following year, and was justiciary of Scotland from 1178 to 1189. He married a Scottish princess, Hexilda, grand-daughter of King Donalbane, and their son William acquired the Earldom of Buchan in 1210 by his marriage with its heiress, Marjory. She was his second wife. By his first marriage he had two sons: 1. Richard, and 2. Walter, Earl of Menteith in right of his wife. Marjory brought him three more: 3. Alexander, who succeeded his mother as Earl of Buchan: 4. William, 5. Fergus. Richard, the eldest son, was the father of the famous Red John Comyn, who played so conspicuous a part during the minority of Alexander III. Fordun tells us that the family then consisted of thirty-two knights and three powerful Earls, and when, through the influence of Henry III., they found themselves removed from the councils of the infant King, they were strong enough to carry matters with a high hand. "Under cover of night they attacked the court of the King at Kinross: seized the young monarch in his bed: carried him and his Queen before morning to Stirling; made themselves masters of the great seal of the kingdom, and totally dispersed the opposite faction."—Tytler. They created a new office for John Comyn, who was made justiciary of Galloway in 1258, and "governed Scotland by the weight of their talents and the influence of their family." But in this same year 1258, they lost "the leader whose courage and energy were the soul of their councils." The Earl of Menteith died suddenly;—killed, as was said in England, by a fall from his horse, but generally believed in Scotland to have been poisoned by his wife to make way for her paramour, John Russell, to whom she was re-married "with indecent haste.'" He left an only daughter, married to his grand-nephew, William Comyn, long engaged in an unavailing struggle for the Earldom of Menteith, which was eventually granted to Walter Stewart. This William was the eldest of the four sons[98] of Red John, and died without issue. The next brother, Black John, thus became the heir, and inherited the lands of Badenoch from his great-uncle Lord Menteith. He was one of the joint wardens of Scotland for the infant Maid of Norway, and in the competition for the crown that followed her death, preferred his claim as heir to King Donalbane. But finding his pretensions "unattainable," he had the wisdom to withdraw them, and gave his support to Baliol, whose sister Marjory he had married. He had by her a son, named, like his grandfather, Red John Comyn, whose treacherous career was cut short by Brace's dagger in 1305. It was he who, jealous of Sir William Wallace, deserted him at the battle of Falkirk, when "the whole body of Scottish horse shamelessly retired without striking a blow." He was one of the three guardians of Scotland in the name of Baliol in 1299; and being on that occasion for the first time associated with his life-long rival, Robert Bruce, agreed to make terms with him. "Support my title to the crown," said Bruce, "and I will give you my estate: or give me your estate, and I will support yours." The conditions were drawn out in an indented instrument, and signed under an oath of secrecy: but Comyn at once betrayed the secret to King Edward. The sequel is too well known to be told again;—how Bruce, in a sudden fit of passion, stabbed him before the high altar of Dumfries Church: and Kirkpatrick, crying "I'll mak' sicker," returned to despatch him in cold blood.[99] He had married one of the sisters and coheirs of Adomar de Valence; but his only son died childless, in 1325, and two daughters inherited.

The line of the Earls of Buchan had ended somewhat earlier. Alexander, the second Earl, had been Constable of Scotland in right of his richly dowered English wife, Elizabeth de Quinci—one of the coheirs of the Earl of Winchester, and a grand-daughter of Alan of Galloway—and was succeeded in this hereditary office by his son John. This third Earl, one of the nominees of Baliol in 1291, twice swore fealty to Edward I., and—unlike most others who did the same—continued steady in his allegiance from first to last. He fought two battles with Robert Bruce, and was routed on each occasion; the second time, with great slaughter at Inverury, in 1308: and after this latter defeat was compelled to seek refuge in England, and leave his Northern estates to be confiscated and disposed of by the Scottish King. Yet it was his Countess—Isabel by name, that with her own hands placed the crown on the head of this same King at Scone: her brother the Earl of Fife, to whom the privilege by right belonged, being, like her husband, in the English camp. For this dire offence, Edward (into whose hands she unfortunately fell during the same year) caused her to be suspended in a latticed cage, "cross barred and secured with iron," from one of the turrets of the castle of Berwick upon Tweed: and in this barbarous durance she was left to linger for seven years. Edward II. at last released her in 1313. Her husband was by that time dead; and it is doubtful whether his brother Alexander lived to succeed him as fourth Earl: at all events there was no other heir male, for Alexander left only two daughters. The elder, Alice, was the wife of Henry de Beaumont, who assumed the title of Buchan, but apparently did not transmit it to his son: and Margaret, married to Sir James the Ross.

"While there is a tree in the forest," says a Scottish proverb, "there will be guile in the Cumming."

Columber :

from Colombieres in the arrondissement of Bayeux, on which no fewer than seventeen knight's fees were dependent. "William de Columbieres" is one of the knights mentioned by Wace at Hastings; and Ralf de Columbels, or Columbers, in Domesday, held lands in Kent and elsewhere in capite. Philip de Columbers in 1165 held a barony of eleven fees in Somerset, Wilts, Berks, Dorset, &c. (Lib. Niger.). The seat of this barony was Stawey in Somersetshire; and he enjoyed it in right of his wife Maud, sole heiress of Walter de Candos, who survived him, and lived for many years a widow, having paid a fine of forty marks to Coeur de Lion that "she might not be married against her will." Her great grandson, John, was commanded in 1294 to attend Edward I. into Gascony, but shamefully deserted his banner and revolted to the French. For this treason all his lands were seized by the Crown: but he appears to have been soon after pardoned and re-instated, and is subsequently mentioned in the Scottish wars. His seal was a bend with a label in chief, in which he differed from his ancestors, who had always sealed with a dove (colombe) sitting on a bush. Philip, Lord Columbers, his son, was constantly employed by Ed. III., followed him on his expedition into Scotland against Robert the Bruce, and in 1340 "was commissioned with the Earl of Devon to guard the western coasts, in which year he died, having been summoned to all the Parliaments from 10 Ed. II. to 13 Ed. III. inclusive. He married Alianor, sister and co-heir of William Martin, lord of the manors of Barnstaple, Combe-Martin, and other great possessions in Devonshire; but had no children. It seems that by certain deeds he made his said wife in his life-time joint-tenant with him in the greatest part of his lands, which, on her surviving him, accrued to her and her heirs."—Collinson's Somerset. Heathfield Columbers, which retains the name, was held under the Mohuns.

Another of the family was Matthew de Columbers, settled in Wiltshire, and Constable of Winchester Castle under King John; who in the following reign adhered to the rebellious barons, and after they had taken the King prisoner at the battle of Lewes, was by them named Warden of all the Forests south of Trent, with the custody of Rockingham Castle. He made his peace with Hen. III. by virtue of the Dictum of Kenilworth, and was afterwards one of the Justices Itinerant of the southern counties. His heir was his brother Michael, who had paid King John one hundred marks for licence to marry the daughter of Elias Croc, and to have the office of Forester in fee after the death of his father-in-law, whose inheritance it was. There is no mention of his children.

In Derbyshire "the Columbells were seated at Darley on or before the reign of Richard I. John, the last heir male, died in 1659; and his daughter and heir married Marbury of Marbury in Cheshire. They bore three doves Argent with ears of wheat in their beaks."—Lysons.

Cribett :

I believe this stands for Criket or Criquet, a name frequently found in England during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In Leland's list this and the following name (both spelt with g) are given as "Griketot et Grevequer," and there is every reason to believe that Criket was an abbreviation of Criketot, or Criquetot, a baronial family that came over with the Conqueror from Criquetot (now Cristot) near Dieppe, and bore Lozengee Or and Sable. Ansgar de Criquetot held lands in Suffolk from Mandeville in 1086. Ralph de Crichetot held Upper Hayton in Shropshire under Hugh de Lacy in 1165 (Liber Niger) and his descendants are mentioned there in 1265. "William, the son of William de Criquetot, married Agnes, the eldest of the sisters and co-heirs of William le Blund, slain at Evesham, without issue, whereby one moiety of the inheritance of her barony came to William his son; who having taken to wife Mary, the daughter of Gilbert Peche, by whom he had issue, William, his son and heir, died 6 Ed. I.; which William married Joan de Watevil, and left issue another William, who wedded Isabel Bracebridge, and had issue by her, William, whose wife was Joan Poynings, by whom he was father of William, who died issueless; Edmund, a canon at Ixworth, in Suffolk; and Joan, a nun at Campes."—Banks, They gave their name to Criketot in Suffolk, and to a manor they held in Norfolk of Lord Bardolph; now "corrupted in its spelling and pronunciation to Keritoft alias Crytoft's Manor." Simon de Criketot, in 1239, settled it on Emma, daughter of Ralf de Criketot.—Blomfield. An earlier Ralph de Criketot, and Isabel his wife, had been benefactors of Holme Abbey in the time of Stephen.

In Dorsetshire we find the Crukets seated at Cruketsway in the parish of Broadway, temp. Henry III. One of them married Joanna, daughter and co-heir of Philip de Sarmunville; his Christian name is not given, but it may have been the same John de Cruket who occurs in 1268 as a benefactor of Abbotsbury Abbey. He held of the Poyntz's, as did his successor, William, who died in 1313, leaving Michael his son and heir upwards forty years of age. Two years afterwards, Michael conveyed some land, &c, to Richard de Cruket, of course a kinsman. The last mentioned is William Brickett (Crickett?) 20 Ed. III.—Hutchin's Dorset.

In Herefordshire, the eldest sister and co-heir of Sir Richard de Frenes, Lord of Moccas Castle, who died about 1375, married Roger de Criketot.—Robinson's Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords. It is not stated whether this Alice de Frenes left descendants, but the name was not extinct in the following century. William Criketot is found on a list of the county gentry made in 1433.

Creuquere :

from Crevecoeur, in the arrondissement of Lisieux; a strong castle which still remains in the valley of the Auge. The "sires de Crievecoer" are among the knights enumerated in the Roman du Rou.

"They settled in England, and were divided into two branches, those of Redburn and Kent, from the time of Henry I. See the endowments of Bullington and Leedes in the Monasticon. Hasted says (though his authority may be questioned) that the family name of Hamo Dapifer or Vice-comes of Domesday was Crevequer. He adds that he was brother of Robert Fitz-Hamon; and here he is supported by a charter of the Conqueror to Saint Denis, existing still at Paris, to which we find as witnesses, "Ego Haimo Regis dapifer"—"Ego Robert frater hujus Haimonis."—See Introd. Domesday, i.432. In the Bayeux Inquest, "Hugo de Crevecuire feodum v. mil."—Taylor's Wace. The Kentish Crevecoeurs were Barons of Chatham, and had great possessions in the county. Robert de Crevecoeur in 1119 founded Leedes Priory, which was richly endowed by himself and his two sons. Daniel, the eldest, was buried there; and desiring to be remembered by a good dinner, left a bequest "to the end that the Canons of that House should have the better Commons on the day of his Obit." Daniel's grandson, Hamon, married Maud de Avranches, the famous heiress of Folkestone, by whom he had a son and four daughters. The son died before him; and a grandson named Robert succeeded; a man of fickle loyalty, twice in arms against Henry III., and twice pardoned and restored—who had "no more sons than one call'd William" with whom the line ended. His great inheritance devolved on the four daughters of Hamon and Maud; Agnes, the wife of John de Sandwich; Isold, of Nicholas de Lenham: Elene, of Bertram Cryol; and Isabel, of Henry de Gaunt. Their Kentish seat was Leeds Castle, built on two rocky islands in a lake of fifteen acres, and afterwards a royal manor. "The earliest masonry in the castle, probably represented by the curious vaulted cellar, is thought to be the work of Robert de Crevecoeur, who founded Leeds Priory in 1119, and afterwards removed three canons into the chapel of his castle."—C. Wykeham Martin. At Dover Castle "the two towers bearing the name of Crevequer mark the position of the great postern, a very curious work. Passing from the north gate of the inner ward, a range of arches cross the ditch and the Outer Ward, and, terminate abruptly in a large low p:er with salient angles to the right and left. Opposite to the pier, and no doubt at one time connected with it by a drawbridge, rise a pair of circular towers (Crevequer) connected by a heavy curtain and flanked by lesser towers (Maminot) at short distances, all forming part of the enceinte of the Outer Ward."[100]—G. T. Clark.

Of the Lincolnshire branch, seated at Redburn, I have found very few notices.

They also held land in Yorkshire: for Richard Coeur de Lion confirmed to Selby Abbey the church of St. Andrew of Redburn and of Ashby in Yorkshire, given by Reginald de Crevequer, with the consent of his wife and his son Alexander. He granted in addition the town of Redburn and forty acres of his demesne lands.... de Crevequer confirmed this grant, and Simon de Crevequer added "a toft and a culture of land."—Burton's Mon. Ebor. Again, John de Crevecoeur, with the consent of his suzerain, Roger de Mowbray and Matilda his wife, sold to Fountains Abbey his land at Galghagh: his son Robert, and his grandson Hugh, confirmed it to the monks in 1256. William, son of Walter de Crevequer of Stodeley (Studley) gave some of his land to the poor of Studeley.—Ibid.

Corbine :

derived from the same source as Corbett. Like the Corbetts, the Corbins bore ravens on their coat of arms, but I fail to trace any connection between the families. Four of this name are entered in Domesday, all of them as under-tenants; W. Corbun in Essex: Hugo de Corbun in Norfolk and Suffolk, holding of Roger Bygot; one in Warwickshire, and another in Kent, who held Pecheham (now Peckham) of the Bishop of Bayeux. Philip Corbin, in 1165, held half a fee of Reginald Fitz-Urse in Northants (Lib. Niger), and Geoffrey Corbin occurs in 1194 (Rot. Curiae Regis). In the Testa de Nevill, we find Henry Corbin in Notts and Derby, and three Corbins in Devonshire; Peter Corbine of Corbinestone, a tenant of John de Cortenay's Honour of Oakhampton; Miles Corbin, who held one fee at Bridgeford of the same; and Philip Corbin. Again, the Hundred Rolls, about 1272, furnish Walter Corbin of Somersetshire, Ralph Corbin of Oxfordshire; and Margaret Corbin in Kent. Yet, widely spread and ancient as was the name, the records that remain of it are comparatively few. "The family of Corbin," says Dugdale, "had its antient seat at Corbin's Hall, within Swineford parish, in com. Stafford, where most of them had their residence." They had held it from the time of Henry II. when it was first possessed by Robert Corbin. "Thomas Corbin, of Hall End, co. Warwick, was the last heir male, and sold the ancient mansion to John Hodgett. He bore Argent on a chief Or three ravens proper."—Erdewick's Staffordshire. Hall End had been acquired in the time of Coeur de Lion by Nicholas Corbin through his wife Joan, daughter and heir of John Sturmy. "The last heir died in 1688, and Margaret, his daughter and sole heiress, married William Lygon of Madresfield."—Nash's Worcestershire.

Corbett :

Corbat and his two sons, Roger and Rodbert, are named by Ordericus among "the faithful and very valiant men" employed by Roger de Montgomeri in the government of his new Earldom of Shrewsbury. Corbet was also, according to tradition, consulted by William the Conqueror as to the defence of the Welsh Marches. His ancestry, as Blakeway tells us, ascended "to a very remote antiquity. The name denotes in Norman-French a raven: whether in allusion to the famous Danish standard (the Reafan), of which their ancestor might have been the bearer from Scandinavia under Rollo, or whether from a less noble source, cannot be determined. It is certain that Corbet came with his second and fourth sons, Roger and Robert, to the invasion of England by Duke William of Normandy. Besides the two sons who settled in Shropshire, the eldest and third, Hugh and Renaud, stayed behind. Hugh is mentioned in some charters of the Abbey of Bec, in Normandy; and Renaud was in Palestine in 1096, with his two sons, Robert and Guy. From the last of these descended five generations, all of them men of eminent rank in France, distinguished crusaders in the Holy Land, and castellans or viscounts of St. Pol, which the Corbets continued to hold until Hugh Corbet, knight, fourth descendant of Guy, sold his viscountcy to the Count de St. Pol, in order to raise money that he might follow St. Louis on his crusading expedition against the Moors of Africa. Robert, son of Hugh, accompanied his father to Tunis, and was drowned there in 1270. Hugh, his son, settled near Cambray; and his descendants for four generations lived at various places in the Netherlands, till James Corbet removed to Antwerp; and Robert, grandson to James, migrated to Spain, where he left a fair posterity. These Corbets of France and Flanders bore three ravens for their arms, in token of their descent from the third brother. A branch also of the Corbet family settled in Scotland, and were even allied to the Royal family there; for, in 1255, the Archbishop of St. Andrews writes a letter to the English Chancellor, Walter de Merton, on behalf of his 'beloved and especial friend, Nicholas Corbet, cousin of my Lord the King,' who had then certain affairs pending at the court of Henry III."

Corbet the Norman was dead before 1086: for his son, Roger Fitz Corbet, is the Domesday baron, and built a castle at Alfreton as the head of his honour, which he named Caux, from the Pays de Caux, his former home in Normandy. "This was one of the Border castles which, for two centuries after Domesday, served its continuous purposes of aggression and defence."—Eyton's Shropshire. It stood in a strong position, commanding the pass called the Valley of the Rea; for, as a marcher fortress, "it was exposed to all the turmoil of a hostile frontier"; and was taken and burnt by the Welsh in the time of his successor.

Robert Fitz Corbet, the younger brother, held Longden and Alcester; but his line died out in the following generation, and it is Roger who is the ancestor of the numerous families that have planted the name in the county. He constantly appears as a witness to Earl Roger's charters; and continued the faithful liegeman of his two sons, for he and Ulger Venator were the only Shropshire chiefs that adhered to the last to Robert de Belesme. He held Bridgenorth Castle for his Earl against Henry I. for three months; and it is, according to Eyton, "a question" whether he forfeited his estate by his rebellion. His son, at all events, peaceably succeeded to the barony in 1121; and the line continued, without a break, for more than two hundred years after that.

These Barons of Caus were assiduous at their arduous post as guardians of the frontier: and an ancient roll that names Robert Corbet among those present with Coeur de Lion at the siege of Acre, is discredited by Eyton on the ground (among others) that "a Lord Marcher was little likely to become a crusader," having his hands so full at home. A daughter of this house, however, crossed the hostile border to become the wife of a Welshman, Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys. She was the sister of Thomas Corbet, Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire in 1248, whose wife, Isabel, was sister, and in her issue co-heir, to Reginald de Valletort, a great feudal baron in the west. Their son Peter served in the campaign that closed Llewellyn's career, as well as in Edward I.'s Scottish wars, and was summoned to Parliament by him in 1293. He was "a mighty hunter," as his father had been before him,[101] and in 1281 received the King's commission to destroy all wolves, wherever they could be found, in the counties of Salop, Stafford, Gloucester, Worcester, and Hereford: one more proof—if another were needed—that the alleged extirpation of wolves in Anglo-Saxon times is a fable. The next in succession, Peter, second Lord Corbet, had no children, and settled his estates on his wife, Beatrix de Beauchamp, for her life. He died in 1322, and as she survived him and married again, his brother and next heir, John, the last Baron of Caus ("if such a title can be assigned to one who never enjoyed his paternal estates, and was never summoned to parliament), was reduced to a position of comparative beggary." He prosecuted the claim to his grandmother's Valletort's estates already ineffectually advanced by his brother, but never succeeded in recovering them. He, too, died s. p. some time before 1347, the year of the decease of his sister-in-law Beatrix, then the wife of Sir John de Leyborne; and the estate (though not the barony) of Caus passed to the descendants of her first husband's two aunts, Alice de Stafford, and Emma de Brompton, as next heirs.

The ancient name was far from having died out with John Corbet (to whom, indeed, Burke attributes no inconsiderable family), but the exact relationship of its remaining representatives cannot now be determined. "Dugdale tells us of a Roger Corbet, summoned as a baron in 1327. It is difficult to say who this was. * * * Summarily, it may be safely stated of all the families which have branched off from the house of Caus that none of them can be descended from any later Baron than he who died in 1222, and that therefore to decide their exact affinity to the parent stock, must be the work rather of a magician than an antiquary."—Ibid.

Not being conversant with the black art, I will confine myself to the existing family, whose pedigree is undisputed for the last seven hundred years. Richard Corbet, their ancestor, held Wattlesborough—one of Roger Fitz Corbet's Domesday manors—of the Barony of Caus in 1179; and a tower of his castle there is still standing. Blake way claims for him the honour of being the head of the house, assuming that one of the earlier Barons of Caus resigned his rights of primogeniture to a younger brother, and was content to hold one of his own manors of him as an under-tenant. But to this theory there are formidable objections. "A Tenant-in-capite-per-baroniam could not divest himself of his primogeniture or alienate his barony in the way supposed. Instant forfeiture would have been the consequence, and, failing that, his act could not have bound his descendants. On his death his son might have recovered the barony by process of mort d'ancestre, and his descendants, however remote, could have achieved the same end by the process of Grand Assize."—Ibid. At all events, the two lines diverged as early as the reign of Henry II.; the baronial family bearing two ravens, and the knightly family a single one—Or, un corbyn de Sable—which has been cited as a proof of their birthright.

Richard Corbet's son married the heiress of the old Anglo-Saxon family of Toret, and thus acquired Moreton-Toret—now Moreton Corbet, and the property of his representative. Wattlesborough, and the principal part of the Corbet estate, was carried away in the next century by "a great Shropshire heiress," the daughter of Sir Fulk Corbet, to John de la Pole, Lord of Mawddwy, and Justice of North Wales.[102] "This happened again in 1583, when the lands brought by the heiress of Hopton went by marriage to the Wallops and Careys."—E. P. Shirley.

Four baronetcies were granted to the Corbets in the first half of the following century: two by James I., and two by his son. That bestowed upon the head of the family, Sir Vincent Corbet, of Moreton-Corbet, ranked third in point of seniority, and dated from 1642. He was a devoted Royalist; and, in acknowledgment of his services, his widow received a life-peerage as Viscountess Corbet. The baronetcy expired in 1688 with another Sir Vincent, who only lived to be eighteen: and their ancestral estate of Moreton-Corbett passed out of the family with his sister, Mrs. Kynaston. But the ancient name, "famous even at the time of the Conquest," is carried on in the direct line by the descendants of Richard, a younger brother of the first baronet. One of them re-purchased Moreton-Corbet about 1742: and to another, Sir Andrew, the title was re-granted in 1808.

There is an old legend attached to this house, which Blakeway endeavours to transfer to Caus, in corroboration of the Baron's surrender of his birth-right, though it is to Moreton-Corbet that it has always belonged. "Once upon a time, the heir went to the Holy Land, and was detained so long in captivity, that he was supposed to be dead, and his younger brother engaged to marry, that he might carry on the line. On the morning of the marriage, however, a pilgrim came to the house to partake of the hospitalities of that festal occasion; and after the dinner, revealed himself to the assembled company as the long-lost elder brother. The bridegroom would have surrendered the estate to him; but he declined the offer, desiring only a small portion of the land, which he accordingly received."—Antiquities of Shropshire.

There were so many junior branches of this family, that the mere enumeration of them is laborious; but I believe almost all of them are extinct: the three other baronetcies unquestionably are. The oldest, granted in 1623 to Sir John Corbet, of Sprowston Hall, High Sheriff of Norfolk, only lasted till 1661: the year before his brother Miles, one of the regicides who had escaped beyond sea, was captured at Delft, brought home, and executed. The next in date was held by Sir John Corbet, of Stoke, "one of the five illustrious patriots that opposed the forced loan of 1627:" but surely subsequently to the baronetcy conferred upon him in that very year. He was blessed with ten sons and ten daughters; but the line failed in the next century with two childless brothers (the elder of whom had married Harriet, sister of the great Earl of Chatham), and the estate passed to their nephew, Corbet Davenant. (See Avenant.) The last baronetcy was received in 1642 by Sir Edward Corbet, of Longnor, in Shropshire, and Leighton, in Montgomeryshire, and expired in 1774. Then there were Corbets of Hadley and Tasley, Leigh, and Sundorne, &c, in Shropshire: one branch in Cheshire and Lincolnshire; another in Wales; and one, if not two, in Worcestershire, where Chaddesley-Corbet keeps the name. "In 1284, Sir Roger Corbet, of Chaddesley, held Chetton (Shropshire) in capite, by the service of finding a man to go to Wales on the King's service, who was to take one bow, three arrows, and a caltrop; and also a cured hog; and when he reached the King's army, he was to deliver to the King's Marshal half thereof; and the Marshal was to give him daily of the same half bacon for his dinner, as long as he staid in the army, and he was to stay with the army as long as the hog lasted." The term of his service might thus be spun out by putting him on short commons.

Chaundos :

originally Candos: a name as illustrious as any to be met with in our annals, for one of its bearers was "the pride of English chivalry." It was first planted in this country by Robert de Candos, a companion-in-arms of the Conqueror, who won with his own sword a noble domain in Wales, and married the heiress of one of the chief Domesday barons. "The male line of Alured de Hispania vanished in an heiress, perhaps his daughter. Her name was Isabella. Her husband was Robert de Candos, said to have conquered the territory of Caerleon. The pair certainly founded Goldclive Priory in Monmouthshire, and richly endowed it with lands, churches, and tithes, in Somerset and Devon. Robert de Candos is said to have died 1120.

"The male line of Candos merged again in an heiress, viz. Maude de Candos, wife, in 1166, of Philip de Columbiers."—Eyton's Domesday Studies. But the lineage survived; for in 1165 Richard de Candos held the Herefordshire barony that had been the Domesday fief of Hugh L'Asne. One ruined octangular tower, crowning a "low but steep hill in the middle of the Golden Valley," is all that is now left of his castle of Snodhill. His successors were Lords-Marcher, carrying on, for generation after generation, the bloody conflicts that devastated the Welsh border. Roger de Chandos (son of Robert who went with King John to Ireland in 1210), occurs in 1221 as obtaining from Henry III. licence to hold a fair at Fownhope, within the honour of Snodhill (Close Rolls). He died about the year 1266, and was succeeded by his son Robert, who took part with King Edward I. in his expedition into Wales. At his death, which happened in 1302, it was found that he held the barony of Snodhill by barony and the service of two knight's fees. His son and successor, Roger de Chandos, served in the Scottish wars, temp. Ed. II., and received the honour of knighthood. In 1321 he was made sheriff of Herefordshire, and in the first year of Edward III. held that office and the governorship of Hereford Castle. To him succeeded Thomas de Chandos, whose heir was his brother Roger, the first of the family who was summoned to parliament. He was cited as a Baron from 1337 to 1355, and had previously been made a Banneret by the King, whom he attended in France. By Edward III. he was constituted Governor of Hereford Castle, and previous to his death in 1355 granted the church of Wellington to Robert Foliot, the Bishop of Hereford. (Harl. MS. 6868). Neither his son Sir Thomas nor his grandson Sir John (who has been erroneously identified with his celebrated namesake the Knight of the Garter) had summons to Parliament, and the latter, who held the Castle against Owen Glendwr in 1403, dying without issue 16 Dec. 1428, the estates in Herefordshire devolved to the surviving daughter of his sister Elizabeth (who had married Thomas Berkeley of Coberley in Gloucestershire) viz. Margery, wife of Nicholas Mattesden, and to his great nephew Giles Bruges, who through failure of the other line, became the eventual heir."—Castles of Herefordshire, by the Rev. C. J. Robinson. Chandos, Much-Marcle, now a farm, was held by John de Chandos in 1285.

The great illustration of the house of Chandos belonged to another family of the name, seated at Radborne in Derbyshire, that never attained baronial rank. They bore the same pile Gules on a different field; but how nearly they were related to their Herefordshire kinsmen is not known. Sir John de Chandos, in the time of Henry III. acquired Radborne through his wife Margaret, daughter and co-heir (with her sister Ermentrude de Stafford) of Robert Fitz Walkeline. From him, in the third generation, descended Sir Edward, "to whom King Edward III., in the first year of his reign, granted an annuity of forty pounds, payable out of the Exchequer, until such time as he should provide him with forty pounds in land, or rent of equal value, in reward and encouragement of his good services." Sir Edward married Isabel, daughter of Sir Robert Twyford, and eventually his co-heiress, who brought him one son, John, and three daughters, Elizabeth, Eleanor, and Margaret.

The son was the renowned soldier whose glorious career is chronicled by Froissart. He lived in a martial age, and his generation was a generation of heroes; yet none among them claim a higher place than the great captain who trained the Black Prince in arms, and guided and guarded him, when, as a youngster of sixteen, he won his spurs at Cressy. On that other memorable day of Poitiers, when six thousand Englishmen stood against sixty thousand Frenchmen, and in less than three hours put them to utter rout, Sir John Chandos "never went from the Prince," and gave him the signal to attack at the turning point of the battle. "When the men of armes of Englande," says Froissart, "saw that the Marshale's batayle was dysconfited, and the Duke's batayle began to disorder and open, they lept them on their horses, the whiche they had redy by them; then they assembled togyder, and cryed Saynt George for Guienne: and the Lorde Chandos sayd to the Prince, 'Sir, take your horse and ride forth, this iourney is yours: God is this daye in your handes: gette vs to the French Kynge's batayle, for ther lyeth all the sore of the mater; I thynke verily by his valyantnesse he woll not flye: I trust we shall have hym by the grace of God and Saynt George, so he be well fought withall; and, Sir, I herde you say, that this day I shulde se you a good knyghte.' The Prince sayde, 'Lette vs go forthe; ye shall not se me this day retourne backe:' and sayde, 'Avaunce banner, in the name of God and Saynt George.'" He commanded at the battle of Auray, where the celebrated Constable of France, Bertrand du Guesclin, was taken prisoner; and won so complete a victory, that he could bid the Earl of Montfort, on whose behalf it was fought, "Laud God and be of good cheer," for he had that day conquered the heritage of Bretagne. The Earl pledged him in a flagon of wine, vowing that, beside God, he owed him "most thanks than to any creature living." He followed the Black Prince into Spain, and, with the Duke of Lancaster, led the van at Najarra. On that field, for the first time, he unfurled his own gonfanon; a privilege reserved, by the custom of the time, to men of high rank and great estate. Before the battle opened, he "brought his baner rolled vp togyder to the Prince, and sayd, 'Sir, beholde here is my baner; I requyre you dysplay it abrode; and gyue me leave this day to rayse it; for, Sir, I thanke God and you, I haue lande and herytage suffycient to mayntayne it withall.' Then the Prince and the Kynge Don Peter tooke the baner bytweene their handes and spred it abrode, the which was of sylver a sharpe pyle goules,[103] and delyvered it to him, and sayd, 'Sir Johan, beholde here is your baner; God sende you ioye and honoure thereof.' Then Sir John Chandos bare his baner to his owne company, and sayd, 'Sirs, beholde here is my baner and your's, keepe it as your owne:' and they toke it, and were right ioyfull thereof, and sayd that by the pleasure of God and Saynt George, they wolde kepe and defende it to the best of their powers." He had received grants of land in Lincoln and elsewhere, with all the knight's fees that had been held by Godfrey de Harcourt, comprising the great Norman barony of St. Sauveur in the Cotentin, where he built a castle. Nor were his services requited only with estates, for he held offices of trust and dignity. He was Constable of Acquitaine, Seneschal of Poitou, and one of the Founder Knights of the Garter. He "kept a noble' and great establishment, and he had the means of doing it, for the King of England, who loved him much, wished it should be so: and he was certainly worthy of it."

After passing unscathed through so many hard-fought fields, he lost his life in an insignificant skirmish at the bridge of Lussac. On the last night of the year 1369, he had been foiled in an attempt to surprise the little town of St. Savin, whose recent capture by the French he had taken much to heart; and, retiring to Chauvigny, dismissed all his followers, with the exception of some forty spears. As he stood, gloomy and downcast, warming himself at the fire in the inn kitchen, word was brought him that the French, under Sir Loys de S. Julien and Carnet the Breton, were in the neighbourhood, and he called for his horse and rode forth to meet them. At break of day, he overtook them near the bridge of Lussac, and as he drew near, called out: "Hark ye, Frenchmen! ye ryde at youre pleasur and ease day and night, ye take and wyn townes and forteresses in Poyctou, whereof I am seneshal, ye ransome poore folke without my leave: it should seeme the countrie is all your's—but I ensure you it is not so. It is more than a yere and half that I have sette all myne entent to encountre with you, and now I thanke God I se and speke to you; nowe shall it be sene who is stronger, other you or I. It liath been shewed me often tymes, that ye have greatly desyred to fynde me—nowe ye may se me here; I am John Chandos: avyse me well!"

While he thus jeered at the Frenchmen, a Breton, exasperated beyond endurance, raised his sword and struck an English squire, Simkin Dodinhole, from his horse. "Sir John, when he herde the noyse besyde him, tourned that way and saw his squyer lye on the erth, and the Frenchmen laying on him: then he was more chafed than before, and sayd to his company, 'Sirs, howe suffre you this squyer thus to be slayne? A-foot, a-foot!" and so he lept a-foot with all his company, and Simkin was rescued, and the batayle begun. Sir Johan Chandos, who was a right hardy and a couragyous knight, with his baner before him, and his company about him, with his cote of amies upon him, great and large,[104] of white sarcenet with two piles goules, as one of the foremost, with his glayue in his hande, marched to his ennemyes. The same mornying there had fallen a great dewe, so that the ground was somewhat moyst, and so in his goyng forwarde, he slode and fell downe, and as he was arysing, ther light a stroke on him, gyven by a squyer called Jaques de S. Martin, with his glayue, which entered into the flesshe under his eye, bytweene the nose and the foreheed: Sir John saw not the stroke commying, for he was blynde on that one eye; he lost the sight thereof a fyve yeare before, as he hunted after an harte in the laundes of Burdeaux: and also he had on no vysor. The stroke was rude and entred into his brayne, and greved him so sore, that he overthrue to the erthe, and turned for pain two tymes up and downe, wounded to dethe, for after the stroke he never spake worde. Then his uncle Edward Clifford" (it should be Twyford) "stepte and bestrode him, for the Frenchmen wolde fayne have had him, and defended him so valyantly, and gave rounde about him such strokes that none durst aproche: also Sir John Chambo, and Sir Bertram of Case, seemed like men out of their myndes, thinking, verily that he had his dethes wounde." The jubilant Frenchmen closed in, calling upon them to surrender; and a desperate struggle ensued; for Sir Edward, holding his ground, "would not depart from his nephew where he lay." At length some welcome English pennons fluttered over the hill-side; a band of Poitevins and Gascons came hurrying to the rescue; and the would-be captors were themselves taken prisoners.

Great was the consternation of the new comers, when they gathered round their fallen seneschal, lying speechless on the ground; and loud and bitter their lamentation. "'Alas! Sir John Chandos, the floure of all chivalry; unhappily was that glaive forged that thus wounded you, and brought you in peril of dethe!' They wept piteously that were about hym, and he herde and understode them well, but he could speke no worde: they wronge their handes, and tare their heeres, and made many a pytefull complaynt, and specially suche as were of his owne house: then his servantes unarmed hym, and layde him on pavesses, and so bare him softly to Mortemer, the next forteresse: but he lyved not after his hurt past a day and a nyght. God have mercy on his soule: for in a hundred yere after, there was not a more curtesse knight, or fuller of noble vertues and good condycions amonge the Englysshemen, than he was; and when the Prince and Princesse, the Erie of Cambridge, the Erie of Pembroke, and other barowns and knights of Englande, such as were in Guienne, herd of his dethe, they sayd they had lost all on that syde of the sea." All lamented him; friend and foe alike: the King of France "passionately declaring there was not any soldier living so able to make peace between both crowns as he."

He had never been married, and left the greater part of his possessions to the Black Prince: but his paternal estate in Derbyshire passed to his sisters Eleanor and Elizabeth, and his niece Isabel, the wife of Sir John de Annesley, as heir to Margaret, the third sister, then defunct. Elizabeth had no husband, and Isabel no children. Eleanor married first Sir John Lawton, "the dear friend and companion in arras" of her brother; and secondly Roger Collyng of Herefordshire, whose wife she was in 1391. By Lawton she had a daughter Elizabeth, who inherited Radbourne, and married Peter de la Pole of Newborough in Staffordshire, the ancestor of Sacheverell Pole of Radbourne, who in 1807 obtained the Royal license to praefix the great name of Chandos to his own.

The title of Lord Chandos had been revived by Queen Mary in favour of one of her devoted partisans, Sir John Bruges, descended from the Sir Giles, who was, as we have seen, left sole representative of the baronial line, and succeeded his grandfather at Coberley in Gloucestershire. It was there that the fifth Lord kept open house for three days in the week, and earned the local title of "King of Cotswould." He had married a lady of Royal lineage, Anne, daughter and co-heir of Ferdinando, fifth Earl of Derby, the great-granddaughter of Mary Tudor by the Duke of Brandon, and their son was offered an Earldom by Charles I. after the battle of Newbury, where three horses had been killed under him. He declined it; and it was not till 1714 that the ninth Lord received the title of Earl of Carnarvon, being further promoted to the Marquessate of Carnarvon and Dukedom of Chandos in 1729. He was a very rich and a very vain man. He had inherited a large fortune from his maternal grandfather, a Turkey merchant; amassed large sums as Paymaster of the Forces under Queen Anne, and married an heiress. His wealth and his titles together appear to have turned his head. He affected a fantastic state that aped Royalty; dined in public, like a sovereign, a grand flourish of trumpets heralding each course: was always escorted to his chapel[105] by a mock-military guard: and determined that his residences in town and country should be the wonder and admiration of the age. The London house was never accomplished: but he built on his first wife's inheritance, at Canons, near Edgeware, an enormous square pile, "the four sides almost alike, with statues in the front," that cost £200,000, and was universally pronounced more fit for a prince than a subject. This unlucky palace has been immortalized by Pope's pungent satire:

"At Timon's villa let us pass a day,
Where all cry out, 'What sums are thrown away!'
So proud, so grand: of that stupendous air,
Soft and agreeable came never there.
Greatness, with Timon, dwells in such a draught
As brings all Brobdinag before your thought:
To compass this, his building is a town,
His pond an ocean, his parterre a down.
Who but must laugh, the master when he sees,
A puny insect, shivering at a breeze!"

The Duke, with all his foibles, was liberal and popular; and this libel roused such general indignation, that (according to Dr. Johnson) Pope "tried all means of escaping from the reproach which the attack on a character so amiable brought upon him," and even wrote an exculpatory letter to the Duke. His concluding lines were prophetic:

"Another age shall see the golden ear
Imbrown the slope, and nod on the parterre,
Deep harvests bury all his pride has plann'd,
And laughing Ceres re-assume the land."

The Duke's lavish expediture, and the bursting of the South Sea bubble, had sorely trenched upon his income; and at his death in 1744, Canons was found to be far too expensive a residence for his successor. It was put up for sale, but no one would buy it; and in the end it was pulled down, and disposed of piece-meal. The grand staircase—each step a solid block of marble twenty feet long—was purchased by Lord Chesterfield for the new house he was then building in May Fair:—now sold and ruined in its turn.

There were only two other Dukes of this family, the son and grandson of the so-called "princely Chandos"[106] and the sole heiress of the last, Lady Anne Eliza Brydges, married Richard Earl Temple, created in 1822 Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. On her father's death in 1789, the barony granted by Queen Mary in 1554 had been immediately claimed by the Rev. Edward Brydges (Sir Egerton's elder brother) who persevered for fourteen years in the fruitless endeavour to establish his right.

Chaworth :

the Anglicized form of Chaurtes, Chaurcis, or Cadurcis; a name "derived," says Camden, "from the Cadurci in France," and dating from the Conquest in this country. Patric de Cadurcis, of Little Brittany, who was seated in Gloucestershire, and a benefactor of Gloucester Abbey in the latter years of the Conqueror's reign, founded a powerful family of Lords Marcher, that bore rule on the Welsh frontier up to the close of the fourteenth century. Pain, called by Dugdale Patric's grandson (though, as he was living in 1217, a hundred and thirty years after the death of the Conqueror, he must have been a far more remote descendant), held 125 knight's fees in Montgomery, and acquired Bridgewater Castle in Somersetshire, with other estates, through his wife Gundred de la Ferte, whose mother had been the sister and co-heir of the last William de Briwere. His son and successor, Patric, made a still greater alliance, for he married Hawise, the only daughter of Thomas de Londres, who brought, "with his fair Inheritance, the title of Lord of Ogmor and Kydweli. The heirs of Maurice de Londres were oblig'd by their tenure, in case the King or his chief justice should lead an army into these parts, to conduct the said army, with their banners, through the county of Neath to Lochor."—Camden. This great lordship was confirmed to him, by Henry III., "providing he could win and keep it for himself;" a condition rendered onerous by the distracted state of the country. In 1244 he had received the King's precept to "use all his power and diligence in annoying the Welsh, then in hostility;" and the Welsh naturally retaliated; for in 1258 Llewellyn and the princes of South Wales encamped at Kidwelly, and fired all the houses, except the castle. While thus engaged, "they were surprised by Meredith ap Res and the Lord Patric, who suddenly came down upon them with a body of Englishmen from Carmarthen. A vigorous battle took place, in which the Welshmen were eventually victorious." (Bridgeman's Princes of South Wales.) Then followed a year's truce, during which Prince Edward sent Patric, the King's Seneschal at Carmarthen, to treat with the Welsh at Emlyn. According to Matthew Paris, Llewellyn "meaning good faith, sent his brother David, with some others, to entreat with them of peace; but Patric, meaning to entrap them, laid an ambushment of armed men by the way, and as they should have met, these men fell upon the Welshmen, and slew a great number of them." Those that escaped from this base act of treachery raised the country, and collecting a considerable force, marched to meet the English, who had "mustered at Cardigan in all their pride." They encountered near the town of Kilgarran, "and a fierce engagement took place, in which the English were routed and fled, leaving their slain, with many caparisoned horses, behind them. In that battle the Lord Patric de Chaworth, Walter Malenfant, a stout and valiant knight from Pembroke, and other knights who had lately arrived from England, were slain."—Ibid.

Patric left three young sons—the eldest then only thirteen—who proved the last heirs of his house. All of them, Pain, Hervey, and Patric', were signed with the cross in 1269, and attended Prince Edward to the Holy Land; but of Hervey there is no further mention. Pain commanded Edward I.'s army in West Wales in 1277, when Llewellyn was forced to conclude a treaty of peace; and "being thus victorious, was made governor of the Castles of Dumevor, Karekenyl and Landevery." He died in the following year, and his brother Patric, who succeeded him, only survived till 1282, leaving by Isabel de Beauchamp his wife, an only child, Maud, Lady of Kilwelly, married to Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, the nephew of Edward I.

A far longer-lived branch of the family had been very early established in Nottinghamshire, through the marriage of Robert de Chaworth with the heiress of Marnham, Alice de Walichville. He was, without doubt, a relative or descendant of the first Patric, but he cannot possibly have been, as Dugdale asserts, his brother, as he lived in the ensuing century, and appears in the Liber Niger as holding a fee of William de Albini in Leicester. His grandson, William, acquired Alfreton, "in ancient times esteemed a barony of honour," through Alice, daughter and co-heir of its last lord, whose arms "were," says Thoroton, "almost ever used by Chaworth." The next heir, Thomas, was a baron by writ in 1296, but none of his posterity were ever honoured by a second summons, though their domain in Nottingham expanded apace through successive additions. Fourth in descent from Thomas was Sir William, whose wife was the heiress of Wyverton, as one of the representatives of the last Lord Basset of Drayton; and their son Sir Thomas married Isabel, daughter of Sir Thomas Ailesbury. "By this Match, he was entitled to the Inheritance of the honourable Families of Aylesbury, Pakenham, Engaine, Basset of Weldon, and Kaines, and better enabled to make the Park at Wiverton, which he had the King's License to do 24 Hen. VI.: who likewise granted him Free Warren in that Place, whereby it is very probable that he was the chief Builder of that strong House, which from thenceforward was the principal Mansion of his worthy Successors, and in our Times made a Garrison for the King, which occasioned its Ruin; since when, most of it is pulled down and removed, except the old uncovered Gatehouse, which yet remains a Monument of the Magnificence of this Family."—Thoroton's Notts. A third heiress brought Annesley to the next heir, George; but the line expired after three more generations, ending in 1589 with Sir George Chaworth. His daughter and sole heir, Elizabeth, married Sir John Cope.

But she did not succeed either to Wyverton or Annesley, for there yet remained descendants of Sir George's uncle, whose grandson, another Sir George, was created in 1672 Viscount Chaworth of Armagh in the peerage of Ireland. This title was borne for little more than seventy years, as the third Viscount, again, left no heir but a daughter, Juliana Countess of Meath, the ancestress of the present Earl. The first Lord Chaworth had, however, younger brothers, whose posterity carried on the line at Annesley until the first years of the present century, when the last heir male, William Chaworth, died, and the estates devolved on his only child, Mary Anne,

"The solitary scion left
Of a time honour'd race."

This was the fair lady immortalized by Lord Byron's early idolatry—the heroine of his 'Dream.' They were close neighbours in the country (Annesley Hall is scarcely three miles from Newstead) and distant relations by blood; for the sister of the last Viscount had married the ancestor of Lord Byron. But the families had been sundered by a deadly feud, caused by the fatal duel fought in 1765 between the poet's great uncle, the fifth Lord Byron, and Mr. Chaworth of Annesley. "The following," writes Horace Walpole, "is the account nearest the truth that I can learn of the fatal duel last night. A club of Nottinghamshire gentlemen had dined at the Star and Garter, and there had been a dispute between the combatants whether Lord Byron, who took no care of his game, or Mr. Chaworth, who was active in the association, had most game on their manor. The company, however, had apprehended no consequences, and parted at eight o'clock: but Lord Byron, stepping into an empty chamber, and sending the drawer for Mr. Chaworth, or calling him thither himself, took the candle from the waiter, and bidding Mr. Chaworth defend himself, drew his sword. Mr. Chaworth, who was an excellent fencer, ran Lord Byron through the sleeve of his coat, and then received a wound fourteen inches deep into his body. He was carried to his house in Berkeley Street, made his will with the greatest composure, and dictated a paper which, they say, allows it was a fair duel, and died at nine this morning." Lord Byron surrendered to take his trial in Westminster Hall, and was, almost unanimously, found guilty, but discharged on claiming his privilege of peerage under Edward VI.'s statute.

The hereditary ill-will between the two families had been suffered to die out in the time of the orphaned heiress of Annesley, and during the summer of 1803 she and Lord Byron were constantly together. The young poet, then only in his sixteenth year, fell passionately in love with the beautiful girl of seventeen, and spent rapturous hours by her side, listening spell-bound to her singing, or roaming over the old terraced garden of Annesley. To him, in truth, it was enchanted ground:

"He had no breath, no being, but in hers;
She was his voice: he did not speak to her,
But trembled on her words; she was his sight,
For his eye follow'd hers, and saw with hers,
Which colour'd all his objects:—he had ceas'd
To live within himself; she was his life,
The ocean to the river of his thoughts,
Which terminated all."

Miss Chaworth by no means shared these ecstatic feelings. A maiden "on the eve of womanhood" seldom if ever smiles upon a stripling younger than herself: and he had the mortification of hearing her say to her maid: "Do you think I could care anything for that lame boy?"—"This speech, as he himself described it, was like a shot through his heart."—Moore.
The brief love-dream had ended with the summer holidays. He only saw Miss Chaworth once again in the following year, when she was engaged to be married to Mr. Musters of Colwick Hall. He bravely wished her joy and bade her farewell; then,

"Mounting on his steed, he went his way,
And never cross'd that hoary threshold more."

His childish passion had been no evanescent fancy, but a heart-wound that left an abiding scar. Years afterwards, in one of his memorandum books, he accidentally mentions Miss Chaworth as "My M. A. C. Alas!" he presently adds, "Why do I say my? Our union would have healed feuds in which blood had been shed by our fathers; it would have joined lands broad and rich; it would have joined at least one heart, and two persons not ill-matched in years; and—and—and—what has been the result!"

The close of Mrs. Musters' life was in mournful contrast to the golden promise of its opening years. Her married life was unhappy; though surrounded by blooming children, she fell a prey to secret and devouring melancholy, gradually became insane, and died a tragical death. During the Nottingham riots of 1831, Colwick Hall was assailed by a brutal mob, plundered, and set on fire;[107] and its unhappy mistress, driven from her house in the middle of the night, had to seek refuge in a neighbouring plantation. The terror of this midnight flight stamped itself on her sick brain: she never recovered from the shock she had received, and did not long survive it.

Cleremaus :

for Clairvaux; either from Clairvaux, near Rodez, Acquitaine; or from the castle of Clairvaux, in the comte of Anjou, held in 1185 by Richard, Count of Poitou (Magn. Rotul. Scaccarii Normanniae). Leland gives this and the following name as "Cleravalx et Clarel." It was borne by a Yorkshire family of ancient lineage and high degree, long resident in the North Riding. Their ancestor, Hamon de Clervaux, is said to have come over to England in the train of Alan the Red of Brittany; and this tradition is confirmed by an illumination in the Coll. MSS. Faustina, B. 7, that represents the Earl receiving from the Conqueror the grant of his Honour of Richmond, for among the banners displayed behind him is delineated the golden saltire of Clervaux. Croft, near Darlington, was their seat for about three hundred and fifty years; and their alliances attest the position they held in the county. Ralph and John de Clervaux occur in the Pipe Rolls about 1272. In the time of Henry IV. Sir John Clervaux of Croft married Margaret Lumley (whose mother Eleanor was a Nevill of Raby), and his descendant Ralph, who died in 1490, is consequently styled, on his altar-tomb in Croft Church, "cousin, in the third degree, to the Kings of the House of York." The last heir in the direct line was another John Clervaux, who lived in the reign of Henry VIII., and had no child but a daughter. In an old poem of the time, he is included among the Yorkshiremen present at Flodden:

"John Clarvis then was nex'd near,
With Stapylton of stomach stern;
Next whom Fitzwilliam forth did fare,
Who martial feats was not to learn."

"The Baron of Hilton in the Bishoprick of Duresme," says Leland, "maried the Heyre of Clarevalx by Tese: but she hath been long maried and hath no Children." On her. death Croft reverted to her uncle Sir William Clervaux, whose daughter Elizabeth eventually became the last representative of the family, and conveyed it to her husband Christopher Chaytor. She succeeded, however, to but a small part of the once "princely inheritance of Clervaux," for her brother John, Esquire of the Body to Henry VIII., had been "an unthrift, much given to dicing, carding, and riotous gambling." The property is still held by her descendants, and one of them, Sir William Chaytor, early in the present century, built Clervaux Castle on his manor of Croft. When it finally passed away from the Clervaux in 1591, they had held it, without interruption, from the time of Henry III.

"A humble race of cadets occur at Darlington long after the broad lands of their parent tree had passed into another name, and they seem to have gradually sunk into utter pauperism. The pedigree will show them to have been nearly related to the main branch, as the Chaytors had to buy out any claim they had."—Longstaffe's History of Darlington. The name degenerated into Clarvis or Clarfax.

This is by no means a solitary instance of decadence. Often and often a noble name, supposed to have perished, has in fact only been lost sight of, and sunk into oblivion. Probably many a humble artisan toiling in the purlieus of our great cities, or poor peasant digging for his daily bread, might boast with the braggart Frenchman—

"D'apres mon blason
Je crois ma maison,
Aussi noble, ma foi,
Que celle du Roi!"

Clarell :

We find the Clarels seated in South Yorkshire during the thirteenth century. John Clarel founded Tickhill Priory in the time of Edward I.; Sir William Clarel, at about the same date, acquired Aldwark through his wife Agnes, daughter and heir of Sir William Walleis. "This William was contemporary with John Clarel the Warden, and the posterity of William entering into the patronage of the house of Augustine friars which John founded near the town of Tickhill, there can be no doubt that there was a very near alliance between them. The patronage of their little foundation was a beautiful flower in the state and condition of the Clarels. The chapel of that house was their cemetery. Besides Aldwark, they possessed other land, and especially the manor of Peniston.

"The arms which the Clarels used betray their clientelage to the Lords of Ecclesal. They were six silver martlets on a red field, arranged in perpendicular parallel rows, and adopted by the Ecclesals from their superior lords the Furnivalls, who bore their martlets on a bend; and had, in their turn, derived them from the Luterels, of whom they held certain manors, and who bore the martlets and bend in gold on an azure field."—Hunter's South Yorkshire. Sir William Clarel, who married the Lady of Aldwark, was Lord of Peniston, and the father of Thomas, who became the husband of another heiress, Isabel, daughter of Sir John Philibert. He held the manor of Adwick of the honour of Tickhill, "and paid every two years towards keeping the Castle 7s. 4d. and every third year 8s. and 10s. ad custodiam osterer (to keep a hawk). It remained in the family for two centuries and a half; the heir of Clarel married Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam, whose son and heir, Thomas, was slain at Flodden in 1513."—Ibid. The last heir-male, Thomas, was the son of another Thomas who had been drowned in the Don in 1442. He had three daughters; Elizabeth Fitzwilliam; Alice, Prioress of Hampole, and Maud, married to the son and heir of Robert Ughtred; but all the lands of the Clarels in Yorkshire devolved on the eldest, Elizabeth, whose husband was in her right Lord of Aldwark. Her missal, containing twelve entries relating to births and deaths in the Clarel family, is preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. There was, however another Thomas Clarel, who was evidently one of this family. "He was living in the parish of St. Giles', Cripplesgate, in 1493, when he made his will, in which he described himself of London, citizen and grocer. He bequeathed some paintings to the church of Rotherham, and was also a benefactor to Rawmarsh, and other churches around."—Ibid. Leland mentions one of their houses: "There ys yet a Place by Tikhill caullid Clarelle's Haulle." This was still standing in 1831.

Chopis :

Leland's list gives this name more correctly as Chapes: from Chappes in Normandy. "Osbern de Capis is mentioned 1079 by Ordericus Vitalis (p. 605). William de Capis, temp. Henry I., with Albin his brother, witnessed a charter of Hugh Bussell for Evesham Abbey (Mon. I. 360). In 1200 Peter and Ralph de Capis had a suit at Leicester with William de Capis (Rotuli Curiae Regis). Nicholas de Capis married the heiress of Robert le Prevost of Northampton, where the family long remained, and gave its name to Preston-Capes."—The Norman People. They were also seated in Surrey, where Roger Chappes had considerable possessions, and had a mansion called Chappes in the parish of East Clandon.—Manning's Surrey. Robert Cappes was Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 1444.

Chaunduit :

or Chenduit. This family gave its name to Middleton Chenduit (now corrupted into Cheney) Northamptonshire. "Ralph, the Domesday mes-ne lord under the Earl of Mortaine, held also of the Earl lands in (Hanging) Houghton, (West) Farndon, Tiffield, Furtho, Welton, Charwelton, Charlton, Foxley, Siresham, Heyford, and Preston (Capes), most of which being subsequently included in the barony of Chenduit, there can be little hesitation in pronouncing him the founder of that family, and the father of the Ralph de Chenduit, whose widow Adeliza, with the consent of her two sons, Simon and Hugh, gave the church of Charwelton to St. Nostell's Priory, Yorkshire, in the reign of Henry I. In the hydarium of Henry II., Simon de Chenduit was certified to hold two hides in Middleton of the fee of Berkhempstead.[108] In 1215, Ralph, probably grandson of Simon, having incurred forfeiture of his lands by joining the barons against the King, the Constable of Berkhampstead was directed to deliver them to Sonakin de Poperod; but in 1217 he was restored to them on returning to his fealty. He was dead in 1229, at which time his son Ralph de Chenduit paid fifty-five marks for his relief, for eleven fees of the small fees of Berkhamstead. His son Stephen de Chenduit granted all his lands in the manor of Middleton, between Banbury and Brackley in Northants, to Walter de Merton, Bishop of Rochester."—Baker's Northamptonshire, Stephen was apparently the heir of two elder brothers, Sir William, and John de Chenduit. "In 1256, a grand dissension arose between this Sir William and John Boyver, who, meeting at the vesper hour in the principal street of Charlton, John by a sudden blow struck the knight to the ground, and left him severely bruised."—Ibid, Stephen was still living in 1281, and with him ends Baker's pedigrees. But in Lipscomb's History of Buckinghamshire I find mention of Richard de Chenduit in 1285, who "was the father of Ralph, whose daughter Joan married a Hawtrey." A manor in that county still bears their name; but their seat was at Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire, where Ralph de Chenduit, about 1235, had a suit with the Abbot of St. Albans respecting free warren. Sir Richard Hoare tells us that William de Chenduit (no date is given) exchanged Hemel Hempstead for Barford St. Martin in Wiltshire, which Thomas his son disposed of by grant.

The Ralph de Chenduit who held one fee of William de Albini in 1165 (Liber Niger) cannot be identified with any of his namesakes on the pedigree, as the dates are altogether different. Chenduit-Langley in Hertfordshire retains their name, and was held by barony.

In Cornwall "the manor of Bodannan or Bodannon was formerly a seat of the ancient family of Chenduit, corruptly called Cheyney. Sir John Chenduit, of this family, was one of the representatives of the county in the reigns of Henry IV. and Henry V. His son William left two daughters co-heiresses, married into the families of Trejago and Roscarrock. An ancient uninscribed tomb in the chancel is said to have belonged to one of this family, and is, by a vulgar but groundless tradition, said to be that of a Lord Cheyney... Strickstenton or Triggstenton, parcel of the manor of Bodannan, is said to have been a seat of the Cheynduits. There are no remains of any mansion."—Lyson's Cornwall. They gave their name to the manor of Cheiny in St. Endyllyon's. Carew tells us that "the arms of the Cheneys of Bodanon were Gules on a fesse of four lozenges Argent, as many escallops Sable, in memory (as tradition says) that one of this family going into the Holy Land with Richard or Edward carried such shells for taking up water in the hotter climate of Asia."

These same arms were borne by the Cheneys of Up-Ottery in Devonshire, first mentioned there in the time of Edward IV., according to Lysons, though it is evident they were of much earlier date in the county. The manor of Cheyneys in Hertfordshire, "antiently held of the Honour of Bologne," bears their name. Sir Nicholas occurs in 1298: Sir William was Sheriff of Devon in 1409, and married the heiress of Pinho, "wherein," says Westcote, "stood Pincourt, a fair mansion house, now utterly demolished or ruinated, I know not which. It was the seat of Stretch, of which progeny was Sir John Stretch in Edward II.'s days; and another of the same name in Richard II.'s time, one of whose coheirs brought it to Cheney, whose race lived in great estimation for some few descents, and then his patrimony was divided among four distaffs." The last of the name was John Cheney, the father of the four "distaffs:" of whom Isabel, the eldest, married Edward Waldegrave; Helena, George Babington; Elizabeth, William Clopton; and Ann, Robert Hussey.

John Cheney's elder brother, Sir Edmund, who was seated at Broke in Wiltshire, had married a great heiress, Alice, only child of Sir Humphrey Stafford of the silver hand, and his wife Elizabeth Maltravers, who had brought him Hooke in Dorsetshire; but he, again, left only daughters. Elizabeth, the eldest and the wife of Sir John Coleshill, had no children; and the whole inheritance centered on her sister Anne, who married Sir John Willoughby, and was the mother of the first Lord Willoughby de Broke.

A branch of this family (bearing identical arms) held Little Cheney, Dorsetshire, for the first forty years of the fifteenth century. The earliest possessor was Sir Ralph Cheyne, and the last, Sir Edmund, one of whose heirs, Cecilia Cheyne, is mentioned in 1440.

Chantelow :

or Cantilupe, from Chanteloup, near Coutances. "Dugdale, in his History of the Cantilupe family, has only commenced his account with that William who flourished in the reign of King John, but has not mentioned the line of his descent; it, however, is manifest, that, 12 Hen. II., upon the assessment of aid for the marriage of Maud, the King's daughter, one Ralph de Cantilupe held two knight's fees of William de Romara, Earl of Lincoln (Liber Niger): at which time also Walter de Cantilupe likewise held two knight's fees of the same Earl. And, if he was the same person, held, at the period before stated, along with Robert Chevauchesul, four knight's fees of Geoffrey Mandeville, Earl of Essex. Robert de Cantilupe is also noticed by the said Geoffrey, Earl of Essex, as then holding one knight's fee, as aforesaid.

"Fulk de Cantilupe, who, in the seventh of King John, had lands in the county of Southampton, is also unnoticed by Dugdale. He was considered one of that monarch's evil servants, and as such is represented by Matthew Paris as a knight who was devoid of every spark of humanity."—Banks.

According to M. Rouault (the author of the Life of Sir Thomas de Cantelon), the first of this family who came to England was William de Cantelou, at the time of the Conquest: and he likewise mentions a Seigneur de Cantelou among those who went with Robert Courtheuse to the crusade of 1096. The fief of Chanteloup, forfeited by William de Cantilupe under Philip Augustus, passed to a French branch that held it till towards the end of the thirteenth century, when their heiress conveyed it to Fulk Paisnel. There has always been a castle on the original site, and the present building was inhabited within the last fifty years (see M. de Gerville), and may be so still.

The William de Cantilupe from whom the English house derives was of great account in the reign of King John. "He was steward of the household, and one of the chief counsellors, who in the fourteenth year of that unquiet reign, when the King his master was excommunicated by the Pope, adhered faithfully to him."—Bridges Northants. He stood by the King through all "his greatest Distresses," and was magnificently rewarded; yet there had been a slight flaw in his allegiance—a few months during which he had gone over to the Barons, and invited Louis of France to be his sovereign. This brief aberration only paved the way to fresh rewards and favours, for, having "not long continued in his Error," he came back to be welcomed with open arms by the King, and receive the forfeited lands of William de Charnells, William de Folville, Nicholas de Verdon, and Thurstan de Montfort. He had already obtained the great possessions of the two Engaines, father and son, who were among the most powerful of the hostile barons, with the custody of Kenilworth Castle, of which he made his principal residence. Henry III. continued him in his office of Steward, and, among many other grants, confirmed to him the Warwickshire manor of Aston—since Aston-Cantelow, which had been held by Ralph de Tankerville, Chamberlain of Normandy. Ever bent on increasing his territory, he was an indefatigable schemer, and bought the wardship of the heirs of five great estates; matching one heiress with a brother, another with a son, and keeping a third for himself. He died in 1238, leaving five sons: 1. William: 2. Walter: 3. John: 4. Nicholas; and 5. Thomas.

William II., his successor, "a powerful Man and a faithful Servant," was, like him, the King's Steward, and one of the representatives of England at the Council of Lyons. He married Millicent Countess of Evreux, and had (besides a daughter) two sons, William and Thomas. The elder of them had obtained the great Honour of Abergavenny through his marriage with Eve de Braose, one of the daughters and representatives of the last Lord of Brecknock and Abergavenny, and his wife Eve Marischal, the youngest of the five famous Pembroke heiresses. She brought him a son who lived only a few years, and two daughters who, when their father died "in the flower of his youth" in 1254, inherited the whole of his possessions in addition to her own. Millicent, the elder, was, by her second husband, the ancestress of the Lords Zouche of Haryngworth; and Joan married Henry Lord Hastings, and was the mother of John Baron of Abergavenny, of whom came the Earls of Pembroke of that illustrious name.

Thomas, the younger brother of this third William, was the last Englishman ever canonized. He had given early promise of his future sanctity; for he had been noted as a pious and studious child, and grown up to "wear the white flower of a blameless life." When he was presented for a degree in divinity, at Oxford, his friend Robert Kilwardy, Archbishop of Canterbury, in pronouncing his eulogy, affirmed that he had never been guilty of any mortal sin; "an extravagant compliment," adds old Fuller, "that no wise man will credit." That he was an excellent and holy prelate, greatly beloved and revered by his people, is at least beyond all doubt. He was first Archdeacon of Stafford; then, under Henry III., Chancellor of Oxford and of the whole realm; and in 1275 consecrated Bishop of Hereford. White Cross, about a mile from Hereford, and still almost entire, marks the spot where the saintly Bishop, coming from his palace at Sugwas, first saw the towers of his cathedral, and once—as tradition avers—heard the bells, sounded by no mortal hand, peal out their welcome at his approach. He died in 1282 at Monte Fiascone in Tuscany, on his return from Rome, whither he had gone to obtain of Pope Martin redress from the Archbishop of Canterbury. "His bowels and flesh were conveyed with great honour to the Abbey church of St. Severus, near Florence: his heart was buried in the monastery of Ashridge in Bucks; and his bones solemnly deposited in his own cathedral." He was canonized by Pope John XXII. in 1310: the fame of the miracles performed at his sepulchre having spread far and wide, and even eclipsed those wrought by St. Ethelbert. Matthew of Westminster reckons one hundred and sixty-three "within a short space:" and the English Martyrology raises their number to four hundred and twenty-five. "This," says Fuller (though only accepting the more 'modest estimate), "is twenty-five more than the miracles wrought by the prophets of Baal, and twenty-five less than those of the prophets of the groves, all of them honest, I believe, and true alike; yea, it is recorded in his legend, that by his prayers he raised from death to life threescore several persons, twenty-one lepers healed, and twenty-three blind and dumb men to have received their sight."

There yet remain the four younger sons of the first William de Cantilupe to be accounted for.

The second son, Walter, was a churchman, employed by Henry III. as his agent at the Court of Rome, and afterwards Bishop of Worcester.

The third, John, held Snitterfield in Warwickshire, in right of his wife, Margaret Cumin; and was succeeded there by a son of his own name, who married a daughter of Lord Mohun of Dunster, and left one only surviving child Eleanor, the wife of Thomas Lord West, ancestor of the present Earls De La Warr and Viscounts Cantilupe.

The fourth, Nicholas, was the father of the first Lord Cantilupe.[109]

The fifth, Thomas, was elected Lord Chancellor of England by the barons 49 Hen. III.

Nicholas, true to the traditions of his race, had taken to wife Eustachia, sister, and at last sole heir of Hugh Fitz Ralph of Gresley in Nottinghamshire, and niece and heir of Peter de la Haye of Wirlington in Sussex; and their son William derived his Derbyshire seat of Ilkeston from her. He fought under Edward I. in one Gascon and three Scottish campaigns, was summoned to Parliament by him in 1299, and died ten years afterwards, leaving an elder son, William, who died s. p., and Nicholas, heir to his brother. The life of this second Lord Cantilupe was crowded with services and employments. Early engaged in the Scottish wars, in 1327 he was in the retinue of Hugh de Audley; in 1335 Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed; in 1338 and 1339 again fighting in Scotland and Flanders; in 1342 Ambassador to France; in 1344 one of the Baron's triers of petitions; in 1346 at Cressy; and in 1352, when a French invasion was imminent, a Commissioner of Array in Lincolnshire, where he held eight manors in right of his wife, Joan. Two different dates are assigned for his death; but it probably took place in 1355, William his son and heir being then thirty years of age. He had obtained license to castellate his manor house at Gresley, and founded the Carthusian monastery of Beauvale in his park there.

Neither his son William, or William's two sons, ever received summons to Parliament. Both were childless, and with them terminated the line. The eldest, Nicholas, died in 1371, as it was said, by the hand of his own brother; for I find that in 1376, "Sir William de Cantilupe was sent to the Tower, on suspicion of having slain his brother Nicholas." Yet, according to Banks, Sir William's own death is recorded in the preceding year; and he was not more than twenty at the time he was supposed to have been guilty of fratricide. Nor does it seem very credible that he should have been first apprehended for this foul deed five years after it was committed. There is no account of the marriage of either of these young men.

Several other members of the family, to whom no allusion is made in the Baronage, are mentioned in the following extract from the Yorkshire Archaeologia, by which we also learn that Eustachia, the heiress of Gresley, was first married to a De Ros. I may observe that Deighton is not named in Dugdale's list of the manors held by the Cantelupes. "The Yorkshire Cantelupes were settled at Deighton, near Wetherby. Agatha Trussebut was one of their first patrons. In Matthew de Cantelupe, rector of the church of Ribestein, we find the first of her recorded protege's. Matthew was a Churchman who made the most of his vocation and his friends. In 1239 Pope Gregory IX. granted a dispensation to "Matthew de Cantelupe, clerk of the Diocese of York, brother of the Bishop of Worcester, allowing him to hold more benefices than one." The Bishop of Worcester was Walter de Cantelupe, who died in 1266. In Thomas de Cantelupe, clerk, we find another protege'; it was at her presentation that he was instituted to her own rectory of Dychton in 1247, the very year that she died. He repaid her patronage handsomely by his conduct in the Church, for he became Bishop of Hereford and Chancellor of England, and eventually a saint. Nor may these have been the only acts of the vigorous old dame, then approaching one hundred years of age, by which the family were vested in her parish of Deighton. Eustacia de Cantelupe, heiress of Peter de la Haye, became the wife of her young kinsman William de Ros, grandson of Turstan her nephew, and it is probable that agreeably to the feudal law, Dame Agatha bought the wardship and marriage of the young heiress, giving her as a bride with her lands to the boy for whom she had reserved the fair domain of Ingmanthorpe.

"Contemporary with these, another member of the family rose to high dignity in the Church. Hugh de Cantelupe, one of the executors of the will of Bishop Walter de Cantelupe, became Precentor of York. On vacating that office, he obtained preferment in Hereford Cathedral, and seems to have died in 1285. He is said to have been a brother of Bishop Thomas. For nearly another one hundred years the Cantelupes lived side by side with their kinsmen the De Ros'. The line seems to have terminated in 1380 at the death of Sir William de Cantelupe, with whose representative Sir Robert de Ros, the hoary hero of the Scottish wars, and late Sheriff of York, had a dispute in Chancery respecting the estates of Cantelupe."—Yorkshire Archaeologia, vol. viii., p. 294.

Besides Aston-Cantelou, formerly held by the serjeanty of finding a foot-soldier for forty days "as often as there should be war in Wales," Hempston-Cantlow in Devonshire, and Weston-Cantilupe in Gloucestershire, still bear the name.

Chamberay :

from the lordship of Cambrai, near Falaise, in Normandy. The "Sire de Combrai" was among the knights who "challenged Harold the king to come forth" at the battle of Hastings.—Wace. "According to Des Bois this was a branch of the Barons de la Ferte. Godefridus de Chambrai held lands in capite in Leicestershire, 1086: Henry de Chambrai one fee in Derby, 1165 (Liber Nig). Ralph de Chambrai paid scrutage in Sussex and Hants, 1199 and 1203."—The Norman People. About fifty years after the date of Domesday, Lee, in Shropshire, was held of the King by Alured de Cambrai, "who stands first witness to a charter which Hugh Cyvelioc, Earl of Chester, expedited between 1155 and 1180 to Shrewsbury Abbey."—Eyton's Salop. It is described on the Pipe Roll of 1165 as Alured's Lee, but was subsequently known as Lee Cumbray, and is now Lee Gomery. The line ended with Alured's grandson Roger, who died in his minority shortly after 1212. Another Roger de Cambray, however, is mentioned in 1310 as receiving a pardon, as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. Matthew de Cambreye was of Lincolnshire, and Egidius de Cambrey of London, in the time of Edward I. (Rotul. Hundred.)

"The will of Chambray (Chambrois) bears now the name of Broglie, from the ducal title of the owners of the demesne in recent times."—A. Stapleton.

Cressy :

from the Seigneurie so named between Dieppe and Rouen. This was both a numerous and powerful family, but I have not been fortunate enough to meet with any pedigree that satisfactorily connects the various branches. The Cressys are first found in Nottinghamshire about the middle of the twelfth century, holding of Roger de Busli's Fee of Tickhill. "King Henry II. commanded Hugh de Cressy that his canons of Radeford should hold well and in peace and rightly three bovats in Hermedeston, which Avicia, the daughter of William de Taney, and William de Clerfay, gave, else the steward of Tikehill should see right done."—Thoroton's Notts. This Avicia had been the first wife of William de Clerfay (afterwards married to Albreda de Lisours), and her father's heiress, or rather co-heiress, as it is evident that Hugh was the husband of her sister. His son Roger de Cressy, in the same reign, confirms "the above gift, made by his aunt Avicia."[110] He was Lord of Hodesoke, or Hodesac, which became the principal seat of his descendants in Nottinghamshire, and a benefactor of the neighbouring monks of Blyth. He was twice married; but the dower of his widow, Cecily de Clifton, was contested in 1200 by his son and heir William (presumably her stepson), on the plea that she had not been his father's wife. However, the Archbishop of York, to whom the cause was referred, cleared the lady's character by deciding that she had been "lawfully married." William's son Hugh married a Lincolnshire heiress, Sibyl, daughter of Sir John Braytoft, who brought him an estate twice as large as his own, for in the time of the next heir the lands in Lincoln, comprising Braytoft, Rysegate, &c, were of the annual value of ,£40, while those in Notts and Derby were worth no more than £20. This heir, named after his grandfather William, was twice summoned to parliament by Edward I., and twice followed him to the Scottish wars, attending the Nottingham muster in 1296, and the Carlisle muster for Lincolnshire in 1300. In the same year he was one of the Justiciars for Notts and Lincoln; then summoned to the great Council at Westminster in 1324; and from first to last appears as a man of consideration and importance in his generation; but his honours did not descend to his posterity. Neither his son Sir Hugh, styled "of Rysegate," nor his grandson Sir John, were ever again barons of the realm, and with Sir John's childless son Hugh the elder line was brought to a close in the first years of Henry IV.'s reign. Hugh had two sisters; Katherine, first married to Sir John de Clifton, and then to Ralph Makarell, and Elizabeth, the wife of Sir John Markham, who in 1407 were declared to be his heirs. Elizabeth, it would seem, was already dead, and her son Robert Markham inherited the estate in Lincolnshire, where Cressy Hall—afterwards the seat of the Herons—still keeps the old name. Hodsoke and Claypole went to the Cliftons.

Yet, long after the extinction of the principal house, "junior branches of the family seem to have lingered near the seats of their ancestors," of which, Thoroton says, "I have seen mention before and about the time of the heirs general. These I suppose were descended from some younger son of the great Cressies." There was a Thomas de Cressy of Selston, Notts, against whom "acts of extortion whilst acting under a commission of array" were alleged in 1316: and a Hugh de Cressy, who, in the previous year, had given some land to a chapel near Blyth, "because the said Hugh had committed a felony." One branch held Markham of the Fee of Busli, of whom William de Cressy was living in 1272, and Roger in 1332. The last-mentioned, another William, in 1364, "bore on his seal three crescents on a bend. The house of Hodsake had a lion rampant with a forked tail."—Thoroton. William and Peter Crecy de Markham are found in the list of the gentry of Nottinghamshire in 1433: and, two hundred years after this, Oulcotes Cressy, in the same county, still belonged to its ancient owners. William Cressy and his brother Hugh occur there in 1614, and William was the father of Roger, William, Leonard, and several other sons.—Ibid. Of yet longer continuance was the posterity of "Christopher Cressy, described in the Visitation of Notts, 1662, as of Firbeck, Yorkshire, from whom descended the Cressys of Holme and Old Cotes, and also those who by marrying the heiress of Everingham became seated at Birkin."—Hunter's South Yorkshire. It was Christopher's great-grandson, Gervas Cressy, who in 1587 became the second husband of Eleanor Everingham, Lady of Birkin. Her first marriage must have been childless, for three Everingham Cressys in succession enjoyed her inheritance, of whom the last died in 1696, leaving an only child, Dorothy, then the wife of Sir Archibald Primrose, ancestor of the Earls of Rosebery. She did not, however, inherit Birkin, which I presume must have passed to her father's brother, whose name is not given in the pedigree.

By far the most powerful branch of this house was seated in the Eastern Counties, and founded by Hugh de Cressy, who, in the latter part of the twelfth century, married the eldest of the three Cheney co-heiresses. He may have been a younger brother of his contemporary, Roger de Cressy of Hodsoke, but Dugdale leaves us in absolute ignorance as regards his lineage. Margaret de Cheney brought him, with the castle and honour of Horsford, the manor of Blyburgh in Suffolk, that had been granted to her father[111] by Henry II. As Lady of Blyburgh and Walberswick, she had Wrec of the Sea from Eye Cliff to the port of Dunwich, with a ferry boat, right of toll, and other feudal privileges. Their son, Roger, transgressed by taking to wife another great heiress without the King's license, and for this offence his lands in Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent, and Buckinghamshire were sequestrated by the Crown, and only given back to him on payment of a heavy fine. This wife, Isabel, the widow of Geoffrey de Chester, was the daughter and co-heir of Hubert de Rie, dowered with half of her father's barony; and in her right he held seventeen and a half knights' fees. In 1215 he "was in Arms against King John. Whereupon his Lands were seized, and given to Robert de Ferrers. But besides this, he underwent the Sentence of Excommunication, by Pope Innocent III., for that Rebellious Action; and suffered otherwise in a very high measure, by burning of his Houses, and wasting of his Lands. Yet all this would not reclaim him; no, nor the death of that King; For, it appears that he was in Arms against King Henry III., being taken Prisoner in the Battle of Lincolne. But, after this, he made his Peace."—Dugdale. According to Blomfield, he had two sons, Hugh and Stephen, neither of whom left heirs. Hugh succeeded his father in 1245, and died about 1262.

Dugdale, on the other hand, makes this Stephen the son of Hugh, the husband of Sybil de Braytoft, and the father of the William de Cressy who was summoned to parliament by Edward I. But in this case Lord de Cressy must necessarily have succeeded to the moiety of the Barony of Rie, the honour of Horsford, Blyburgh, &c, none of which appear either among his own possessions, or those of his posterity; and his affiliation to the Nottinghamshire house seems amply made out in the careful and circumstantial pedigree furnished by Thoroton. Still it is certain that the name continued in Suffolk, for I find in Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs that Hamo de Cressy, of Grandston and Monewdon in that county, attended the array of the Hundred of Loose in 1323.

Courtenay :

"The primitive record of the Courtenays," says Gibbon, "is a passage of the continuation of Armoin, a monk of Fleury, who wrote in the twelfth century." About a hundred, years before, Hatto, the son of Reginald, built the castle of Courtenay, and was thence surnamed. "Milo, his eldest son, married a daughter of the Count of Nevers, and had, 1, Reginald, whose daughter married Peter, grandson of Louis VII. of France (Anselme), and was ancestor of the Counts of Nevers, Emperors of Constantinople: 2, Josceline. Josceline, the younger son, had two sons, Reginald and William, of whom Reginald married Hawisa, daughter and heir of Maud de Abrincis or Avranches, widow of Robert de Avranches, Viscount of Devon and Baron of Oakhampton."—The Norman People. This Reginald, whom Henry II. "distinguished in his camp and councils," founded the great Devon house, which was only less illustrious than its parent stock in France, though the latter claimed the rank of Princes of the Blood,[112] and wore the Imperial purple during the Lower Empire. The English Courtenays mingled their blood with the Plantagenets, twice married princesses, "who may (though not in strictly legal language) be called the co-heiresses of the throne" (Sir Harris Nicolas): and held, in addition to the Marquessate of Exeter, one of the most ancient of our earldoms, which, after lying dormant for nearly three hundred years, was restored to William Courtenay in 1831. But it is more than doubtful whether their name should be admitted here. It is certainly not found in Domesday; and according to Sir Egerton Brydges, "the family is recorded not to have come hither till the reign of Henry II.," when Reginald married the Avranches heiress.

Conestable :

a title of office, borne by several different families, of whom two, at least, ranked among the most ancient and honourable of Yorkshire. The Constables of Flamborough and their branches derived from the Barons of Halton, Constables of Chester, who, in right of this office, were Premier Barons in Hugh Lupus' Palatine Earldom. "William Constabular" witnesses his charter to St. Werburgh's Abbey; but, according to Wotton, the surname of Constable was first assumed nearly two hundred years afterwards, by the posterity of Robert de Lacy, the second son of a Baron of Halton who died in 1190, and from whom he received a grant of Flamborough. It cannot therefore be this family (now represented in the female line by Lord Herries) that is here designated. They bore Quarterly Gules and Vert, over all a bend Or. The Constables that gave their name to Burton-Constable and were created Viscounts of Dunbar by James I., have a more hazy genealogy. They claim descent from "Ulbert, son of the 'Constable' who fought on the Conqueror's side at Hastings," and a Saxon heiress named Erneburg; but of this "Constable" no mention is made by Wace in his account of the battle, nor can I find him entered in Domesday.[113] The author of The Norman People conjectures them to have been a junior branch of the house of De Gand or De Alost, deriving their name from an ancestor who was Constable of De Gand's great barony of Folkingham. He shows that the arms of these Constables were the same as those of the De Gands (Barry of 6, Or and Azure, a bend Gules) minus the bend. But this coat was in reality that of Fulk d'Oyry, a great Lincolnshire baron, assumed from his co-heiress late in the thirteenth century, before which date the Constables bore Or, a fesse componee Argent and Azure, in chief a lion passant Gules, v. Poulson's Holderness.

It is however, clear, from the same authority, that there was a close connection between the families; for Poulson asserts that Erneburga, the great Saxon heiress who gave her name to Erneburg-Burton in Holderness, was twice married, first to Gilbert de Alost, and secondly to Ulbert le Constable. Burton passed to the descendants of Ulbert, "the name of Erenburg-Burton gradually yielding to that of Burton-Constable, and was held for many centuries as well in part of the Seigniory of Holderness, as of the Archbishop of York." Yet she must have had children by her first husband, for several De Alosts, holding a share in the property, are mentioned in Yorkshire during the thirteenth century.

Robert le Constable, the eldest son of Ulbert and Erneburga, lived in the reigns of King Stephen and Henry II. and was styled De Halsham. His son perished in Coeur de Lion's crusade; and his grandson, who married a kinswoman, Julian de Alost, was the father of another Robert, the husband of Adela or Ela de Oyry. She was one of three sisters, of whom Emma de Gousell (no doubt the eldest) became Lady of Gedney; but must herself have been a considerable heiress, for her grandson Sir Simon adopted her arms in lieu of his paternal bearing. Part of her possessions were, it would seem, included in the present park of Burton Constable (once stocked with the indigenous white cattle); for the solitary instance of a charter of free warren in Holderness before the time of Edward I.[114] was granted to Fulco d'Oyry by Hawise, Countess of Albemarle and Lady of the Seigniory. The Constables were of high rank in Yorkshire, and intermarried with the first houses in the North of England; among their alliances were to be found co-heiresses of Lascelles, Umfraville, Eure, and Nevill; and they still "flourished in great splendour" in Camden's time. Sir Henry Constable, "a man of parts and learning," was in favour with James I., and received from him in 1620 a Scottish peerage as Viscount of Dunbar. It was successively held by his sons and two of his grandsons; but of these latter there was only a single descendant, Mary, the daughter of the third Viscount, who married Simon Scrope of Danby, but left no children. The last of them, William, succeeded to the title in 1714, not long before his death; and with him was extinguished the male line of the great old house of Burton Constable. The estates devolved by special entail on the second son of his sister Cecily, Cuthbert Tunstall, who duly assumed the name and bearing of the family. But within less than half a dozen generations they had twice again passed to female heirs; first to the Sheldons, and then to the Cliffords, who now bear the name and fill the place of the Constables. The house—a very fine one—principally dates from the Tudor period; but one part is said to have been built in King Stephen's time, and is called Stephen's Tower.

Poulson enumerates three younger branches; the Constables of St. Sepulchre's Garth; the Constables of Kilnsea, Bentley, and Essington; and the Constables of Kirby Knoll and Upsall. The Constables of Freshmarsh and Catfoss in the same county were not of the same family, but derived from Roaldus, Constable of Richmond. Melton-Constable in Norfolk was the residence of a third and entirely distinct family, derived from "Anchitel, whose descendants were sometimes styled De Melton, and sometimes De Constable, from the office or place they held under the Bishop of Norwich, by whom they had been enfeoffed of it."—Blomfield's Norfolk. This was in the time of Bishop William de Beaufoe, under whom Anchitel held Melton jointly with Roger de Lions.—Ibid. The last heir of this house, Sir Robert Constable, died in the fourteenth century, and his sister and heiress, Editha, conveyed Melton Constable to the Astleys. One of her descendants, Sir Jacob Astley, "was summoned by writ to the House of Lords in 1841, being a coheir of Sir John de Hastings, summoned to parliament as Baron Hastings 18 Ed. I."—Burke.

Cholmeley :

an interpolation. "The name of Cholmondeley," says Dugdale, "was assumed from the Lordship of Cholmondeley in Cheshire by Sir Hugh de Cholmondeley, knt., son and heir of Robert, second son to William, Baron de Malpas," generations after the Conquest. Cholmondeley, entered in Domesday as Calmundelai, then formed part of the great barony of Malpas, held by Robert Fitz Hugh, one of the peers of Hugh Lupus' Palatinate.

Champney :

Here we have a choice of derivations. According to Playfair, the name is that of the Norman Sires de Champnee; according to Bardsley, it signifies a native of Champagne,[115] and in The Norman People we find it assigned to Champigne or Champigny in Normandy. I think the first suggestion may be safely dismissed on the ground that no Sires de Champnee are discoverable in the Duchy. The second may very probably be correct when the name is given—as it was during the thirteenth century in Shropshire—Le Champeneys; or when it was counter-changed with Champaine, which, from the identity of some of the coats of arms, must not unfrequently have been the case. See Champaine. But there is every reason to believe that the Norman De Champignys were represented by some of the numerous English families of Champneys. They belonged to a very ancient stock. Geoffrey de Champigne' held a knight's fee in the Bailifry of Pont-Audemer in 1165; and two De Champignys appear on the roll of the Norman nobles assembled in 1789.

That the name was of frequent occurrence in this country can admit of no question. Five different coats of arms are appropriated to it in Devonshire alone. The principal house—that of Yamscombe—"continued for about six descents, and became extinct in 1681. The heiress married Cottle."—Lyson's Devon. The parish church contains the monuments of the two last John Champneys; the son, who died in 1680; and the father, who survived a year more. In the adjoining county of Somerset, the family was seated for a long succession of generations, and inter-married with some of the greatest West country families. Two of the name—Henry and Thomas—are among the Somersetshire gentlemen certified (as qualified) to be Knights of the Bath in the time of Henry VII. This Henry Champneys, who succeeded his father in 1505, and married a Seymour heiress, is the first of the family styled of Orchardleigh, where his descendants were to be found for nearly three centuries and a half. Three of them served as Sheriffs of Somerset, in 1695, 1728, and 1775; and the last of these was created a baronet in 1767. The title and the line ended together in 1840 with his son Sir Thomas Swymmer, who had married the heiress of Sir Roger Mostyn and adopted her name. The Champneys of Orchardleigh had for their supporters two lions, the one charged with the arms of France, the other with those of Navarre, by special grant of Louis XIV. An offset, descended from Sir John Champneys, Lord Mayor of London in 1534, that was seated at Ostenhanger in Kent, had already become extinct in the previous century. Another existed at Boxley in Suffolk, where, according to Hasted, Walter Champneis first settled in 1582. "They resided at a seat called Winters, which continued in their possession till very lately."—Davy's Suffolk Collections.

In Shropshire the name, as Le Champeneys, is several times recorded by Eyton in the thirteenth century. Robert Champneys of Dorrington was the successor of Reginald de Dodinton, who held of Robert Fitz Hugh, Forester of Bolas, in the commencement of that century; and William Champneis of Wildesley is mentioned in 1253. The son of the former, also William, "paid the Chief Forester a rent of twenty dishes and cups, and was to take charge of the Cover of Stapelwood, a part of the Royal Forests; or—as otherwise stated—to have the custody of Vert and Venison from the Quake Wendebruge to Egeforde." No descendants of his are mentioned. The other William certainly had a son named John; and Thomas Champneys occurs in 1290.

Chawnos :

see Chawnes.

Comiuile :

Walter de Conovill witnesses the foundation charter of Robert Malet to Eye Priory (Mon. Angl.) I think this is the same name as "De Canouville," which is entered on the Dives Roll. It belongs to a Norman house ennobled in 1668, who were Sires de Grosmenil, and Marquises of Raffetot, and bore Gules, three mullets Or. John de Kenouill, of Gloucestershire, occurs in the Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1200: Gilbert de Conovile, in the time of Edward I. in Devonshire (Rot. Hundred). "Radulfo de Keneuvile," at about the same date, or a little earlier, is a witness to a charter of Ralph de Rosei, a tenant of Earl Warrenne's in Norfolk. "Willielmus de Kenovilla" (about 1191) witnesses Robert de Ros's (surnamed Furfan) grant to the Abbey of St. Georges de Bocherville in Normandy.

Champaine :

a name that, at the present day, is "far from uncommon in Normandy, although the greater part of the champaign country has been for centuries divided and enclosed. It is not necessary to conclude that those that bear it have come from the province of Champagne, since all our cultivated plains bore this designation in ancient times. In this sense it is still retained in England, where many Norman names that we have lost might be found if wanted."—M. de Gerville.

This family was seated in Kent during the twelfth century. Sir Robert de Campania acquired the manor of Newenham through his wife Julian, daughter and heir of Fulk de Newenham (who founded the nunnery of Davington, in that neighbourhood, about 1253): and gave to his manor-house its present name of Champion's Court. His son Sir Robert II. was one of the Kentish gentlemen that attended Coeur de Lion to the Holy Land, and were knighted at the siege of Acre. Another descendant, John de Champayne, was present at Carlaverock; and two years afterwards had a grant of a Thursday market and yearly fair at his manor of Newenham, and free warren there and at Norton. His wife Margery was the eldest of the six sisters who in 1341 became the co-heirs of Sir Peter de Rosceline. The name terminated in three co-heiresses.—v. Hasted's Kent. Shadwick-Champayne and Edmundeshampayne in Dorsetshire took their name from Peter de Champayne (perhaps the brother of John) who held part of a knight's fee at Shadwick in 1296: "but of this family," adds Hutchins, "little or no mention occurs in the history of the county." Roger Champaigne was knight of the shire in 1350. The Champaynes also held some property in Hampshire: for, in the preceding reign, "Hugh de Campania had sided with the King's enemies; and thereupon, by writ addressed to the Sheriff Nov. 23, 1315; his Hampshire lands were given to Robert de Scures."—Woodward's Hants. We find Champayne of Champayne in Duffield of early date in Derbyshire. "The co-heiresses married Foucher and Daudelin in the fourteenth century."—Lysons. Lastly, a branch, with an ambitious pedigree, occurs in Leicestershire. "William de Champaigne," says Nichols, "was descended from the antient Earls of Champagne, one of the peers of France, who, coming into England with King William the Conqueror, received from him great lands and possessions in this shire, and in the counties of Northampton, Oxford, Lincoln, and Salop. The heir general of Champaigne was married to Tourville." Their original coat was Or fretty Sable; "but whether for that they vowed to take upon them the Cross, or to undertake some voyage to the Holy Land, or assumed some religious military Order, they added upon every joint a cross-crosslet Argent." The arms of the Counts of Champagne were wholly different, for they bore a bend; and the Count Odo who accompanied the Conqueror, was, as we have seen, the ancestor of the Earls of Albemarle. Robert de Champaigne held Thurleston of the Honour of Winton in 1296; and Ralph in 1361. They were also sub-tenants of the Earl of Leicester at Normanton and Croft. The Turvilles succeeded them at Thurleston. William and Ralph de Campania, temp. King John, are the first mentioned in the county.

Careuile :

M. de Gerville tells us that there are at least three places of this name in Normandy: and it is to be met with in various parts of England. Gilbert de Craville witnesses a deed in the county of Durham as early as the time of Bishop Flambard (1099-1133). See Surtees. "Magro Roberto de Karvill" appends his name to one of the first charters granted to Weymouth Abbey. Hugh Carvill was a land-owner in Devonshire temp. Hen. II.—(Pole's Devon): and Peter de Cara Villa—probably of the same stock—was Prior of St. Michael's Mount in 1316. In Norfolk, "the family of Chereville, Capreville, or Kerville, was early enfeoffed of Chervill's Manor. 10 Richard I. a fine was levied between Simon, son of Roger de Chereville, petent, and Robert, son of Walter de Chereville, of lands in Tilney. Sir Fraer (or Frederick) de Chervill held two fees in Tilney, Islington, Wigenhall, and Clenchwarton (when an aid was granted to the marriage of Henry III.'s sister to the Emperor of Germany) of the honour of Wirmegay; and was found, 34 Hen. III., to have a gallows at Tilney,[116] and the liberty or power of hanging offenders."—Blomfield. The last Kervile, Sir Henry, had two children who died in their infancy. "He was a bigoted Papist, and about November, 1620, was accused by Sir Christopher Heydon that the Papists met at his house, in order to subscribe to and assist the Emperor against the King of Bohemia, when King James requested a loan (for the recovery of the Palatinate) from the nobility and gentry of England; whereupon he was sent for to the Council, and his papers seized: but afterwards released. Sir Henry Spelman says that on his death in 1624 the estates of the Kerviles came to the Cobbs of Sandringham."—Ibid. The Kerviles bore Gules a chevron Or between three leopards' faces with their impalements.

Carbonelle :

The Carbonnels were Sires de Cerisy in the arrondissement of St. Lo, and originally bore Azure on a chief Gules three torteauxes Ermine. Their ancient castle, named Chateau Robert, stood in the valley traversed by the little river Aure, and from the foundations yet remaining, must have been of considerable extent. Cerisy was erected into a marquisate in favour of Rene de Carbonnel in 1643, and continued uninterruptedly in the possession of the family till its final extinction in 1700.

According to their genealogy, it was Hugh de Carbonnel, Sire de Cerisy, who was at the Conquest; and, thirty years afterwards, followed Robert Duke of Normandy to the Holy Land, and distinguished himself at the taking of Jerusalem. Was he the same "Carbonel" who held a Herefordshire manor (Lacre) of the King in capite in 1086"? (Domesday.) The Carbonels were very early seated at Ashford-Carbonel, now included in Shropshire, but originally a vill in the Herefordshire parish of Little Hereford: and it has been plausibly suggested that they descended from the unnamed Francigena who held there under Osbern Fitz Richard at Domesday. Their earliest charter of feoffment was granted to William Carbonel about 1174-85. "Whether the Frenchman alluded to in this entry was the ancestor of the Carbonels I cannot say; but I think they were seated at Ashford at an earlier period than we should assign as the date of the Charter of Feoffment."—Eyton's Salop. William's son John "appears in 1226 among the chief knights of the county, which then made inquisition concerning the Forest of Stiperstones." Hugh Carbonel held in 1316. I can meet with no later mention of the name in the county.

But it was abundantly represented elsewhere. There was a "Carbonellus" in Lincolnshire, holding land at Bleasby, in the parts of Lindsay, in 1114-1116 (Cotton MS. Claudius, c. 5). Durand Carbonel held one knight's fee of Galfrid de Magneville in Essex in 1165 (Liber Niger): and William Carbonell (perhaps his kinsman) received Woodbury in Devonshire from Stephen de Mandeville in the time of Henry II.—Pole's Devon. Hamo Carbonel was of Buckinghamshire in 1194-99 (Rotuli Curiae Regis): and from him probably descended Peter Carbonel, Lord or joint Lord of Whitchurch, Bucks, Bainton and Fewcote, Oxon, and Bradley, Somerset, who was summoned to attend the great Council held at Westminster in 1324. The following year he was Commissioner of array in Bucks, and received a writ of military summons "to pass into Guienne under the command of the Earl Warrenne." John Carbonel of Nottinghamshire, was similarly ordered to Guienne, at the same date. Three years before, he had been pardoned as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, submitting to a fine of 40.C, "in consideration of which his life was saved." Two Carbonels held in Norfolk in 1316; Henry at Rockland, and William at Burston.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. Their line ended in the following century. "The estate of Bradeston was brought by Margery de Caston to Sir Robert Carbonel, about 1350, son of Sir John, Lord of Baddingham in Suffolk. Sir Robert's grandson, Sir Richard, is said to have died in foreign parts in 1429; his widow died in 1431, and their son died soon after his mother, s. p."—Blomfield's Norfolk.

Charles :

"from St. Karles de Parcy, in the Cotentin. This family, then named Charles, was seated in many parts of England in the thirteenth century."—The Norman People. The manor of Charles, in the parish of Dartford, "was formerly a branch of the estate of an ancient family from which it took its name; one of whom was Edward Charles, Captain and Admiral of the Fleet from the Thames mouth northwards, as appears by the patent 34 Ed. I."—Hasted's Kent. Some others of the family are incidentally mentioned. Richard Charles was knight of the shire in 1319: and, at about the same date, Robert Charles of Godington, who held some land about Hilden in Tunbridge parish, was Bailiff of the Forest there to Robert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. "Godington continued in this name down to Richard Charles of Addington, who died without male issue 11 Ric. II."—Ibid. The name is also found in Norfolk, Devon, and Stratford in Warwickshire. Among the Bannerets, in a Roll of Arms temp. Ed. II., occurs: "Sire Edward Charles de Ermyne od le chef de goules a IIJ mascles de ermyne." This Sir Edward, styled of Clyffe (in Yorkshire), must, as it seems to me, be identical with Edward I.'s Admiral. At Stratford-on-Avon the name is sometimes given as Carles. In Norfolk D. Colina Charles held of Robert Passelew. Westcote speaks of "a gentle family of this name," of Charles (sometimes written Charneis) in the parish of High Bray, and of Charleston. Five generations of them were seated at Tavistock prior to the reign of Queen Elizabeth; and one of them acquired Moreton through Marjorie, daughter and heiress of Richard Ford of Fordmore. They bore Ermine on a chief wavy Gules an eagle displayed Or.

Chereberge :

for Cherbourg. Anquetil de Cherbourg is on the Dives Roll, placed among the leaders of highest rank; and Osbernus de Keresburg was a sub-tenant in Gloucestershire in 1086 (Domesday). "Wigein de Cheresburc" witnesses Humphrey de Bohun's charter to Southampton Priory (Mon. Angl.). Roger de Caesar Borgio held one fee of him in Dorset (Liber Niger), and John de Cherbourg is twice mentioned in the Testa de Nevill as holding of the King, and the Earldom of Hereford. "Winterbourn-Cherbourg (now Winterbourn-Gunner) acquired the distinction of Cherbourg from the family that possessed it." John de Gerberge was Sheriff of Wiltshire 34 Ed. I.—Hoards Wilts. In Kent, Radulpho de "Chieresburgh" is one of the witnesses to William de Albini Pincerna's grant to Rochester Abbey (Mon. Angl.). Thomas de Cherberg, of Shropshire, occurs in the Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1194. William de Gerberge held in Norfolk in the time of Edward I. (Rotuli Hundredorum), but was dead before 1291, when Edward Gerbergh, Prior of Hickling, held in Erpingham part of a fee that had been his. Several others of the name are mentioned at the same date: John Gerbergh, who held in Norton and Thimelthorpe of Earl Warren; and Roger Gerberge, who also held in Norton as a tenant of Thomas de Gelham. They must have been the descendants of Petrus de Cesaris Burgo, who in 1165 held three knights' fees of William de Albini (Liber Niger).

Chawnes :

Rohard de Chauna witnesses Walter de Clifford's grant to Dore Abbey (Mon. Angl.), and "Magistro Waltero de Calna, the foundation charter of Leiston Abbey (Suckling's Suffolk). Ralf de Chaun, or de Chan, held Chanon's or Chaneux's manor in Norfolk in 1200, and it continued in the name till the end of the century.—Blomfield. William Chaun, of Lincolnshire, occurs in the Hundred Rolls, temp. Edward I. "William de Caune demorants a Elmedon" (Embleton) is enumerated among the knights of the Bishopric of Durham, who were at the battle of Lewes in 1264; but I can find no further account either of him or his descendants in the county. There was apparently a third William de Caune living at the same date in Wiltshire (where Richard de Calna had held of Earl Patric in 1165 (Lib. Niger), as well as a Richard de Caune in Oxfordshire: (Rotul. Hundred.), and it is just possible these three Williams were one and the same. A namesake of earlier date had been seated in Hampshire. In 1215, William Briwer was commanded to let Adam de Gurdon have the land within his bailiwick that William de Kaune had held."—Woodward's Hampshire. In the adjoining county, "Richard Chaune, in 1332, conveyed to Sir John de Held all the lands and premises in the parishes of Broadwater and Fairing, which had descended to him from his grandfather, Thomas de Offington."—Dallaway's Sussex. Again, I find Thomas de Caune "one of the special commissioners in the Hundred of Harlow and Half-Hundred of Waltham in Essex, for the purpose of watching and protecting the highways, dispersing seditious meetings, and arresting offenders." This was in 1321; and in the following year he was summoned for military service against the Scots.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. It is, however, only in Kent that I have met with any connected account of the family. George le Chaun held Bidborough t. Ed. I.; and it continued in the name till the reign of Ed. IV., when it passed to the Palmers—but how we are not informed. Thomas Chaune was Prior of Tunbridge in 1346. "There was," writes Hasted, "an estate in the parish of Scale, called Melcomb, now unknown; which, in the time of Ed. III., was the property of Sir Thomas Cawne, who lies buried in Ightham Church, his figure lying at full length on his tomb; on his breast are his arms, a lion rampant Ermine a la queue fourchee." He married Lora, only daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Moraunt, of Moraunt's Court (son of a Sir William Moraunt, who was Sheriff of Kent 12 and 13 Ed. III.), but had no issue; and Moraunt's Court passed to Lora's children by her second husband, James de Peckham.

So far Hasted; but, more than sixty years after, his History was published (in 1800), the will of Sir Thomas Cawne was accidentally discovered in the Surrenden charter room, and the fact brought to light that he left two sons, Robert and Thomas. The elder was six, the latter but three years old, when the will was made; and on them he entails all his lands in the parishes of Scale, Ightham, and Shipborne (Melcomb is not specified), and his manor called La Mote; giving their wardship to his wife, Lora, "if she keep herself sole and chaste, without a husband married to her." He also leaves a sum of money for a new window in Ightham Church, "near the altar of St. Mary;" which window remains over his monument on the north side of the chancel.

His manor-house is thus shown to have been the Mote, a fact hitherto unknown to Kentish topographers; and from the date assigned to the earliest part of that very curious old house, he was most probably its builder. "It is one of the most entire specimens remaining of the ancient moated manors. Like its brethren of romance, the Ightham Mote-house lies sleeping in the midst of thick woods, which you may re-people at will with such marvels as Sir Tristran or Sir Perceval were wont to encounter in similar situations. The broad, clear mote is fed from a neighbouring rivulet, which, it has been conjectured, formed here a small island or eyte, whereon the building was originally erected, and which thus gave name to the whole parish—Ightham, Eyteham, the 'hamlet of the eyte.'"—Handbook for Kent. For many years after this it was the seat of the Hautes.

Of the Hampshire De Caunes, I have found some traces in Hutchin's Dorset. Baldwin de Kaune, in 1271, granted to Herbert de Kaune the manors of Bromleigh in Dorset, Esse in Somerset, and some land at Drayton in Hants, held of Hugh de Braybrook, all of which were to revert to him if Herbert had no heirs. Herbert, however, left three children at his death in 1295; a son of his own name, then five years old, who died a few years afterwards, and two daughters, Margery and Joan, who became his co-heirs. Baldwin, meanwhile had, it would appear, deserted his colours, and was "within the allegiance of the King of France." Yet he was still claiming one of the manors. "In 1303, by an order of Court, Baldwin de Caune, an alien, and the King's enemy, was informed that he might prosecute his suit against the King, or elsewhere, for the manor of Esse-Herberd, county Somerset, which had been seized into the King's hands."

In Hertfordshire, Robert de Calne held six and a half knights' fees of the barony of Robert de Valognes in 1165.—Liber Niger.

Chaumont :

De Calvomonte; a family, according to The Norman People, of most illustrious descent. "Childebrand, son of Pepin the Elder, had issue Nebelon, Count of Vexin, whose descendant, Nebelon III., married Ledgarda of Flanders, and had Waleran III., father of Geoffrey de Vexin, Lord of Caumont and Mantes; whose son Eudes de Caumont, is mentioned by Ordericus Vitalis. His son Otmund was a benefactor of St. Stephen's, Caen, temp. William I. William de Caumont, his son, occurs in Durham 1130, and Ralph de Caumont, 1156, held two fees of the Honour of Wallingford." John de Chaumont, son and heir of Sir John de Chaumont and Isabella his wife, is mentioned by Surtees in the fourteenth century; and may have been the same "Johan Chaumont" who received a pardon, as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, in 1313.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. In Cornwall they gave their name to Trenowth-Chamond and Helston Chamond, and were long of great account. "There is a Place near to Stretton," writes Leland, "caullid Ebbingford, but now commonly Efford, wher John Arundell of Trerice was borne, and hathe a fair Maner Place, in the which Syr John Chaumon now dwellith, that married the Mother yet lyving of John Arundale of Trerice." This Sir John was twice Sheriff of Cornwall during the reign of Henry VIII., and, according to Carew, a man learned in the common law, who had been knighted at the Sepulchre of Our Lord at Jerusalem. At the dissolution of Hartland Abbey, he received a grant of Lancells, which he made his principal residence, and long continued that of his posterity. "He had a park of fallow deer at this place, which Norden notices, as I suppose the Abbots of Hartland had before him. It seems to have been to Sir John Chamond a country seat and place of retirement."—Tonkin. His son Richard was again Sheriff 35 Hen. VIII., 2 Ed. VI., and 4 Eliz., and twice served as knight of the shire. "He received at God's Hand an extraordinary Favour of long Life; serving in the Office of Justice of the Peace almost sixty years. He knew above fifty several Judges of the Western Circuit; was uncle and Great-uncle to three hundred at least: wherin yet his Uncle and Neighbour, Master Greynville, Parson of Kilkhampton, did exceede him. He married one of the Daughters and Heirs of Trevenner, and by her saw five Sons and two Daughters, the youngest out-stepping forty Yeares."—Carew. He had an elder brother named Sir Thomas, whose two heiresses carried part of his lands into the families of Tripcony and Trevanion. Two others of the name appear on the Roll of Sheriffs: Deg. Chamond, 4 James I., and John Chamond, nine years afterwards: the latter, who died in 1624, lies buried under a highly decorated monument in Lancells Church. This John was a son of the venerable Justice extolled by Carew, and the family ended with him. "An heiress of this family married Hele or Porter of Lancells. Lord de Dunstanville is descended from this family through the Heles. The Rev. R. G. Grylls is representative of the elder branch by the marriage of his ancestor with the heiress of Trevanion."—Tyson's Cornwall. They bore: Argent, a chevron between three fleurs de lis Gules.

Scarcely any traces are now to be seen of Lancells House, the splendid residence of the Chamonds. It had originally been "a cell of Austin canons, belonging to the Abbey of Hartland in Devonshire, which, in the year 1537, was leased, by King Henry VIII., to Sir John diamond."—Ibid.

William diamond of Sussex; and Richard diamond of Kent, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum of Ed. I.

Caperoun :

from chaperon, or hood.[117] Robert Caperon is mentioned in 1194 (Rotuli Curiae Regis): and another of the name in the reign of Henry I. (Rotuli Magnus Pipae.) in Berkshire. Walter Caperun was of Cumberland 3 John (Rotulis Cancellarii). In 1312 Nicholas Caperon was one of the burgesses returned for Huntingdon; and in 1327, Peter Caperon, refusing to obey the Commissioners of Array, the Sheriff of Sussex was commanded to take him into custody. Palgrave's Parl. Writs. Alexander Caperun, of Colne in Essex, appears in a deed of 1263. Roger Caperon, of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1189-90 (Rot. Pip.) John Caperon was rector of Rendlesham, in the latter county, in 1349: and "an old monument in the chancel of the church is supposed to have been erected to his memory. By his will he bequeathed his body to be buried before the image of St. Gregory, and gave 40s. towards making a tabernacle for the said image, and 10s. for erecting a cross, at the division of the King's highway, between Tunstall and Rendlesham."—Page's Suffolk. William Caperon was of Hertfordshire 1153-58 (Rot. Pip.). Many of the name appear in the Rotuli Hundredorum of Edward I.; where we find John and Robert Caperun in Kent; Nicholas and Stephen in Huntingdonshire; Alicia and Sibill in Bedfordshire, and Thomas in Oxfordshire. In Lincolnshire William Chaperun held Coleby by Royal grant in 1242, when "the jurors of the wapentake of Boothby found as follows: Willielmus Caperun tenet in Coleby tarn in dominico quam in homagis XIX. carucatas terre exdono d'ni Regis de terris Normannorum, sed nescitur per quod servicium tenet."—Stapleton's Rotuli Scaccariae Normanniae. The name is still found in Northamptonshire, where the Caprons of Stoke Doyle are now seated at Southwick Hall, near Oundle.

Three Caprons are entered in the Liber Niger, Jordan, of Umberley, holding two knights' fees of old feoffment of the Earl of Gloucester in Gloucestershire; Henry, holding part of one of Henry de Scaliers in Cambridgeshire; and Alan, holding the fourth part of one of Walter de Wahull in Bedfordshire. Again, we meet with this ubiquitous family in Herefordshire. William Caperon held some land at Mawardyn by the serjeanty of keeping the gate of the Castle of Hereford, and of having twelvepence a day of our Lord the King.—Plat. Coron. 20 Ed. I.

Cheine :

or Cheney. No name that I have had to deal with has puzzled my poor brains so effectually as this. In its present form it can only be an interpolation, as it is the fusion, in English parlance, of three perfectly distinct Norman names, De Cahaignes, De Quesnay, and De Chenduit; and, to add to the difficulties of the problem, has been sometimes confounded with De Chanceux. There is scarcely any part of England in which it is not to be met with; "a name so noble and so diffused in the Catalogue of Sheriffs," writes old Fuller, "it is harder to miss than to find it in any County;" and it has travelled across the Border into Scotland. None has suffered more from "the Epidemical disease to which many names are subject, to be variously written; to the staggering of many:

'The same they thought was not the same,
And in their name they sought their name.'"

Dugdale distinguishes the two first mentioned simply by a change in the first letter; thus, De Quesnay is Latinized as Caineto, and De Cahaignes as Kaineto. Other writers, however, furnish us with an almost illimitable supply of versions—Koine, Keynes, Chedney, Chesney, Chaauns, Canu, Kenys, Cheyne, &c. It is strange that they should never, even by inadvertence, have stumbled upon the right spelling.

This ubiquitous name is twice repeated on the Roll; once as Cheines, which, accepting Leland's reading, I take to be Cheinel; and again as Koine. I will here give what account I can of the De Quesnays, and treat of the De Cahaignes under Koine. Of Chenduit and Chanceux I have spoken elsewhere. (See p. 235, and Vol. III. p. 361.)

"Le Quesnai,[118] near St. Saens, was" (according to Mr. Stapleton) "apparently the fief from which this family had its name, and was held by Geoffrey de Say at the time of the acquisition of Normandy by the French monarch." M. de Gerville tells us of another Quesnay, in the canton of Montmartin-sur-mer, adjoining Trely, held by a single knight's fee, which was "en quenouille" (had fallen to female heirs) early in the thirteenth century. There is no remaining trace of any castle. From one or other of these fiefs—whichever it may have been—derived the Raoul and Osbern de Quesnai entered on the Dives Roll. Of the latter I can find no trace; the former is Dugdale's "Raphe de Caineto id. est Cheney," who "came into England with King William the Conqueror; but from him," he adds, "I have not seen any Descendants, other than Females."

Blomfield, in his county history, tells us that Ralph was Lord of Ling, &c, in Norfolk, and gave the manor of Coxford, where a priory was founded by one of his descendants, to Sibil his daughter in marriage. She was apparently his heiress, and the wife of Robert Fitz Walter, son of Walter de Caen or de Cadomo, one of the knights of Robert Malet, by whom he was enfeoffed of Horsford. He had there built his castle, and laid out around it a spacious park or chase, "in some deeds called the Forest of Horsford." Yet, though Sibil's husband was the heir to this barony, and himself the founder of Horsford Priory, their posterity invariably bore the the name of Cheney. They were hereditary Sheriffs of Norfolk and Suffolk, and had their caput baroniae at Horsford. "The river, by some call'd Bariden, in a long course, with its dinted and winding banks, comes to the Yare, by Attilbridge; leaving Horsford to the north, where the Castle of William de Casinet or de Cheney (who in the reign of Henry II. was one of the chief among the nobility) lies overgrown with bushes and brambles."—Camden.

This William, whom Blomfield in one passage calls Sibil's son; in another (far more probably) her grandson, "the son of Ralph," which would better accord with the dates; was the youngest of three brothers. Roger, the eldest, died s. p.; John, called Vicecomes or Sheriff, had no issue male; and William became Lord of Horsford, and a great potentate in the Eastern Counties. From his frequent residence at Norwich Castle, he was surnamed De Norwich. "King Stephen granted to him the hundred and half of Fourhow with the manor of Hingham, and the hundred of Taverham, in exchange for Moleham, &c.: and Henry II. gave him the lordship of Blyburgh by a charter dated at Lincoln." Sibton Abbey, co. Suffolk, was founded by him: and another religious house—Coxford, either by him or his brother John. By his wife Gilia, he left three daughters: i. Margaret, married first Hugh de Cressy, and secondly Robert Fitz Roger, Baron of Warkworth; 2. dementia, married Jordan de Sackville; and 3. Sarah, married to Richard Engaine. These were his co-heiresses; but Margaret, as the eldest, undeniably enjoyed the lion's share, for she was Lady of Horsford and Lady of Blyburgh. She had a son by each of her husbands: Roger de Cressy by the first, and John Fitz Roger by the second, whom she survived. At his death in 1216, she paid the King one thousand pounds—an enormous sum at that time—to "have livery of her own inheritance, to enjoy her dower, and not to be compelled to marry again." Her baronies passed to her eldest son Roger de Cressy, and when his posterity failed in 1262, to the Barons of Clavering, descended from her second son, John Fitz Roger.

Weir, in his History and Antiquities of Horncastle, speaks of an Adelias, daughter and heir of William de Cheney, Lord of Cavenby and Glentham, in Lincolnshire, in the time of the Conqueror. She married Roger de Conde or Cundy, and had an only child named Agnes, the wife of Walter Clifford of Clifford Castle, who "resided at her castle of Horncastle." But Camden tells us that "Hornecastle, sometime belonging to Adeliza de Conde, was laid even with the ground in King Stephen's reign; after that, it was a Barony of Gerard de Rodes, but now of the Bishops of Carlisle." It had been sold to Bishop Walter Mauclerk by Ralph de Rodes in the time of Henry III.

Perhaps the marriage of this heiress of the Cheney's may explain the tenure of Alexander de Cheney, who held Norton-Cheney, near Culmington in Shropshire, in 1231, of Walter de Clifford, to whom he was Seneschal. Cheney-Longville, in the same county, likewise bears the name of its former possessor.

My account of the wide-spread family of Cahaignes (see Koine) has of necessity been so diffuse, that I will here insert what little I have to tell of the Scottish Cheneys, whose origin I am unable to determine. Their arms, Azure three cross crosslets fitchee Argent, are entirely different from those borne by any of the three families to whom the name was indiscriminately applied. The chiefs of the house, who were "Magnatis Scotiae" at the time of the succession of the Maid of Norway, held the baronies of Inverugie and Duffus, and intermarried with the heiress of the principal house of Colville, and "one of the daughters who carried to strangers the great estates of the Freskins in Moray."—Douglas' Peerage of Scotland. The last was Sir Reginald Cheyne, who fell at Halidon Hill, leaving two co-heiresses, one of whom carried Inverugie to the Keiths; and the other brought Duffus to Alexander Sutherland, the ancestor of Lord Duffus. A younger branch then, succeeded as head of the family, the Cheynes of Esselmount, "a very ancient and once powerful house in the Garioch, which continued at least three hundred years longer. Sir Patrick Cheyne of Esselmount is mentioned in the seventeenth century. There was also a Cheyne of Stralock, whose daughter Christian was the wife of Sir Alexander Seton (obt. 1340). The "tower and manor of the Cheinys of Cleish, and the lands of Cheinysland and the Haltoun of Cleish," were granted in 1505 to Sir Robert Colville.

The last Sir Reginald is (according to Lord Hailes and Chalmers) traditionally known in Caithness as the "Morrar-na-Shean," and a mighty hunter of deer.

Curson :

from the fief of Courson, near Caen. Hubert de Courson ratifies a grant to the church of Ste. Marie-de-Courson in Normandy.—Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Normandie. A De Courson, belonging to the Bailifry of Orbec, took his place in the great Assembly of the Nobles in 1789.—Nobiliaire de Normandie.

Robert de Curcon or De Curcun—the only one of the family entered in Domesday—held as an under-tenant in Norfolk and Suffolk: and the name continued for many generations in the former county. Richard and William de Curcun occur in the Rotuli Curiae Regis 1194-99. Sir Roger de Curzon (whose armorial bearing, Checkere d'or et de sable ove une fesse d'argent, is given on the roll of the battle of Boroughbridge), and John de Courzon, were both summoned in 1324 to the great Council held at Westminster: and the latter was a Commissioner of Array in the following year. Thomas Coursoun was Sheriff of Norfolk 11 and 19 Ric. II.

None of the existing families, however, claim to derive from them. Their common ancestor, Giraline de Curzon, was Lord of Lockinge in Berkshire, a manor that long remained in the possession of the family, as Stephen de Curzon, Lord of West Lockinge, Berks, in 1316, is mentioned in Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Giraline was a benefactor of Abingdon Abbey, and, besides his Berkshire estate, had another in Oxfordshire, both of which he must have held very soon after the date of Domesday, as his three sons lived in the reign of Henry I. Stephen, the eldest, received from Earl Ferrers the Staffordshire manor of Fauld, which passed to his heir-general, Agnes de Burton; and Giraline, the last born, died s. p. Thus the second son, Richard, enfeoffed by the same Earl of four knight's fees in Croxhall, Kedleston, Twyford, and Edinhale in Derbyshire, became the head of the house, and first settled in the county that has been the home of the Curzons from that day to this. No family has ever better carried out the principle of one of their own mottoes, "Let Curzon hold what Curzon held"; for the estate acquired close upon eight hundred years ago remains unalienated and entire. They have faithfully clung to the old home and the old acres, and never sought to depart from the traditions of their forefathers, content to live as they lived, and lay their bones with theirs. "The land, a stranger to purchase, seems to rejoice, as never changing its master; and the Lord, as enjoying a permanent title, without one deed to support it."—Button's Derby.

Richard's grandson and namesake married Petronel, heiress of Richard de Camville, and was the common ancestor of the two branches that were respectively seated at Croxhall and Kedleston. The Croxhall branch, derived from the eldest of his sons, was carried on for fourteen generations, ending with Henry Curzon in 1639. His heiress was the daughter of his elder brother, Sir George, Mary, married to Ed. Sackville, fourth Earl of Dorset.[119] "A Lady," writes an effusive contemporary, "so fully adorned with such worthie parts of grace and nature, so noble, so wise, and so religious, that there is no goodness to be required in a Woman, which is not found in her: so that, not without good cause and advice by the united Council of the State, the greatest Treasure in this Kingdom was not long since delivered to her charge." This was Charles, Prince of Wales, who was placed under her care from his birth, in 1630.

About seventy years before, in the days of "fierce Queen Mary," another and less fortunate daughter of the house, Joyce Curzon, whose father was then Lord of Croxhall, had been burnt at the stake as a heretic at Coventry.

The younger, or Kedleston line, remains unbroken and unchanged. The name has been regularly transmitted by a succession of country gentlemen, all dwelling under the same patriarchal roof-tree, and carried out over the same threshold to their last resting-place. "The Curzons occasionally held the offices of sheriffs and representatives ever since those offices were instituted. They were Knights when the Crown wanted money, and Esquires when it did not, till 1641, when Sir John Curzon, perhaps for .£1000, brought the title of Baronet into the family; and George III., in 1761, advanced the present possessor to the dignity of Lord Scarsdale.

"The name of Curzon was famous for riches, and the place of their abode for hospitality.

"The house, the work of the present owner, and of thirty years, is one of the most superb of the kingdom. It is made whatever money or genius could make it. All the beauties that art can assemble are united in the building, the furniture, and the park! a terrestrial paradise, too delightful for a man to wish to quit, that he might follow his forefathers. * * * *

"Perhaps ,£200,000 lie under this spacious roof, consequently Lord Scarsdale sits at the rent of £10,000 a year! a rent that would perform wonders. To receive it, would make a man forget himself; to pay it, would make even a hero tremble."—Hutton's History of Derby[120] Ten thousand a year would scarcely be spoken of in such terms nowadays, when the purchasing power of money is so lamentably lessened. Yet, as regards public estimation, it probably stands as high, or higher, than it ever did.

Many younger branches have sprung from this ancient stock. Sir Robert Curzon, who represented one of them, and died s. p., was created a Baron of the Empire in 1500 by the Emperor Maximilian, and, according to Collins, an English Baron by Henry VIII.: but no such title is noticed either by Dugdale or Banks. Another, derived from Walter de Curzon (uncle of "John with the White Head," who was Sheriff of Notts and Derby 15 Hen. VI.), was seated at Water Perry in Oxfordshire, and received a baronetcy from Charles II. the year after his restoration. The third Baronet died childless in 1750; and his estate eventually passed to Francis Roper, Lord Teynham, who added the name and arms of Curzon to his own. A third, the Curzons of Letheringset in Norfolk, is likewise extinct. But two others, yet remaining, are each represented by a peer of the realm. The brother of the first Lord Scarsdale, Assheton (so named from his mother, the co-heiress of Sir Ralph Assheton of Middleton in Lancashire), was created Viscount Curzon in 1794. His son and heir married Sophia, in her own right Baroness Howe, the eldest daughter of Richard, Earl Howe, the illustrious Admiral, whose great victory off Rochefort we commemorate on "the glorious first of June." The Earldom was revived for his descendant in 1821. Lastly, Robert, third son of the first Viscount, married in 1808, Harriet Bisshop, Baroness Zouche, whose title is now borne by their grandson.

Couille :

Coinel, according to Leland. I find a "Willielmo de Covele" in the chartulary of Bicester Priory, Oxfordshire (Mon. Angl.). "De Coville" is among the names added by M. de Magny to the Dives Roll.—Nobiliaire de Normandie. According to Lysons, "the manor of Cowley Hall, in Middlesex, held under Colham, is called in old records Couele Hall, or Coveleshall." Philip de Couel is mentioned in the county in 1200.—Rotuli Curiae Regis. At the same date, William de Couele and his sister Alicia occur in Oxfordshire.—Ibid. This is probably the same William that witnesses one of the charters of Bicester, and appears in another part of the same register as William de Kouele. Philip de Couele, in Buckinghamshire, 1197, and Roger de Covele, with Margaret his wife, in Berkshire, 1202, are mentioned in the list of Hunter's "Fines." Reginald Couvil de Staxton and his wife Eve, occur in the chartulary of Fountains Abbey.—Burton's Mon. Ebor. Hoies de Covele, in Berkshire, and Mauger and Bartholomew de Covele in Buckinghamshire, William de Covele in Wiltshire, and Roger de Covele in Oxfordshire, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum of Edward I. William Covell of Aynderby-in-the-Myer, who died 27 Hen. VIII., and three generations of his descendants, are entered in Harrison's Yorkshire. "Philip de Covele, as appears by inquisition taken in the reign of Henry III., held one knight's fee in Holdenby and Ravensthorp of the Honour of Leicester."—Bridge's Northamptonshire.

Chaiters :

A family of the name of Chaytor, now represented by Sir William Chaytor, has existed for three hundred years in the county of Durham. They are said to have migrated thither from Cheshire; but nothing is really known of them till the middle of the sixteenth century, when Christopher Chaytor, the son of a merchant-adventurer of Newcastle, "who had been some time a retainer of the great Duke of Somerset, and had borne many honourable offices under the Crown and in the County Palatine," bought the old moated manor house of Butterby (the Beautrove of the Norman De Audreys), and married the heiress of Clervaux. One of his great-grandsons, Col. Henry Chaytor, was governor of Bolton Castle under the commission of Prince Rupert, and held it gallantly to the last extremity; another, William (created a baronet in 1671) was forced to sell the whole of the Chaytor estate, and died a prisoner in the Fleet, where he had spent seventeen years of his life. He had survived all his thirteen children; and with him, his title became extinct; but a second baronetcy was granted to the family in 1831.

I do not, however, believe this to be the name here intended: for it seems, to say the least, improbable that a family, dating as far back as the Conquest, should receive its first grant of arms five hundred years afterwards. I take Leland's version, Chartres, as the true reading, and think we ought to substitute an r for the i that has been inserted by some accidental error.

Of the antiquity of the house of Chartres there can be no manner of doubt. Raoul de Chartres is entered on the Dives Roll, and as Ralph Carnotensis, held estates in Leicester in 1086 (Domesday). "Ralph, son of Robert de Chartres (a man of some eminency at the time as I apprehend by the stile of the deed) in Henry II.'s time confirms some land at Stretton to the canons of Erdbury."—Dugdale's Warwickshire. Walter de Chartres, of Lincoln, occurs in the Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1199, and John de Chartres, of the same county, in the time of Edward I.—Rotuli Hundredorum. Alan de Chartres, of Huntingdon, was his contemporary (Ibid.). Whiteparish, in Wiltshire, is called, previously to 1297, "terrarum Andreae de Chartres." Ralph de Chartres, in 1316, was one of the Lords of Graffham and Ware, Huntingdonshire; Roger de Chartres was summoned for military service in 1322, and served in 1344 as one of the knights of the shire for Huntingdon (Palgrave's Parl. Writs). I find in Bridge's Northamptonshire that the above named Alan married Joan, daughter of Bruna, daughter and coheir of Ralph de St. Sampson, who brought him half the manor of Grafton,[121] which was purchased of them in 1279 by their son Roger. Roger had two children, Peter and Elizabeth;—the last of the name that are mentioned in the county.

In Scotland we find the family flourishing as early as the days of Malcolm Canmore. Robert de Chartres lived in his reign, and, some time before 1170, witnessed one of the grants of his successor, William the Lion, to Kelso. The names of his son Walter and grandson Thomas are preserved in a charter of his great-grandson, a second Sir Robert, to the same monastery. Sir Robert's son, Sir Thomas, was appointed Lord High Chancellor of Scotland by Alexander III. and sent to France to negotiate the marriage that was to be frustrated by the King's untimely death. The next heir, Andrew, took the oath of allegiance to Edward I. with his son William in 1296; but shortly afterwards changed sides; for in the same year his barony of Amisfield in Dumfriesshire, with some other lands of his, were granted to Guy de Beauchamp, having been forfeited by "nostre enemy e rebel en le Reaume de Escoce." By this time the house of Chartres had grown to fair proportions, for I find that in 1296 both Robert de Chartres and Osbern de Chartres, holding lands in other Scottish counties, swore fealty to the English crown. One branch of the family remained seated at Kinfauns in Perthshire, till at least the fifteenth century. The barony of Cuthilgurdy, Corsewoull, Lochtoun, &c, are mentioned among their possessions; and, after the battle of Halidon Hill, one of the five strong castles that held out for David Bruce was Lochmaben, under Patrick de Chartres. None of these are found on the Amisfield pedigree.

Andrew's grandson, Sir Thomas de Chartres of Amisfield, was again Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and twice sent on an embassy to England by David Bruce. He went thither a third time with his master on the calamitous expedition of 1346, and was slain at the battle of Durham. From him the barony of Amisfield was transmitted by regular succession of father to son for nine descents, till, in the latter years of the seventeenth century, it passed to the daughter of Thomas Charteris.[122] She married John Hogg, and her descendants discreetly adopted her name.

Thomas, and his younger brother John, were the two sons of a Sir John who had been incarcerated in Edinburgh Castle for joining the loyalists under Montrose: and John was the father of the last male representative of his house. This Col. Francis Charteris was a disgrace and reproach to the ancient name he bore. His character is summed up in the following Epitaph, written by one of his contemporaries:

"Here lies the body of Colonel Don Francisco, who, with an inflexible constancy, and inimitable uniformity of life, persisted, in spite of age and infirmity, in the practice of every human vice, except prodigality and hypocrisy; his indefatigable avarice exempting him from the first, and his matchless impudence from the latter. Nor was he more singular in that undeviating viciousness of life, than successful in accumulating wealth; having, without trust of public money, bribe, worth, service, trade, or profession, acquired, or rather, created, a ministerial estate. Among the singularities of his life and fortune be it likewise commemorated, that he was the only person in his time who would cheat without the mask of honesty: who could retain his primeval meanness after being possessed of ,£10,000 a year, and who having done, every day of his life, something worthy of a gibbet, was once condemned to one for what he had not done. Think not, indignant reader, his life useless to mankind: Providence favored, or rather connived, at his execrable designs, that he might remain, to this and future ages, a conspicuous proof and example of how small estimation exorbitant wealth is held in the sight of the Almighty, by his bestowing it on the most unworthy of all the descendants of Adam."

He made his fortune where other men lost theirs—on the race-course and at the gambling table; and though "often detected and severely chastised" for his nefarious transactions, succeeded in raking together very considerable sums of money, and purchasing various estates—some of them from the Duke of Wharton. To one property near Edinburgh he gave the name of Amisfield, from the old barony in Dumfriesshire. His life was notoriously and scandalously licentious: [123] and he was twice sentenced to death for outraging a woman; once in 1721, when he received a free pardon from George I.: and again eight years afterwards; only escaping on this second occasion through the earnest intercession of his son-in-law Lord Wemyss. He died in 1731, "a hoary veteran in iniquity" at the age of fifty-six, bequeathing his entire fortune to the second son of his only child, Janet Countess of Wemyss, on condition that he adopted the name and arms of Charteris. Francis Wemyss accordingly became Francis Charteris; and on the death of his elder brother, David Lord Elcho, who had been attainted for joining in the Jacobite rising of 1745, succeeded as fifth Earl of Wemyss. He is now represented by another Francis Charteris, the ninth bearer of the title.

Cheines :

Here, again, I am disposed to adopt Leland's rendering, and read Cheinel—a name of very ancient date in this country. It was probably taken from Quesnel, in Normandy. By a curious coincidence (if it be nothing more) the English Chenels had almost precisely the same coat of arms as the Norman Du Quesnays. The latter bore "Pale d'argent et de gueules, au chef d'azur, charge d'une molette d'eperon d'or, accoste de deux merlettes de meme f and the former, Paly of six, Argent and Azure; on a chief Or three martlets Gules.

I first met with them in Leicestershire, where "I find," says Nichol (quoting Mr. Burton), "by an old deed, that in the latter end of the reign of Henry III. Walter Cheynell was Lord of Cat-thorpe; and in the time of Edward I., Peter Chaynel and Simon Mallore held the town between them. Peter, in 1279, held of the honour of Verdon. Their ancestor, Roger de Cheinel, and others, gave the manor of Pentling-Parva to Merevalle Abbey in Warwickshire (founded by Robert Earl of Ferrers in 1148) which this house enjoyed in the reign of King Henry II., as is vouched by the Register of that Abbey. Sutton Cheynell" (again in Leicestershire) "took its name from a rich farmer who in the time of Henry II. was tenant to the Abbey of Croyland."

The name existed in several other counties. Robert Keinel was living 1184-99 (Rot. Curiae Regis). William Cheynell was of Oxfordshire, temp. Ed. I. (Rot. Hundred). John Chainel was several times Clerk of the Council to Parliament (1311-1324); and in 1314 was one of the Judges of Assize for the county of Lincoln.—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Gatton-Keynell, in Wiltshire, bears the name of a family that was still to be found there in 1433, when Richard Caynell appears on a list of the resident gentry. The first mention of them in the county is as early as the twelfth century, for Gervase Chaisnel is entered on the Great Roll of the Pipe of 1155-1158.

Lower (somewhat unaccountably) includes in his Worthies of Sussex Dr. Francis Cheynell, one of the sour Puritan divines of the seventeenth century, who was presented by the Parliament to the valuable living of Petworth. When, in 1644, Chillingworth, author of the once famous work, The Religion of Protestants a safe way to Salvation, was taken prisoner among Lord Hopton's followers at Arundel Castle, lodged in the Bishop's palace at Chichester, and there died, Cheynell, who had shown him some attention while living, was asked to perform the funeral service. He positively declined; "but though he refused to bury his body, he thought it very fitting to bury the book. For this purpose he met Chillingworth's friends at the grave, with the Religion of Protestants in his hand, and after a short preamble, uttered the following passionate tirade: 'Get thee gone, thou cursed book, which hast seduced so many precious souls; get thee gone, thou corrupt, rotten book—earth to earth, and dust to dust! Get thee gone into the place of rottenness, that you mayest rot with thine author, and see corruption!' He then withdrew to his own congregation, and preached from the text 'Let the dead bury their dead.'"—Lower.

Cateray :

"Onfroi et Maugier de Cartrai."—Wace. Sir Richard Charteray was of Beere-Charteray in the time of Coeur de Lion.—Pole's Devon. This family came from Carteret, in the arrondissement of Valognes. "Of Humphrey and Maugier, the companions of the Conqueror, nothing is known but their names. That of Roger is added by modern compilers. Regnaud de Carteret, son of an earlier Humphrey, accompanied Duke Robert the Magnificent to the Holy Land in 1035."—Planche. Geoffroi, Sire de Carteret, the son of Gui L'Oiseleur, founded the Norman abbey of Fontenelles, and is said to have been the father of the two Carterets who were at the Conquest. Du Moulins mentions Reginald de Carteraye among the followers of Robert Curthose at the taking of Jerusalem under Godfrey de Bouillon; and gives the arms that he bore Gules a Fesse fusillee Argent, which exactly correspond with those of the English Carterets. According to the family genealogy, their first recognized ancestor, Philip de Carteret, was his son.

This Sir Philip, in addition to his barony of Carteret, had considerable possessions in the "fair orchards of the sea" that lay opposite to it. He owned land in Guernsey, where, in obedience to a vow made in imminent danger of shipwreck, he built the church of Torteval in 1129, and held "Le Grand Fief Haubert de St. Ouen" in Jersey, with the charge of the island fortresses. It was a closely and constantly contested post of honour, but the trust was nobly and faithfully fulfilled by generation after generation of his descendants. They lost Carteret at the cession of Normandy in 1204; and another Philip, whom Henry III. had appointed joint-Governor of the Channel Islands with Amaury de St. Amand, had license in 1234 to go to the French King and try if he could regain his lands. But he found this could only be accomplished at the price—which he would not pay—of his allegiance to England. During the wars of the following century two Sir Reginalds de Carteret, father and son, successively defended the castle of Mont Orgueil against the French. The father was twice besieged, twice beat off his assailants, and lost his life in 1341 at the re-capture of Guernsey, which had been seized by the King of France three years before. The son had the rare honour of repulsing Bertrand du Guesclin himself. The great Constable "eyed the islands," in the words of D'Argentre, "as la retraicte seure des Anglois"; from whence they made their descents on the coast of Brittany, where he was then carrying on the war; and suddenly swooped down upon Jersey with a force of ten thousand men. He brought with him the Due de Bourbon and the flower of French chivalry, and, easily overrunning the island, sat down before its famous stronghold. But Mont Orgueil defied both sap and assault; for Sir Reginald held out even after a part of the walls had been thrown down; till, pressed for supplies, he agreed to surrender if not relieved by Michaelmas-day. Before this term had expired, the English fleet hove in sight, and the French retreated to the mainland. For this signal service, he and his seven sons were all knighted on the same day. In the beginning of Edward IV.'s reign Sir Philip de Carteret, with the English fleet under Sir Richard Harliston, recaptured Mont Orgueil from Pierre de Maulevrier, High Seneschal of Normandy, to whom it had been granted by Margaret of Anjou. This Sir Philip's son died before him, and his grandson was in ward to the King for eighteen years, and when he came of age found his heritage so ill cared for that "elder trees did grow in his hall, and other places of his manor house." He married the sole heiress of the gallant Admiral who had fought with Sir Philip, Margaret Harlistone, of whom the following story is told: He had been accused of treason on the evidence of a forged letter, and imprisoned in Mont Orgueil till he could clear his fame by the customary trial by combat, appointed for St. Lawrence's Day. But the Governor, whom he had taxed with some malpractices, was his secret enemy. He was stinted of food, to unfit him for the coming conflict; the side of the lists from which he was to do battle was studded with pitfalls, and his wife, dreading the result, determined to go herself to the King and ask for his liberation. It was then midwinter; she had been brought to bed of one of her many children four days before, and could only leave the island by stealth; yet she courageously put off in an open boat, with a single attendant, to cross the sea to England. It was a desperate venture, but she arrived in safety, made her way to Salisbury, where Henry VII. was then holding his Court, obtained an audience, and pleaded her cause so well that she returned in triumph to Jersey, before the appointed day, with a writ under the Great Seal reinstating her husband. This hardy and dauntless dame was the mother of nineteen (some say twenty) sons and two daughters. Helias Carteret, her grandson, was rewarded by Queen Elizabeth for his services against the French with a grant of the entire island of Sark, where his successor, Sir Philip, "planted a colony." Another Sir Philip received a baronetcy from Charles II. in 1670; and the elder line of the Carterets terminated in 1715 with his son, who bequeathed St. Ouen, La Trinite, &c, to the heir male of his house, John Carteret, Earl Granville.

This younger branch had been founded by Sir George Carteret, Governor of Jersey, "a man of great eminency and reputation in naval command," who, on the breaking out of the Civil War, was appointed Vice-Admiral of the Fleet by the Parliament. He refused to accept the post, and retired to Jersey, where he was very active in the Royal cause, and opened his house to such of the King's friends who were driven out of England. The Prince of Wales, with a great train, was for a short time his guest in 1646; and the Chancellor Hyde (afterwards Lord Clarendon) spent twenty-five months under his roof, engaged in writing his History. After the execution of his Royal master, he at once proclaimed Charles II.; and the new King, perplexed where to go, as no Court in Europe seemed willing to receive him, remembered Sir George and the loyal islanders that had welcomed him three years before, and returned to Jersey, landing on the only spot of English ground where he could set foot in safety. He brought with him the Duke of York, and a retinue of not less than three hundred persons, all of whom were entertained by Sir George from September, 1649, till the latter end of the following March. The King spent his time in riding about the island, and grew so familiar with its geography that he drew out a map of it with his own hand. The year after his departure, Cromwell sent out a large fleet under Admiral Blake to reduce Jersey, with a body of troops under General Haines. They effected a landing, and captured the harbour fort, St. Aubin, and the venerable and dilapidated Mont Orgueil, without much difficulty. But Sir George shut himself up in Elizabeth Castle, then the residence of the Governor, and though the King sent him word that he must not look for relief, swore that it should be the last of all the Royal garrisons to surrender. And he made good his words; for his defence "was worthy of his courage and of the cause," and after holding out for two months, he only capitulated when his provisions ran short in the last days of December, 1651. He then proceeded to join the King at Paris, followed him in all his wanderings, and at the Restoration rode with him into London on his triumphant entry. He was Vice-Chamberlain of his Household, and Treasurer of the Navy, and died at a good old age in 1679, while the patent of his Barony was being made out. His eldest son, who was married to Lady Jemima Montagu, had then been dead seven years; having perished with his father-in-law, Lord Sandwich, in his ship, the 'Royal James,' during the great sea fight in Solebay. He left as his heir a little child, for whom the careful grandfather, "thinking it prudent to provide in his life time to keep up the honour of his name," arranged a marriage with the youngest daughter of his old and dear friend John Granville Earl of Bath. This little Lady Grace, who was married in 1674 to a boy of eight years old, lived to become one of the co-heiresses of her nephew the last Earl, who died childless in 1711; and was created Viscountess Carteret and Countess Granville in 1714. This was many years after the death of her husband, who—premature in all things—was made Lord Carteret when he was not more than fifteen, and died at the age of twenty-six.

Their son, John Earl Granville, was a distinguished statesman in the time of the two first Georges, and became chief minister after the fall of Walpole in 1742. "No one," says Lord Stanhope, "ever combined in a more eminent degree the learning of a scholar with the talents of a statesman. He might have lectured upon public law. He might have taken his seat in a synod, and taught the Canonists. Yet in public life no rust of pedantry ever dimmed his keen and brilliant intellect." "They say Lord Granville is dying," writes Lord Chesterfield to his son. "When he dies, the ablest head in England dies too, take it for all in all." Six modern languages were familiar to him, and he was particularly acceptable to George I. as the only one of his ministers who could speak German. But he combined with his abilities and acquirements "a careless, lolling, laughing, love of self and of epicurean ease" that rarely admitted of their being called into action for long together, and a fondness for wine that earned for his Government the nickname of the "Drunken Administration." "He is never sober," says Horace Walpole in one of his letters, "and his rants are amazing, but so are his parts and spirit." On coming into office he declared that England could only be governed by corruption. He remained in power two years, and in 1851 became, as President of the Council, the colleague of his old opponents. He died in 1763, having been twice married; the last time to a young beauty, Lady Sophia Fermor, whose love-letters he used to insist upon reading to his colleagues in Council; and left one son, with whom his titles expired in 1776. This last Earl Granville devised his estates to the second son of his sister Louisa, Viscountess Weymouth, Henry Thynne, who took his name and arms, and was created Baron Carteret in 1784, with remainder to the younger sons of the elder brother, Thomas, first Marquess of Bath. He died at ninety-one, unmarried; and his nephews, Lord George and Lord John Thynne, successively inherited the barony; but neither of them left heirs, and the last died in 1849.

Cherecourt :

or Chevercourt: De Caprecuria. "Turold de Chevercourt was enfeoffed of Wyfordby, co. Leicester and Carleton, co. Notts, by Roger de Busli, Baron of Tickhill in Yorkshire, and also Lord of Blyth, Notts. Turold held them in 1805."—Nichols' Leicestershire. His son Alfred Fitz Turold was the father of Ralph de Chevercourt, who founded a small monastery in his park at Carlton; Walter de Chevercourt, to whom Henry I. granted a charter of his lands "to hold freely, as his father had held them," and another son who died s. p. Ralph, who apparently was the elder of the two, held of the honour of Tickhill, and his line ended with his son Jordan, who married Alice (or Avice), daughter of Randal, sheriff of Notts and Derby 2 Hen. II., and left three co-heiresses. Audrey de Chevercourt married Robert St. Quintin; her sister Lettice, Ranulph de Newmarch; and Isabel, the youngest, Robert de Furneaux. Walter's posterity was of much longer continuance. From him are counted six successive generations, to Robert, living in the time of Edward III., whose estate was divided between his two daughters, Alice, a spinster, and Joan, who had two husbands, John de Shepey, and John Philipotts of Helpringham. It is evident, however, that collateral descendants remained, for John de Chevercourt occurs in 1467.

Cammile :

Geoffrey de Chamel was one of the sub-feoffees of Bertram de Verdon in Staffordshire (Liber Niger). Twenty-four years later, "Girardus d' Camul" is mentioned in Richard Coeur de Lion's grant of the Earldom of Sadberge as holding two knight's fees in Lincolnshire.—Surtees' Durham. In Dorsetshire, Robert Camel held half a knight's fee of the Bishop of Salisbury in Sherborne; and a charter, sans date, of William Earl of Gloucester "testifies that Ralph de Chamel, a man of the Abbot of Tewkesbury, did before him at Tewkesbury quit claim to a hide of land in Ceotel" (Chettle) "which his father formerly sold to them, declared that he had given them unjust vexation, and that, when a youth, as heir to his father, he confirmed the sale, at which he was present. The said Ralph, and William his son and heir swore on the gospels, in the chapter-house of Tewkesbury, that neither they nor their heirs would at any time vex them on account of the said land."'—Hutchins' Dorset. Thomas Camel represented the borough of Shaftesbury in Parliament several times under Richard II. and Henry IV.; and John Cammel, in 1433, was one of "the considerable men in the county, able to dispend £12 per annum." During the previous reign, Robert Camyl had acquired Shapwick-Plecy, or Cammels, through his wife Joan, sister and heir of John Plecy; and it was successively held by his son, grandson, and great-grandson; the latter dying s. p. in 1505. They gave as, their arms Argent a chevron between three camels Sable.[124]

The name is to be found in several other counties. Tor Bryan, in Devonshire, "in the age of Henry III." was held by Richard Cammel of Guy de Bryan.—Pole's Devon. William Camel occurs there in the Rotuli Hundredorum about 1272. John de Kammel was joint sheriff of Essex 53 Hen. III. "D'n's Ricardus Camel" had the Great Seal entrusted to him by the King in 1321, to be carried to Queen Isabel."—Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs. Thomas Camul, in 1642, gave some land that twelve poor persons of Walthamstow might receive a penny loaf every Sunday, and a benefaction at Christmas.—Morant's Essex. Some Cammels seated in Norfolk bore Gironne of 8, Or and Sable, a crescent Argent.

Clerenay :

or Clarvays, as it is more correctly spelt in Duchesne's copy, from Clerfai, Clarefay, or Clairfait, near Avesnes. Godric de Clairfait, supposed to be the son of the Ketelbern or Chetelber mentioned in Domesday, who was living in Yorkshire during the reign of Henry I., was the ancestor of the Fitz-williams. His son, William, became the second husband of the great heiress Albreda de Lizours; and, according to Hunter, "was one of the most considerable persons in these parts of England before his marriage with Albreda. It can scarcely admit of a doubt that he is the same William de Clairfagio or de Clairfait who appears in one charter as Albreda's husband, and whose full description was Willielmus de Clarofagio filius Godrici." He was Lord of Elmley before she brought him Sprotburgh and Plumptre; and had himself been previously married; for some time before 1156 he and Alicia de Tanai his wife jointly founded Hampole Priory (Mon. i. 831). His daughter by her married one of the Tillis. He took part with Stephen; and in 1142 we are told by John, Prior of Hagulstad, that he had escaped from Randolf, Earl of Chester, and betaken himself to Tickhill Castle. Albreda, who survived him, brought him a daughter and a son, William Fitz William, who is represented, on horseback and armed cap-a-pie, on the seal affixed to a charter which he granted to the monks of Byland in 1217. Collins says that he married Ella, daughter of' Hameline Earl of Warren; but an inspeximus of Hampole recognizes a charter of his confirming an annual rent of 20s. for a pittance to find oil for the lamps burning day and night at the tomb of Maud, formerly his wife, who had been buried in the church of the monastery."—Ibid. He joined the barons who rose in arms against King John, though he returned to his allegiance under Henry III.; and his son Thomas, who succeeded not many years after the accession of the latter, and continued in possession through nearly the whole of that long reign, also fought on the baronial side at the battle of Chesterfield, where he was taken prisoner in 1266. His wife was a Bertram heiress; and "his son is more frequently found as Sir William Fitz Thomas than as Sir William Fitz William; for as a surname that does not appear to have been adopted till the son of a Sir John Fitz William, about a century later, called himself Fitz William.—Ibid. His son, another Sir William, was hanged at Pontefract in 1322, having been" with the Earl of Lancaster at Burton when he disputed the passage of the river with the King, and afterwards at the fight of Boroughbridge, where he was taken prisoner. Sir William, the father, was then still alive, and according to Dugdale, had summons to Parliament in 1327, but Nicolas says the summons was not to Parliament, but to attend the King with horse and arms."—Ibid. It was certainly never repeated to the next heir, John, who died of the pestilence in 1349.

One of John's younger sons, Edmond Fitz William, was the father of Sir Richard, who married the heiress of the Clarells, and settled in their old home at Aldwark. Sir Thomas, the next in succession, soared to a higher flight of fortune, for he was matched with the fourth of the five great heiresses that shared the princely possessions of the last Marquess of Montague, Lady Lucy Nevill, who brought him Cowdray as her portion. According to Collins, they had a family of three sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Thomas, and his brother John both fell at Flodden Field; but the other, Sir William, was the brilliant Earl of Southampton that figured so gallantly in the reign of Henry VIII. He was first knighted for good service at the siege of Tournay, being then one of the esquires of the body to the king,[125] and rapidly advanced in the favour and estimation of his master; for we presently find him Vice-Admiral of England, Captain of Guisnes in Picardy, and sent with the Duke of Norfolk to arrange a marriage for the King's daughter, the Lady Elizabeth, with a young French prince. In 1536, being then Treasurer of the Household, a Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Admiral of England, Wales, Ireland, Normandy, Gascony, and Acquitaine, he received his Earldom, and was afterwards named Lord Privy Seal. He died at Newcastle in 1543, while on his march to Scotland, leading the van of the English army; and to mark the esteem in which his memory was held, his banner was borne on in its place of honour throughout the ensuing campaign. He had married Anne Clifford, a sister of the first Earl of Cumberland, but left no children, and Cowdray passed to his half brother, Sir Anthony Brown. (See Browne.)

The elder line, that remained seated in Yorkshire, had ended some thirty years before with a Sir William Fitz William; and the estates went to his two daughters, Marjory, married to Thomas Suthill (and then through her only child Elizabeth to Sir Henry Savile): and Dorothy, the wife of Sir William Copley, whose descendants still hold Sprotborough. "When the male line of the Fitz Williams became extinct 8 Hen. VIII., the nearest male heir was the descendant of Ralph Fitz William, described as Captain of Salva Terra, a French castle committed to him in the reign of Henry VI. These, for three generations, carried on a war with the heirs general for the possession of Sprotborough; and the evidence they collected was transcribed in 1565 by Hugh Fitz William in a MS. volume still preserved by the family. On the title page is the figure of a woodman, with a scroll proceeding from his mouth, bearing these lines,

"No marvell though I be wode,
Which am berevid of lande and goode."—Ibid.

This Hugh, who accuses Sir Henry Savile of having burnt "three great Bagges of evidence of the Fitz-Williams," devoted much time and labour to the investigation of his pedigree, "the which," he says, "accordith with th' olde and newe Testament, to mayntayne antiquity, nobility, and birthright." But he lived in the days of the imaginative Elizabethan heralds, to whom we owe so many fanciful genealogies; and the one produced for him, duly certified by the three Kings of Arms, and subscribed by eleven gentlemen of his blood and name, does no discredit to its parentage. It makes his ancestor Fitz-Godric, who fought for Stephen in 1135, a cousin of Edward the Confessor's, and sent by him on an embassy to the Duke of Normandy, at whose court he remained until he returned with the expedition of 1066 as Marshal of the invading army, receiving a scarf of honour for his gallantry at Hastings. "Among the archives at Milton is a scarf of fine lawn edged with silver, in which the successive heirs to the house are enveloped when presented for baptism, with which has descended a tradition that it was given by the Conqueror from his own arm at the battle of Hastings to the first of the Gens Gulielmiadum who was his Marescallus exercitus."[126]—Ibid. It seems an unlikely garment for William to have worn over his hauberk of mail; and "we need hardly look in the Bayeux Tapestry to prove that the Duke who knew so well how to wield his mace of iron did not cumber his arms with any frippery of scarves on the day of the great battle."—Freeman. To aid this violent transposition of time, Hugh and his genealogists take sundry liberties with the dates. They alter that of the charter granted to Bywell by Albreda's son William from 1217 to 1117 (vide Hunter); and entirely ignore the fact that Albreda brought Sprotborough as her dower, asserting that it had belonged to her husband's two immediate predecessors.

One of these ancient Lords of Sprotborough set up a cross on the marketplace, bearing the following hospitable inscription:

"Whoso is hungry and list well eate,
Let him come to Sprotburgh to his meate;
And for a nyghte and for a daye
His horse shall have both come and hay,
And no man shall aske him where he goith away."[127]

The last line is suggestive; and it should be observed that entertainment for man and beast is only proffered during twenty-four hours, lest the host should be made responsible for the good behaviour of the stranger whom he had welcomed to his house. "It carries us back to the times of our early Norman kings, if not to a period before the Conquest, when among the laws respecting hospitality, a very important virtue in a rude state of society, there was one which regulated the time during which a man might take up his residence as a stranger in a place distant from his own domicile. In the laws of the Conqueror it is expressed thus: 'Nemo alterum recipiat ultra III. noctes nisi is eum illi commendaverit, qui ejus fuerit amicus:' which was plainly copied from one of Canute: 'Nemo alterum suscipiat diutius quam tres dies, nisi ille cui antea servivit eum commendaverit.' Blount has preserved a curious Saxon fragment on this subject:

'Forman night, uncuth;
Twa night, guest;
Third night, awn hynde.'

The meaning of which is, that if a stranger rested only one night, he was to be regarded as a man unknown; if two nights, he became a guest; but if three nights, he was to be considered as an inhabitant, and the master of the house was to be answerable for him as for the other members of his household. There was a very ancient highway from Mexborough through Sprotborough to the great North road at Doncaster Bridge."—Ibid.

One of the eleven deluded kinsmen that affixed their signatures to Hugh's pedigree was William Fitzwilliam of Milton, Knight, the ancestor of the present Earl. He stands first on the list, as "the eldest brother of that house," which had then been seated for several generations in Northamptonshire. His father was in the service of Cardinal Wolsey, and when his old master fell into disgrace, gave him "kind entertainment" at Milton. For this offence the King summoned him to his presence, and demanded "how he durst entertain so great an enemy to the State? He answered, that he had not contemptuously or wilfully done it in disobedience to his Majesty, but only as the Cardinal had been his master, and partly the means of his greatest fortunes. At which answer the King was so well pleased, that, saying he had few such servants, he immediately knighted him, and made him one of his Privy Council."—Collins.

Sir William himself spent between thirty and forty years of his life in Ireland, having been five times one of the Justiciaries, and three times Lord Deputy and Commander-in-Chief, always proving himself a faithful and prudent administrator. "His vigilance," says Sir John Davis, "was very conspicuous in the memorable year 1588, when the routed Armada, in its return, dared not to land in Ireland, except against their wills driven by tempest, when they found the shore worse than the sea for them." As Constable of Fotheringay, he had for some time the custody of Mary Queen of Scots; and the day before she was beheaded, she gave him, for a keepsake, the portrait of her son, in recognition of the courtesy and consideration he had shown in all his dealings with her. He died in 1599. His grandson and namesake was created in 1620 Baron Fitzwilliam of Lifford in Ireland; and the third Lord received the additional titles of Viscount Miltown, co. Westmeath, and Earl Fitzwilliam, co. Tyrone, in 1716. An English Earldom followed in 1746, with a duplicate Viscountcy, Milton in Northamptonshire (the identical name with the omission of one letter). These were granted to the third Earl, who, two years before, had married Lady Anne Watson-Wentworth, eldest daughter of the first Marquess of Rockingham, and sister of the well-known minister who formed "the Rockingham Administration," of which Charles James Fox and Edmund Burke formed a part. On his death in 1782 the Marquessate became extinct, and the principal part of the great Wentworth estates, including Malton and Wentworth Woodhouse, passed to his nephew William, fourth Earl Fitzwilliam, who added the name of Wentworth to his own. Wentworth House had been the favourite seat of the great Earl of Strafford, who, in his earlier and happier days, delighted in "the petty and innocent pastimes" of a country life; and passed, on the death of his only male heir in 1695, to his grandson Thomas Watson, the third son of his eldest daughter, Lady Anne, who had married the second Lord Rockingham. It had been pulled down and rebuilt on a grandiose scale by the first Marquess, who constructed a vast Italian palace, with a facade six hundred feet long, a great portico in the centre, and a gallery copied from that of the Colonna Palace at Rome, and measuring one hundred and eighty feet, on the first floor. It is a treasury of works of art, and contains what are probably the finest and moat interesting Van Dycks in England.

A branch of this family, bearing the same beautiful coat, had been settled in Ireland as early, it is believed, as the reign of King John; though the pedigree only actually begins with an Edward Fitzwilliam, temp. Ed. II., whose son William was the builder and first Constable of Wicklow Castle. Their earliest possession was Thorncastle, where Philip Fitzwilliam built a fort in the time of Henry VI., but they subsequently held Merrion, Bray, and Baggotrath, co. Dublin, and in 1629 Sir Thomas (son of a Sir Richard who had been Lord Warden of the Marches of Leinster) was created Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion. On the breaking out of the great Rebellion, he hurried to Dublin to offer his services to the Crown, but being a Roman Catholic, he found them rejected, and had to repair to England in order to join the Royalist army. Charles I. granted him an Earldom at Oxford in 1645; but as the Great Seal had at that time passed out of the possession of the unhappy King, the patent could never be perfected. His son Oliver, a Lieutenant-General under the Marquess of Ormonde, was, however, created Earl of Tyrconnel three years after the Restoration, and died s. p.; his brother William succeeding to the Viscountcy only in 1667. The line ended with the great-grandson of this William, Richard, seventh Viscount, in 1816; and the estates passed to the children of his sister, Mary Countess of Pembroke.

Curly :

seated at Budbrook in Warwickshire, where Robert de Curli held an estate by grant from Geoffrey de Clinton. "Of John his son, the first mention I find is that for adhering to the King's enemies in 6 John he had all his lands seized upon. This was (as I guess) for deserting him in Normandy, where upon ensued the totall loss of that Dutchy; for in the Record of 33 Hen. III. Budbroke is said to be de terra Normannorum; but these lands so seized did William Curly, brother to the said John, obtain from the King, for C marks fine and a palfrey. Which William became eminently employ'd in his time."—Dugdale. His seal of arms bears a label with four points standing in the place of a Bend sinister. His son—another William—left only two daughters: Alice, the wife of Peter de Nevill; and Joan, married (52 Hen. III.) to Robert Hastang. Two Warwickshire manors—Norton Curli (alias Norton inferior) and Hampton Curli—keep the name. There was a branch in Leicestershire that continued somewhat later. The manor of Carleton, held by Hugh de Grentemesnil at the date of Domesday, afterwards became the property of the Curlys or Curlieus, and was named from them Carlton Curlewe. The last heir male, Robert de Curly, died in 1274.—Nichols. The first mentioned of the family is John de Curli, who occurs in 1199 in Palgrave's Rotuli Curiae Regis.

Cuily :

from Cuilly or Quilly, near Falaise, in Normandy, which formed part of the possessions of the Burdetts. "Robert Bordet, Lord of Cuily, came to England with the Conqueror, but was dead before 1086, when his widow held from Hugh de Grentemesnil in Lincolnshire (Dom. i. 232 b.) His son, Hugh, had issue: 1. Robert de Cuilly; and 2. Walter de Cuilly. The elder son, Sire de Cuilly, married Sibylla, daughter of William de Chievre, a baron of Devon; and on undertaking to rebuild the city of Tarragona in Spain, and to defend it against the Saracens, obtained the suzerainty, with the title of Prince of Tarragona. He, in 1133, at the head of his Norman chivalry, rescued Alfonso King of Arragon and his army from destruction by the Saracens at the battle of Fraga. William, Sire d'Aguillon, his son, one of the barons in Normandy 1165 (Feod. Norm.), lost the principality of Tarragona in consequence of the accidental death of the Archbishop, which was attributed to him. He appears to have been succeeded by Manasser d'Aguillon, his brother, ancestor of the De Cuillys of Normandy. Walter de Cuilly, brother of the first Prince of Tarragona, witnessed the foundation charter of Canwell, Stafford, 1142 (Mon. i. 440). In 1247 Hugh de Cuilly paid a fine in Warwick (Roberts, Excerpt ii). William de Quilly (13th c.) held lands in Stafford from Marmion, and also held Ratcliff-Culey, Leicester, from the same. Hugh de Culey was Lord of Ratcliffe 1296-99. In 1309, he was Constable of Kenilworth; and being taken prisoner with the Earl of Lancaster at the battle of Boroughbridge, died of his wounds in Pontefract Castle. He had issue John Culey, who had two sons: 1. Thomas, whose daughter and heir married Sir John Stanhope of Rampton; and 2, Richard, living 1361 (Rot. Origin, ii. 351), who was father of John Cully of Lubbenham, Leicester, who married a daughter of Sir John Harrington (Harl. MS. 1558, fol. 35), and had issue John of Lubbenham, father of William Colley of Glaston, Rutland, whose son John had issue: 1. Anthony, ancestor of. the Colleys, Lords of Glaston, extinct; 2. Walter; 3. Robert. The two younger sons went to Ireland temp. Henry VIII.; and from Walter descended the Lords of Castle-Carbery, the lineal male ancestors of Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, the greatest and most victorious general ever produced by England."—The Norman People. The "Honfroi de Culai" entered on the Dives Roll as the companion of the Conqueror, and a sub-tenant in Domesday, does not appear in this pedigree. The Cuilys continued at Ratcliffe Cuily from the reign of Henry II. to that of Richard II. Their coat of arms—Sable, a chevron between three mu'lets Argent pierced of the field—is still blazoned in one of the north windows of the church chancel; and in another opposite is the effigy of a man in armour, kneeling, and bearing on his arms an escutcheon Cuily, which is repeated on his surcoat. Another similar figure bears the coat differenced.

Both Nichols and Dugdale give the descents of this family somewhat differently from the above. Sir Hugh de Cuily, the Constable of Kenilworth under Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who, according to Dugdale, "was one of those who had a hand in the murder of Piers de Gaveston," held the manor of Dunton in Warwickshire. "It seems that he made his residence there in these times, for in 8 Ed. II. he served as a knight for this shire in the several parliaments then held at Westminster and York; and was a knight before his death, which hapned at Pomfret Castle in 16 Ed. II. To which Hugh succeeded Roger, who, adhering to his Father in that Rebellion with the Earl of Lancaster, became also a Prisoner at Pomfret, but paying C marks fine and giving security for future good behaviour, he was enlarged." Thomas, the last heir, was Roger's son, and had two younger brothers, Sir John and Hugh (there is no mention of Richard in Nichols' Leicestershire), who married two Irish co-heiresses, the daughters of Oliver de Mandeville. Thomas and Hugh had each a son, and Sir John had two, but all of them died s.p., and the daughter of the eldest brother, Elizabeth de Cuily, remained sole heiress. She was the wife of Sir John Stanhope of Rampton in Nottinghamshire; and Sir Richard Stanhope sold Dunton in 1422. One of their Warwickshire manors is called Merston Culey to this day.

The Caileys, Cayles, or Cuileys, Barons of Buckenham in Norfolk, who ended with Thomas de Caily (the son of Sir Osbert and the co-heiress of Tateshall) in 1316, appear to have been a distinct family, or at all events bore totally different arms, that is, Chequy Gules and Or, a bend Ermine. I am inclined to believe that it was to them Honfroi de Culai belonged, though Blomfield derives them from "Osmund, who was enfeoffed of Denver by Earl Warren."

Clinels :

or Cliville, from a place so named, mentioned in the Norman Exchequer Rolls. "Hugh, the second son of Hugh Talebot, Castellan of Plessis in 1119 (Ord. Vitalis, 815) was Baron of Cliville in Normandy, by marriage with the daughter of Hugh de Cliville, before 1130 (Rot. Pip. 31 Henry I.)"—The Norman People. In England[128] Robert de Cliville occurs in the time of Henry I. (Rotul. Magn. Pip.) William de Cleville, in the following century, held lands at Stanes, with William Blackston, of the Honour of Wallingford (Testa de Nevill). Robert and Roger de Clivell or Clinel occur in Oxfordshire c. 1272.—Rotuli Hundredorum. Alan de Clivell witnesses Henry Fitz-Aker's charter to Marrick Priory, York.

Chaundos :

already given.

Courteney :

another duplicate.

Clifford :

an evident interpolation; for "though the family of Clifford undoubtedly came over with the Conqueror, yet the name was only assumed, about the time of Henry II., from the castle of that name in Herefordshire, by Walter, son of Richard Fitz-Pons."—Sir Egerton Brydges. See Pounce.

Denauile :

in Duchesne's copy, Deauvile; Deyville in Leland's; a name derived from Daiville in Normandy, which we meet with further on repeated as Deville. "In 1056, Walter Barbatus, Lord of Daiville, witnessed the charter of Treport, Eu Neustria Pia, 589). Walter de Daiville, his son, accompanied the Conqueror, and had grants from Roger de Mowbray in York, with the feudal dignity of Seneschal. He witnessed a charter of Pontefract Priory. (Mon. i. 655). Robert, his son, was hereditary Seneschal, and held five fees from Mowbray in York, and one in Notts (Liber Niger)."—The Norman People. This was Egmanton, in Nottinghamshire, with the parks and appurtenances, of which Nigel de Albini, "when a young man and carrying the King's bow," had been enfeoffed by his master, and this town "Nigel gave to his special friend Robert D'Aiville, which the King hearing, enquired of Nigel if it was so; who answered that it was, and that now the King had two honest knights where before he had but one."—Stark's Gainsborough. He had a dispute with Byland Abbey (Mon. i. 1031). His son. and namesake, who married a daughter of Josceline de Louvain and the heiress of the first house of Percy, occurs in 1194-99 in Leicestershire (Rot. Curiae Regis), where he has left his name to Cotes-Devile. A third Robert attended King John to Poitou in 1213: and in 1241 had a writ of military summons to serve in Gascony. The next heir, John, was the first and only Lord D'Eivill, who began life in 1253 as "an Excommunicate, and, in contempt of the Church's Power, fled from County to County, and afterwards beyond Sea."—Dugdale. For what offence he had incurred this penalty we are not informed. Three years later, he had successfully made his peace, and been reinstated; in 1262 he was Constable of York, and in 1263 had licence to build a castle at the Hode, in Yorkshire. Soon after this, he threw off his allegiance, joined the revolted Barons, and "became so active on their behalf in the Northern Parts of this Realm, as that the Sheriff of Yorkshire from Michaelmas 48. till the Battel of Evesham in 49. could not at all exercise his Office." He was Custos Pads for the county while Simon de Montfort was supreme; and, as one of the principal leaders among the Barons, was summoned to their parliament in 1264. Knighton terms him homo callidus et bellator fortis; and he carried on the ferocious partisan warfare of the time fiercely and ruthlessly in Yorkshire.[129] He is "more especially charged with having destroyed the castle and town of Sheffield. They plundered the goods of Thomas de Furnival, and burnt his castle, to his damage of £3000."—Hunter's South Yorkshire. On the other hand, he is commended in the contemporary Song of the Barons:

"Et Sire Jon D'Ayvile
Que oncques ni aima treyson ne gile
Fu en leur companie."

When the "fleur de pris" of England, the noble-hearted Simon de Montfort, had fallen at Evesham, D'Eivill took a more prominent part as leader; and "being a Subtile Man and a stout Soldier, he joyn'd with Robert Earl Ferrers and those of the Party who made Head again at Chesterfield in com. Derby, when after Ferrers was taken, Sir Gilbert Haunsard unhorst him with his Lance. Notwithstanding which, making an Escape, he fled to the Isle of Axholme in com. Lincoln."—Ibid. He was among the chief of those who defended the Isle of Ely against the King. However, he was reinstated by the Dictum de Kenilworth, and went to Scotland with Edward I. in 1299. He had previously received a grant of free-warren at Egmanton.

His son, another Sir John, though never summoned to parliament, was several times called upon for military service, commissioned to assist in the defence of the counties beyond Trent in 1315, and empowered to raise and arm all his tenants in 1318. In 1323 he was, as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, a prisoner in the Tower; but pardoned, and summoned to the great council at Westminster in 1324.—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. Five years after that, he was dead; and Margaret his widow had remarried Adam de Everingham, "who claimed various liberties at Egmanton in her right 3 Ed. III., and married his son Adam de Everingham to her daughter Joan de Eyvile."—Thoroton's Notts. This Joan was dowered with the great manor of Egmanton as her father's heir, for with him had expired the principal line of the D'Eivills. It was, however, but one among many.

John de Eivill, a Yorkshireman, the son of Gocelin de Eivill, was in 1257, as "the Justiciar of the King's forests ultra Trent, commanded to permit Margaret Queen of Scotland to enclose for her own profit the waste in the manor of Souresby within the King's forest of Englewood, which her lord the King of Scotland had assigned for her chamber."—(Close Roll 41 Hen. III.) In 1259 he furnishes her with fifteen bucks. From him no doubt derived Sir Gocelin de Eivill, "descended of honourable parents at Northallerton," who held Linton and Deighton in Howdenshire of the Bishop of Durham, and occurs as "vallettum Thomae archiepiscopi Ebor" in 1301. The evil fame of his subsequent career sorely belied this decorous commencement. In 1317 "Sir Gosceline D'Eivill and his brother Robert, with two hundred men in the habit of friars, did many notable robberies; they spoiled the Bishop of Durham's palaces, leaving nothing in them but bare walls, for the which they were hanged at York."—Stowe. Rymer further tells us that "he was associated with a numerous band, who did not yield, without a desperate conflict, to the sheriff and five hundred men; after which the desperadoes, who had been the terror of the county, were led to the scaffold at York." According to Sir Francis Palgrave, he was taken in arms against the King at the battle of Boroughbridge, and hanged and drawn as a traitor.

Contemporary with him was Peter de Eivill, another tenant of the Bishop of Durham's at Birland, South Cliff, and North Cliff in Yorkshire, where he likewise held some land at Ferriby of the Honour of Vesci.—Kirkbys Inquest. He was one of the Supervisors of the Assize of Arms and Array in the West Riding in 1315—Palgrave's Parl. Writs. Another of the name, Thomas de Eivill, received from Henry le Vavasour, in 1322, a grant of Belton-in-Ainsty in the same Riding; and his son Henry is mentioned as purchasing from Adam de Everingham "a certain place of wood beneath his park at Egmanton, called the East Park."—Thoroton's Notts. Walton-Daiville, in Warwickshire, bore the name of its owner in 1235, Walter de Deivill, with whose posterity it remained till 1309, when Maud, daughter and heir of Roger, transferred it to the Le Stranges.

Leland's account of this family, apparently derived from one of themselves, includes two other D'Eivills that are unnoticed elsewhere:

"The Davelles cam owte of Normandie, and sins they be Men of great Possessions yn the North Partes of England. But they cam in Edward the 2. tyme to Decay and Ruine. For the chief of the Davelles, that was Syr Loson Davelle and Sir Hugh Davelle, both Barons (as Mr. Doctor Davelle sayith, but sufficiently to me provith not) toke Thomas Earl of Lancaster and the Baron's Parte agayne Edwarde the 2. and Peter Gaveston, whereupon Davelle's Landes were attainted and sparkelid.

"Yet remainid of the Name four or five younger Brethren, that after got meane Landes; and one of them after in Descent consumed a 100 li Landes by the Yere in Nottinghamshire in mere Hauking and Hunting.

"Ther yet remayne meene Gentilmen of the name.

"The principall Land and Habitation of the Davelles was about Pontefracte in Yorkshire.

"Much of the Gascoyne's Landes and the Landes of Truewhit, alias Turwit, in Lincolnshir, longid to the Davelles.

"The name of the Originale Howse of the Davelles yet remainith in Normandie aboute the Partes, as I have heard, of Alaunson."

Dercy :

In Leland's rhyming list this name and the preceding one are given as "Deyville et Darcy ": in which case it is a duplicate. See Arcy.

Diue :

from Dives, Normandy. The name is altered in Domesday from de Dina. to de Diua, but seems to have been written sometimes in one way and sometimes in the other. "Beuselin de Dive" is on the Dives Roll, and became seated at Cambridge, where his descendants, however, appear to have left no traces. Hugh de Diva, held a barony in Notts and Northants temp. Hen. II.; and his son William (who gave the church of Haddon to Sulby Abbey in Northamptonshire) left three daughters. Maud, the eldest, in 1199 "gave ten Marks that she might not be compelled to marry; but if she had a Mind, would do it by the King's Advice" (e.g. command). She "had a mind" for Sir Saer de St. Andrea, whom she married; and her two sisters were the wives of two brothers, Sir Richard and Sir Simon de Mucegros.

So far Dugdale; but, according to the pedigree given in Baker's History of Northamptonshire, he has left out one generation in the descent. William, the son of Hugh de Dyve, the first Baron of East Haddon in Northants, married Maud de Waterville (whose mother, Ascelin, had been one of the sisters and co-heirs of William Peverell), and had two sons and a daughter. Hugh, his heir, was the father of the three co-heiresses; the other brother, Ralph, settled in Lincolnshire; and their sister Maud was the wife of William FitzOtho. The Lincolnshire branch terminated with Sir William Dive, who married a co-heir of the great house of Amundeville, Ermentrude, the eldest daughter of Peter, the last of that line She was dowered with Kingerby, the seat of the Amundevilles, and several other manors in Lincolnshire, but brought him only two daughters: Joan, married first to Sir William Disney of Norton Disney; and secondly to Ralph de Trehampton, Sheriff of Lincoln in 1293; and Elizabeth, who had also two husbands: Sir Lambert de Bussy, of Hougham; and John de Aubeney. They bore Gules a fesse dancettre Or between three escallop shells Ermine.

Several others of the name and lineage were, however, forthcoming in Northamptonshire. "Hugh Dyve and Henry Dyve, the mesne-lord of Brampton, who held under him, were probably of one common origin, as well as the Dyves of Wyke Dyve or Wicken, with whom this family has been erroneously identified, though they bore different arms, and the contemporary Christian names do not correspond."—Baker. Henry Dyve's descendants continued seated at Brampton for eight generations, till another Henry acquired Bromham in Bedfordshire in right of his wife, and their son, Sir John, settled at Bromham, and served as Sheriff of Bucks and Beds 2 Hen. VIII. On the chancel floor of Bromham Church are the brasses of this Sir John, his mother (who was the heiress of Thomas Wilde), and his wife Isabel, daughter and heir of Sir Ralph Hastings. From him descended Sir Lewis, a distinguished Cavalier officer during the Civil War. "Lord Clarendon informs us that in October, 1643, the King sent Prince Rupert with a strong party of horse and foot into Bedfordshire; that he took the town of Bedford, which was occupied as a strong quarter by the enemy; and that this expedition was principally designed to countenance Sir Lewis Dyve, whilst he fortified Newport-Pagnell, at which place he hoped to fix a garrison. Heath says that it was Sir Lewis himself who had command of the expedition; and that, being sent into Bedfordshire with two thousand or three thousand horse, he came first to Ampthill, then to Bedford, which town he entered, and took Sir John Norris, and other Parliamentary officers, prisoners. From thence he went to Sir Samuel Luke's house, and served that as Sir Lewis himself was served in the same county by sequestrators."—Lysons. Sir Lewis had to abandon Newport-Pagnell on the approach of the Earl of Essex, after the first battle of Newbury in 1643, and it was taken possession of for the Parliament.

He suffered severely for his loyalty, his estates of Harleston and East Haddon being sequestered and sold in 1652. His son did, indeed, succeed to Bromham, which appears soon afterwards to have been sold. I can find no further account of this son; but in the next generation we meet with another Lewis Dyve (no doubt a grandson), who was an officer in the 2nd Horse Guards, and the brother of Charlotte, Viscountess Sundon, Mistress of the Robes to George II.'s Queen. She had married Mr. William Clayton, originally a Treasury clerk, employed as one of the managers of the Marlborough estate during the Duke's absence on foreign service. Duchess Sarah took a fancy to her, and introduced her at Court, where she afterwards exercised great influence, and eventually became head of the Queen's household.[130] She had obtained an Irish peerage for her husband in 1735: and three of her nieces, Frances, Dorothy, and Charlotte Dyve, were successively placed at Court—one, as a Maid of Honour.

There was a branch of this family in Essex, who about 1230 were lords of the manor of Dives Hall, to which they gave their name: "and under them it was holden by the Botetourts and other families."—Morant's Essex.

Another is found at nearly the same date in Kent, where John Dive held Diven's manor in Easling of the Honour of Chilham. "His descendant Andrew, 20 Ed. III., paid for it as half a knight's fee of the above barony, when it paid ward annually to Dover Castle. In this name it continued till the beginning of the next reign, when it was alienated."—Hasted's Kent. In the sixteenth century they were seated at Bethersden, in the same county, where several of them lie buried in the parish church. The name was then spelt, as it continues to be, Dyne: and their arms, Argent, two bars gemelles between three escallops Gules, differ from those of the Northamptonshire house. Some of them must have migrated into Sussex: for John Dyne (the son of an earlier John who had died in 1646) married Timothea, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Dyne, of Westfield, Sussex, and had two sons:

1. Thomas, of Westfield, the father of Edward Dyne, whose wife was another Sussex heiress, Mary Fletcher of Coghurst. He left an only daughter, who inherited the estates, and was married to Musgrave Briscoe.

2. Henry, whose descendants continued in Kent, and are now seated at Gore Court, near Sittingbourne. Andrew Dyne, in 1783, married the heiress of James Bradley, whose name and arms they have since added to their own.

Dispencere :

or Steward. "This name includes various families who held the office of Dispensarius to the King or the great barons." Two Dispensators are to be found in Domesday: William, an under-tenant in Kent; and Robert, Steward to the Conqueror, who held a great barony in Leicester, Warwick, Worcester, and Lincoln. It is with the latter only that we have here to do, and the little that is known of him may be told in a very few words. He was of the great house of Tancarville—a brother of Urso d'Abitot, and, like him, a despoiler of the monks of Worcester, from whom he took the manor of Elmley, which they could never afterwards regain. His name is appended as a witness to some of the Conqueror's most important charters. But whether or no he had a wife and children is left in doubt; if he had, they are passed over in silence. His office was probably hereditary; and thus his two successors, William and Thurstan Le Despencer[131] (each in turn Steward to Henry I.), may be presumed to have been his sons. Thurstan had certainly two sons (Sir Egerton Brydges gives him four), Walter, Lord of King's Stanley in Gloucestershire, and Almaric, who succeeded to his brother's inheritance, and was Steward to Coeur de Lion. He married Amabel de Cheney, and was the father of a second Thurstan and Almaric, who were both in arms against King John. According to Sir Egerton, it was Thurstan's son Geoffrey, who died about 1251, that was the father of Hugh the Justiciary; but in this he runs counter to the authority of Dugdale, who supposes this Hugh to be the grandson of another Hugh, "contemporary (for some time) with the last-mentioned Thurstan," who was Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire in 1223, and Constable of the Royal castles of Shrewsbury, Bruges (now Bridgnorth), and Bolsover. He does not give us his lineage; but if, as Sir Egerton asserts, this elder Hugh was Thurstan's uncle, his account is chronologically more correct than the former, which crowds four generations into a space of about eighty years. The pedigree is involved and difficult, and the author of the 'Norman People' discards it from beginning to end, and derives the Justiciary from a common ancestor with the Cheshire Duttons, who bore similar arms.

With this second Hugh commences the epoch of the family's importance and power in the State. He received the great office of Justice of England in 1259 from the insurgent barons with whom he was in arms; and after the victory of Lewes, had the custody of five of the strongest castles in the kingdom: Oxford, Nottingham, Devizes in Wilts, Orford in Suffolk, and Barnard Castle in the Bishopric of Durham. He was summoned to parliament as Hugh le Despencer Justic' Angliae. in 1264, and was one of the Council of twenty-four barons appointed to govern the realm. Though, owing to some grudge or discontent, he fell off for a time from "the haughty-spirited Montfort," the breach was of short continuance, and he died loyally by his side at Evesham. When the Earl saw that the day was lost, "he bade Hugh Despencer and all the rest of his comrades fly from the field. 'If he died,' was the noble answer, 'they had no will to live.'"—Green. By his wife, Aliva Basset, the widowed Countess of Norfolk, he was the father of another Hugh, styled Hugh Senior, to distinguish him from a son of the same name, who was the celebrated favourite of Edward II. The father basked in the sunshine of the son's prosperity; shared with him the Royal bounty, and governed with him the Royal councils; for the two Despencers held fast together, and "acted jointly in all their affairs." Both were equally greedy of power and gain, and both equally detested by all classes of the commonwealth. But the elder Hugh had at least honourable antecedents. He had fought under the eye of Edward I. in the Scottish wars, and is praised as a good soldier at Caerlaverock:

"Du bon Hue le Despensier,
Ki vassaument sur le coursier
Savait desrompre une mellee,
Fu la baniere esquartelee
De un noir bastoun sur blanc gette,
E de vermeil jaune frette.

He had been employed to treat of peace with France, and sent on an embassy to the Pope in 1300. His son was the mere minion of the feeble King, and took the vacant place of Piers Gaveston when that luckless favourite "felt the teeth" of the Black Dog of Arden. Edward bestowed upon him in 1313 the whole county of Glamorgan with the hand of its heiress, Alianor de Clare, the eldest daughter of the last Earl of Gloucester of that puissant house; and in 1317, when "great animosities" had arisen between him and Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, and they were about to settle their quarrel by force of arms, the King interposed on his favourite's behalf, and laid his commands on the Earl to desist. Emboldened by this protection, Hugh next seized upon Gower-land, then disputed by John de Mowbray and this same Earl, and added the whole territory to his own adjacent lands. This filled up the measure of De Bohun's wrath; and he and some other malcontent barons, similarly angered by the "insolencie, pride, and excessive covetousness of both these Despencers," banded themselves together under the leadership of the Earl of Lancaster, the most powerful noble in England, and marched with banners displayed to London demanding the expulsion of the favourites. The unwilling King was forced to comply; a parliament was summoned by writ; and by a sentence solemnly proclaimed in Westminster Hall, both father and son were banished out of the kingdom. "Whereupon," says Dugdale, "this Hugh the elder went away, cursing the time that ever he begot that Son;" but Hugh the younger, "not willing to be gone, lurked in divers places, sometimes by Sea and sometimes by Land, and took two Dromonds about Sandwich, laden with merchandize." This piracy was one of the indictments brought against him at his trial. The King, meanwhile, soon found himself strong enough to recall them; and with their help raised an army that routed the barons at Boroughbridge, and sent their leader to the scaffold. Hugh Senior sat in judgment upon him; and Lancaster was not allowed to defend himself, but hurried away to execution, and put to death in front of his own castle. The ordinances against the Despencers were instantly annulled; the father was created Earl of Winchester, and a rapid succession of grants from the rich harvest of forfeitures followed to him and to his son. The list of those obtained by the latter alone fills three closely-printed columns of the Baronetage. But no amount of gifts could content him; and in his unappeasable thirst for plunder, he proceeded to open and shameless extortion; "seizing by violence upon Elizabeth Comyn, a great Heir, and wife of Richard Talbot, in her house of Kenninton in Surrey, and keeping her in prison, with hard usage, for a whole twelvemonth," till she had signed away to him, with other manors, her Welsh castle of Goderich. In the same summary fashion he wrested Dudley Castle from John Sutton, and Malpas in Cheshire from Oliver Ingham.

But this state of things could not last: and the long-brooding storm of popular fury at length burst in terrible earnest on the hated heads of the King and his minions. The Queen and her son, "having perfect information how the hearts of the people stood," landed at Harwich, collected a large following, and marched in triumph across the country to Bristol, where the deserted and fugitive King had sought refuge. Here, again, she was joyfully received; and "in testimony of her welcome," his own garrison delivered Hugh Senior—then an old man of ninety—into her hands. He was allowed no trial and short shrift, being at once sentenced to the cruel death of a traitor; and his body, after hanging for four days on the gibbet, "was then cut in pieces, and given to the Dogs to eat." The King and the younger Hugh had stolen away "betimes in the morning" to a little craft lying behind the Castle that was to take them to the Isle of Lundy, or else to Ireland; but the wind drove them ashore on the coast of Wales, and there, after some weary months of wandering and concealment, they were discovered and captured by Sir Henry Beaumont, who carried them to the Queen at Hereford. The wretched favourite "was bound on an Horse, with a Tabard over him, such as Traytors and Theeves use to wear; and in that manner carried in scorn, after the Queen's Troops, through all the Towns, with Trumps and Canairs, till they came thither, where the Queen then kept the Feast of All Saints with much Royalty; great multitudes of people flocking to see him, and making such a horrid noise, by shouting and opprobrious exclamations, that the like was never heard; Others say, that the more to disgrace him, they put on his Surcoat of Arm: reversed, and a Crown of Nettles on his head; and that upon his Vestment, six Verses of that Psalm beginning thus, Quid gloriaris in malitia? was written." He was brought before William Trussell the Speaker, arraigned as a traitor, and, without being suffered to open his lips in his own defence, sentenced "to be drawn on a hurdle, with Trumps and Trumpets, through the city of Hereford, to the market place," and there put to death. It was a death of lingering torment, too sickening to describe: amongst other horrors his heart was torn from his breast, thrust into the fire, and burnt before his face—and he was tied on a high ladder, that every man might see his agony. When vengeance had been fully wreaked on his miserable body, he was hung upon a gallows fifty feet high. His life may have been lawless, but its end was terrible.

His widow and sons were thrown into the Tower, where Alianor remained only a few months; but his eldest son Hugh was imprisoned till 1333, when "the Beams of the King's Favour" began to shine upon him, and he was permitted to join the expedition to Gascony. On his mother's death, he inherited her great possessions, and was summoned to parliament in 1338, but died s. p. The summons was, however, renewed in 1357 to his nephew and successor Edward ("a great Baron and a good Knight, quoth Froissart"), who attended the Black Prince into France, and fought by his side at Poitiers. He married Elizabeth de Burghersh, the heiress of Bartholomew, Lord Burghersh, and was the father of Thomas, known as Lord Despencer of Glamorgan, who on his marriage with a princess of the blood royal, obtained from Richard II. the reversal of his greatgrandfather's attainder. In the petition he presented to the King on that occasion, he gives an account of all his possessions, which is curious as a record of the fortune of a great nobleman in those days. He owned "59 Lordships in sundry Counties, 28,000 Sheep, 1000 Oxen and Steers, 1200 Kine, with their Calves; 40 Mares, with their Colts of two years; 160 Draught Horses; 2000 Hogs; 3000 Bullocks; 40 Tuns of Wine; 600 Bacons; fourscore Carcasses of Martinmass Beef: 600 Muttons in his Larder; 10 Tuns of Cider; Armor, Plate, Jewels, and ready Money, better than ten thousand pound; 36 Sacks of Wooll, and a Library of Books." In the same year (1397) he was created Earl of Gloucester, in honour of his descent from the De Clares, with a grant of Elmley Castle and some of the forfeited Warwick estates. But on the accession of Henry IV. in 1399, he was degraded from his Earldom as an adherent of the dethroned King, despoiled of a great part of his lands, and the rest left "at the King's mercy." He is believed to have been concerned in the plot of the three Earls to murder the King at Windsor, and in 1400 attempted to fly the country, but was taken at Bristol, and beheaded by the town rabble on the market place. His wife was Constance Plantagenet, the daughter of Edmund Langley, Duke of York, to whom he had been in ward; and he had by her three children: Elizabeth, who died in childhood; Richard, who died in 1414, being then but fourteen years of age, yet already the husband of Lady Elizabeth Nevill, daughter of Ralph, Earl of Westmorland; and Isabel, born seven months after her father's death, who thus became his sole heir. She was, by special dispensation of the Pope, successively married to two De Beauchamps, Richard Earl of Worcester, and Richard Earl of Warwick, and by her first marriage had an only child, Lady Elizabeth Beauchamp, who became the wife of Edward Nevill, Lord Westmorland's youngest son. She brought him the baronies of Abergavenny, Le Despencer, and Burghersh, and he was summoned to parliament by the former title in 1450. (See Nevill.) The barony of Le Despencer remained with the Nevills till 1587, when the heiress general of the fourth Lord Abergavenny carried it to the Fanes, and it was held by the first seven Earls of Westmorland; it then passed to some other families, and, by the marriage of the present Baroness to Viscount Falmouth, is now vested in the Boscawens.

A junior branch, whose descent has been variously given, and sometimes doubted,[132] survives of this famous house. It separated from the parent stock in early times, for its ancestor, Geoffrey Le Despencer, though unnoticed by Dugdale, was probably a brother of the Justiciary. From him came, it is said, Sir John Spencer, described by envious tongues as "the great Warwickshire grazier," a wealthy and prosperous knight, who acquired much land by marriage and purchase during the reign of Henry VIII. His wife brought him Snitterfield in Warwickshire; and he bought, among other estates, the great lordship of Wormleighton in the same county, where he built a "faire mansion"; and Althorpe in Northamptonshire—still the seat of his posterity—from the Catesbys. By his will he desired his executors to proclaim once a month for two successive years, that he required them "to recompense any one who can prove or will take oath that he has hurt him in any wise (tho' he has none in his remembrance); but he had rather charge their souls, than his own should be in danger." His descendants, like himself, were substantial country gentlemen, Sheriffs and Knights of the Shire for Northampton, living on their estates, glorying in their flocks and herds, and keeping open house in true old English fashion. One of them even directed in his will that "hospitality be kept up in his houses at Althorpe and Wormleighton as he had done;" and another, who built a house at Claverdon in Warwickshire, "was," says Dugdale, "the mirror of that county" for his liberality to his neighbours. Yet they went on steadily increasing their fortune, till at the accession of James I., Sir Robert, the fifth knight in succession, "was reported to have by him the most money of any person in the kingdom," and was created Lord Spencer of Wormleighton in 1603. Camden calls him "a worthy encourager of virtue and learning"; and he took an active part on the popular side in the House of Lords, "as vigilant to preserve the people's liberties from the encroaching power of monarchy as his lambs from foxes and ravenous creatures." Once, when he stood up boldly to defend them during a debate on the King's prerogative in 1621, and appealed to the peers to remember the deeds of their ancestors, the Earl of Arundel haughtily interrupted him—"My Lord," he cried, "when these things were doing, your ancestors were keeping sheep!" Spencer retorted, "When my ancestors were, as you say, keeping sheep, yours, my Lord, were plotting treason."

Second in descent from him was Henry, third Lord Spencer, created Earl of Sunderland only three months before his untimely death in 1643. He had served in the Royal body-guard during the Civil War as a volunteer; bringing with him, according to Lloyd, twelve hundred men, and ,£15,000 in money; but "held no command in the army, attending the King's person," says Lord Clarendon, "under the obligation of honour:" and fell in a cavalry charge at Newbury. Though he was then scarcely twenty-three, he had been married five years before to Lady Dorothy Sidney, a daughter of the Earl of Leicester,

"The matchless Sidney, that immortal frame
Of perfect beauty,"

sung by Waller as his "Cruel Saccharissa." The marriage had proved a fortunate one. "I know," writes her father to the widowed Countess, "that you lived happily, and so as nobody but yourself could measure the contentment of it. I did thank God for making me one of the means to procure it for you." Their son Robert, second Earl, a man of some talent, and unusual power of fascination, broke away altogether from the honest and honourable traditions of his house. Devoid either of religious or political principle, he was, as an inveterate gambler, constantly in need of money, and "his leading impulses were the greed of wealth and power, and the fear of personal danger."—Lord Macaulay. He courted the patronage of the Duchess of Portsmouth, and held office both under Charles II. and James II., while pocketing a yearly pension of £5500 from the King of France "for promoting his interests," and professing himself a zealous Roman Catholic convert. Then—at first secretly—he veered round to the Prince of Orange, again changed his religion, and was high in favour with the new Protestant King, who paid him a visit at Althorpe in 1695. "All Northamptonshire crowded to kiss the Royal hand in that fine gallery, which had been embellished by the pencil of Vandyke, and made classical by the muse of Waller; and the Earl tried to conciliate his neighbours by feasting them at eight tables, all blazing with gold plate."—Ibid. He died in 1702, leaving behind him a successor of almost entirely different character. "The father was," says Lord Stanhope, "a subtle, pliant, and unscrupulous candidate for royal favour; the son carried his love of popular rights to the verge of republican doctrines." In fact, he had in early life refused to be called "My lord," saying he trusted soon to see the end of that order. Though somewhat tainted with his father's love of play and genius for cabal, "he was a man of great quickness, discernment, and skill, of persevering ambition, of ready eloquence;" and soon took his place in the House of Lords as one of the leaders of the Whig party. From 1706 to 1710 he was Secretary of State, then Lord Privy Seal and Vice-Treasurer of Ireland; and lastly came into office as Earl Stanhope's principal supporter in the Government he formed in 1717. He had materially assisted his fortunes by becoming Lord Marlborough's son-in-law in 1699, when he married Lady Anne Churchill, the second of the four daughters of the great Duke, and in the end his sole heir. Her only brother, Lord Blandford, died while yet at college, in 1705; and in the following year the Duke and his all-powerful Duchess obtained a special Act of Parliament entailing his honours on his daughters and their heirs-male. Accordingly, on his death in 1722, the eldest, Lady Henrietta, Countess of Godolphin, succeeded as Duchess of Marlborough in her own right; and the hopes of the family were centred on her one surviving son. But this second Marquess of Blandford was again destined to disappoint them, for he died in 1731, leaving no children, and within two years his mother had followed him to the grave. The Dukedom then devolved upon the son of her next sister, Charles, fifth Earl of Sunderland, who took the name and arms of Churchill, and was the immediate ancestor of the present Duke.

Lady Anne Churchill had been the mother of four sons. The eldest, Robert, only lived a year; the second, another Robert, fourth Earl, died of a fever at Paris, unmarried; the third, Charles, became, as I have just said, Duke of Marlborough; and the fourth, John, inherited a very great fortune on the death of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. He was her favourite grandson, and she bequeathed to him nearly the whole of her patrimonial estates, including the Wimbledon property, sold only a few years ago by the present Lord Spencer,

and all the money she had been sedulously accumulating during her long life. In addition to this, his elder brother, in accordance to their grandfather's will,, made over to him Althorpe and the Spencer patrimony on succeeding to the Dukedom. This wealthy junior branch is now represented by Earl Spencer, for John Spencer's only son was created first Viscount Spencer in 1761, and then Earl Spencer and Viscount Althorpe in 1765.

Two other peerages have been granted to the family. The first—a Scottish one—was held by a brother of the gallant young Earl who fell at Newbury, Robert Spencer, who was created Viscount of Teviot by James. II., but left no heir. The other was conferred on Lord Francis Almaric, the second son of the fourth Duke, who received the title of Baron Churchill in 1815, and transmitted it to his grandson, the present Lord.

It was to a branch of this Northamptonshire house, settled near Pendle Forest in Lancashire, that Edmund Spencer belonged; and several of his poems are inscribed to the daughters of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe: Lady Compton and Monteagle, Lady Carey, and Lady Strange:

"The honour of the noble familie
Of which I meanest boast myself to be."

In his dedication of the "Teares of the Muses" to Lady Strange (for whom Milton afterwards wrote his Arcades) he speaks of "some private bands of affinitie, which it hath pleased your Ladiship to acknowledge:" and to another sister (Lady Compton and Monteagle) expresses "the humble affection and faithfull duetie, which I have alwaies professed and am bound to beare to that house from which yee spring."

Time has completely turned the tables. The boasting is now on the other side; it is "the house of auncient fame" from which the poor scholar gloried to take his name, that is proud of claiming kinship with him. "The nobility of the Spensers," writes Gibbon, "has been illustrated and enriched by the trophies of Marlborough; but I exhort them to consider the 'Faerie Queene' as the most precious jewel of their coronet."

Daubeny :

This name was borne by the posterity of Robert de Todeni, who built Belvoir Castle, and first owned the noble domain on which it looks down. The son—for some cause or other—assumed the name of De Albini, and was styled "Brito" to distinguish from Albini Pincerna, Earl of Arundel. The name did not become Daubeny till quite the end of the thirteenth century (nearly fifty years after the splendid heritage of Belvoir had passed away through an heiress to the De Ros'), when Elias Daubeny, first so styled, had summons to parliament as a baron. It can therefore only find place here as an interpolation.

Some of these additions, I may say, show a profound ignorance of genealogy. A name already given in its original form is repeated in its modern one. This is one instance among several others, such as Mucegros—Musgrave; Limesay—Lindsay.

Daniell :

"Rogerus Daniel" was an undertenant in Sussex 1086 (Domesday), but I have met with no account of his posterity. If, as is most likely, the old Cheshire family of Daniell is here indicated, this name cannot be admitted without an alteration in the last letter; for, down to the time of Edward II., and even after that, it was always Danyers or De Anyers. As Frezel was changed in Scotland to Frazer, so, by reversing the process, Danyers became Daniell.

I think there can be no doubt that it was derived from Asnieres, in the arrondissement of Bayeux. Gilbert le Viel of Asnieres is mentioned in the Roman de Rou as present at Hastings. "The Lord of Asnieres is found in a charter of 1082, in favour of the Abbaye-aux-Dames, of Caen: he was then Ralph, who possibly had suceeded Gilbert le Viel."—Taylor's Ware. The name was still represented at the great Assembly of the Norman nobles in 1789. But, during the two centuries that elapsed after the Norman Conquest, its history in England—at least as far as I am aware—remains unwritten. Ormerod begins the pedigree with William de Anyers or Danyers, "probably the son of Robert de Aanv" (this must surely be an abbreviation), "who granted lands in Limme" (now Lyme) "to Geoffrey de Dutton, temp. Henry III." He must have belonged to the family surnamed from that place, for the coats of Daniell and Lyme are identical except in the tinctures, then habitually varied to distinguish different branches of the same house. The Lymes, however, occur no earlier than the preceding reign: "I find," says Ormerod, "the first Geoffrey de Lyme to have lived in King John's time:" nor is he able to determine their lineage. A branch of the Daniells continued at Cherry-tree Hurst, Lyme, till the death of William Daniell in 1493, when the property was contested for thirty-eight years by the Daniells of Over-Tabley and the Daniells of Longdon in Staffordshire, and at last adjudged to the former.

William de Anyers, the undoubted progenitor of the race, bought lands in Daresbury of William le Norreys in 1291, and had two sons, each the founder of a family; Thomas, of Bradbury: and William, of Daresbury.

Thomas, the eldest son (though this is a disputed point) acquired Bradbury from Peter Dutton, Lord of Warburton, and was Sheriff of Cheshire in 1351 and 1353. He was twice married. His son and heir, who died in his lifetime, was the gallant Sir Thomas to whose exploits a monument is erected in Grossenhall Church. "When the flower of Cheshire chivalry were engaged under their Earl, the Black Prince, at the battle of Cressy, Sir Thomas Danyers was pre-eminently distinguished above the rest of that chosen phalanx; and in the most hazardous part of the battle, probably when King Edward refused his succour, and 'bade his boy win his spurs for himself,' the said Sir Thomas relieved the banner of his Earl, and took prisoner the Chamberlain of France, Tankerville."—Ibid. For this service the Black Prince settled upon him an annuity of forty marks. He left only a daughter named Margaret, three times married, with whom Bradbury and other lands pertaining to the family passed away.

His two next brothers also died without issue male; and thus old Sir Thomas's fourth son Thomas (the first-born of his second marriage) became the heir, and settled at Over-Tabley in the early part of Richard II.'s reign. He was then in the wars, serving under Sir Hugh Calveley of Lea, a famous soldier of that time. His wife Katherine, sole daughter and heir of William de Tabley of Over-Tabley, brought him the fair inheritance that remained vested in his posterity for the better part of three hundred and fifty years. Thirteen generations had dwelt, in prosperous and uninterrupted (though seemingly uneventful) succession at Over-Tabley, when, early in the last Century, Samuel Daniell found himself the last of his house. His two brothers had died s. p., and he had lost his only child—a daughter—in her infancy. At his death in 1726, his Cheshire estates were demised by will to his great-nephew Samuel Duckenfield; and he directed that his godson, Samuel Goldston of Essex, should take his name.

The line of William Daniell of Daresbury, on the other hand, has never failed. His grandson, who died in 1406, obtained the entire manor through his marriage with Clemence le Norreys, the Lady of Daresbury, and from that time till 1736 it was transmitted in direct line of descent. The last owner, John Daniell, then died; and having either no children, or else only daughters (for accounts differ), bequeathed his estate to his childless brother Edward, by whom it was mortgaged to the Astons, and finally sold, in or about 1756, to George Heron, by the next heir, John Daniell of Aldridge Lodge in Staffordshire. He is still represented in the male line, and there is a family bearing the same arms in Ireland. Here again, therefore, we may welcome among us one of the rare old names that have never died out.

Denise :

for Deneys or Le Danois; a Danish family whose pedigree was traced from Jellanus Dacus, Lord of Pancras Week in Devonshire, temp. Hen. II. Another, Robert Dacus, or Le Daneys, held of the Abbey Of Tavistock in 1165 (Liber Niger): and there is a previous mention of Hugh Daniscus or Daneis in the Pipe Rolls of 1130. They bore, in honour of their origin, three Danish battle-axes erect Or: the terrible hatchet of their forefathers,[133] that, with its double handle and two-foot blade, could bear down all before it. They spread over Devonshire in such numerous divisions and sub-divisions as almost to attain the proportions of a clan; yet one by one all these possessions, mostly derived from heiresses, passed away as they had come. The two principal branches were seated at "Orleigh, in the parish of Buckland Brewer, the long contynewed dwellinge of the family"; and at Holcombe Burnell; but we also find them at Bicton, Holsworthy, Manworthy, and Gidecot, Whimple, Windey Cross, Malcot, Colliscombe, &c.; and for some time at Creed and Menhiot in Cornwall, where, Sir William Pole tells us, "the patrimony of Daunay of Sheviocke came in time to Dennis of Orleigh and Crocker," The direct line from Jellanus Dacus ended in the fifth descent with Sir Robert le Deneys; that of Orleigh was carried on till about 1700, and the co-heiresses married Sir Thomas Hamson and Glynn of Glynn. The house of Holcombe Burnell did not last so long, but would seem to have been the most important of the two. Sir Thomas, the grandfather of the last heir, was, by Sir William Pole's account, nine times Sheriff of the county during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Philip and Mary; and his son Sir Robert was "the worthie Knight who, anno 1592, erected a fair Almes house, in the suburbs of Exeter, for twelve poor aged Men, allowing to each a plot of grounde for an Herber, and Twelve-pence weekly. This Family, so ancient in this County (deriving its Name and Original from the Danes) is now extinct: the Heire-general being married into the house of the Rolles."—Fuller's Worthies. It had become extinct with Sir Robert's son Sir Thomas, who married a daughter of the Marquess of Winchester, and left two co-heiresses, married to Sir Henry Rolle and Sir Arthur Mainwaring. Almost all the remaining branches were, in like manner, successively merged; and the famous Danish battle-axes are now quartered by many different families. Yet when Lysons wrote, in 1822, there was still a male representative of the Whimple branch; and an apothecary of the name, practising at Tavistock, claimed descent from that of Windey Cross.

The family had spread into the adjacent counties. They held Sock-Dennis, in Somersetshire, under the Barons Beauchamp of Hacche. "In the time of Henry II. and Richard I., Osbert and William Dacus, or Le Deneys, were Keepers of Petherton Park in this county; the former of whom had issue, Ralph, who 12 Hen. III. held half a knight's fee of William de Mohun. The hospital of White Hall (de Alba Aula, or Blanche Sale) was founded about 1226 by William Dennis, and endowed with lands and tenements in Ivelchester, Sock-Dennis, and Taunton, for the entertainment of pilgrims and poor travellers."—Collinson's Somerset. Wroxhall-Deneys, in Dorsetshire, "took its name from its most ancient lords, who became extinct there in the time of Edward II."—Hutchins' Dorset.

Druell :

or De Ruelles, from Ruelles, near Vernon, in Normandy. This name (sometimes given as De Roeles[134]) appears more than once in the Norman Exchequer Rolls of the twelfth century, and is still represented in France. The De Ruels, now resident near Alencon, proved their nobility in 1670, and were Sires de Launay, de Belle Isle, &c. They bear Azure four eaglets Gules. The first mention I have found of them on this side of the Channel is in 1130, when Grimbald and Leowin de Rowella were of Lincoln (Rot. Pip.), and during the reign of King John, Ralph Druel of Buckinghamshire, Robert Ruell of Bedfordshire, and Nicholas and Richard de Rowell of Northamptonshire, are all to be met with. About 1180 "Magistro Ger' de Roell" witnesses a confirmation charter of Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln; and "Alan de Rowell gave jointly to Bridlington Priory and St. Mary of Thornton-on-the-Humber six marks of silver to be paid yearly."—Paulson's Holderness. According to the Testa de Nevill, the Druells held Bray field, Bucks, about 1224 of the Honour of Huntingdon. "Alice, presumed to be the heiress of the Blossomvilles, married (before 1264) Sir John Druel, and brought him Newton-Blossomville. Some time after 1323, Nicola, daughter and heir of William Druell, being married to Sir Thomas Swinford, carried the inheritance to him."—Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire. William Druell "of Weresle" appears in 1443 in the list of the Gentry of Huntingdonshire.—Fuller.

According to Mr. Ellis, the name is to be found in Domesday. Ralph, who was Ralph Paynell's tenant at Torleton in Gloucestershire, was evidently Ralph du Rouelle, who had held lands of him in Somerset. I have failed to find any further mention of them in either of these counties. The Northamptonshire branch lasted the longest, and was evidently preponderant there in early times, as (with the exception of a single break) John Druel served as High Sheriff uninterruptedly from 18 to 29 Ed. I. Yet the only allusion to their possessions I can meet with is that another John Druel—perhaps his grandson—held half a knight's fee at Newton in 1346. In 1485 died a third and last John Druel, Lord of Great Oakley, leaving a young brother of fourteen, Richard Druel, as his heir. The line ended with this Richard in 1509. He had two daughters; but the younger died childless, and her elder sister, Anne Peryent, was sole inheritrix, v.—Bridge's Northamptonshire.

In Ireland "John Drull" was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1302 (30 Ed. I.), the year after the expiration of his namesake's shrievalty. Can he by any possibility have been the same man?

Devaus :

The Norman Castle of Vaux or De Vallibus is mentioned by Orderic Vitalis (775): and the Terra di Vallibus continued in the possession of the family to which it gave their name till the time of King John (Rotuli Normaniae 4 John). Two brothers, Robert and Aitard de Vaux, appear in Domesday as mesne-lords in Norfolk. The former was probably the same Robert de Vals or de Vaux who, six years before, gave his tithes to St. Evrault (Orderic Vit. 576). Both of them held of Roger Bigod. "Robert de Vallibus, who held Pentney of Bigod, founded a Priory there for the souls of Agnes his wife and their children. Oliver was one of the barons in arms against King John; and 29 Hen. III. answered for thirty-two knight's fees. Robert his son died (as I take it) before him; and left William his son, who about 30 Hen. III. married Alianor, daughter of William Ferrers Earl of Derby, and died s, p. less than seven years afterwards. John de Vaux, his brother, appears to have been his heir: and 49 Hen. III. for his faithful services was made Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and soon after Constable of Norwich. He died 16 Ed. I., and left two daughters and coheirs: Petronel, married to Sir William de Nerford, and Maud, to Sir William de Ros, Lord of Hamlake, between whom his great estates were divided. Sir William is said to have twenty-five knight's fees with his lady, and the Lord Ros, nineteen with his."—Blomfield's Norfolk. The other brother, Aitard or Ethard, who was much less richly endowed, gave his name to Vaux's Manor in Norfolk, where his posterity "continued for many ages." John de Vaux, in 1320, is the last mentioned.—Ibid.

Hubert de Vaux, supposed to be the grandson of the founder of Pentney Priory,[135] received from Henry II. a grant of the barony of Gilsland—one of the three great fiefs into which Ranulph de Meschines had divided the frontier districts of Cumberland, "Gilsland and Lyddale to guard the passes from Scotland by land, and Burgh to guard the approaches by sea." It comprised a broad tract of country adjoining Northumberland; "a tract," says Camden, "so cut and mangled with the brooks, or so full of rivulets, that I should suppose it to have taken its name from these gilles,[136] had I not read in the register of Lanercost Church that one Gill, the son of Bueth, who in a charter of Henry II. is called Gilbert, anciently held it, and probably left his name to it." The original Celtic owner had stoutly maintained his rights. Ranulph's younger brother, William de Meschines, to whom Gilsland had been first granted, found his new barony "no bed of roses," for "he was never able to get it out of the hands of the Scots; as Gill, son of Bueth, held the greater part of it by force of arms."—Ibid. He "owned the lion's hide while still on the lion's back," and, weary of the contest, asked and obtained from Henry I. the barony of Coupland in exchange. Thus Gill was left in undisturbed possession till his death, for during the following reign Cumberland remained wholly in the hands of the Scots, and was only recovered by Henry II.

Hubert de Vaux had no doubt earned his share of the reconquered territory by helping to drive out the Scots, and perchance by former services rendered to the King during his long struggle with Stephen, but nothing is actually known of his history. Henry II.'s charter included, with Gilsland, Corby and the manor of Catterlen, near Penrith, where a branch of the family was seated till the middle of the seventeenth century. Irthington was his caput baroniae, where, at Castlestead, marked by some remains of Roman work, Gill Bueth had had his dwelling-place. According to the Magna Britannia, the De Vaux, "suffering it to decay, built Naworth out of the materials thereof;" but in reality they never resided there at all, and Naworth was not built till 1335, when Ranulph de Dacre obtained license to castellate from Edward III. Hubert bore chequy Or and Gules; and on his seal a gryphon eating a lacert.

He died in 1164, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert. But Gill Bueth had also left descendants,[137] who were not likely to ignore their ancient claim to Gilsland; and according to tradition, a second Gill caused the new Lord "much disturbance, and found many partisans in the country." Robert determined to be rid of this troublesome rival; and appointing a tryst at Castlestead, treacherously slew him on the very hearthstone of his father's house, to which he had come in good faith and full assurance of safety. The story further goes, that it was in expiation of this foul crime that Robert founded Lanercost Priory in 1169, and magnificently endowed it. Though "he was of so much account with Henry II., that the King did little in Cumberland without his advice and counsel, yet could not his conscience be at quiet until he made atonement for the murder of Gill Bueth by endowing Holy Church with part of that patrimony that caused the murder."—Hutchinson's Cumberland. During the invasion of William the Lion (1173-74) he had the custody of the city and castle of Carlisle; and though both threatened and bribed to surrender his trust, held on bravely till he was in great straits for provision, and had forced the Scots to retire. He married a great Cumberland heiress, Ada de Engaine, then the widow of Simon de Morville, but their only child died in his lifetime, and his brother Ralph was his heir. The line terminated with Ralph's grandson, Hubert II., whose daughter Maud, Lady of Gilsland, carried the barony to the Multons; and her great-great-granddaughter Margaret again transferred it to the Dacres. The husband of this second heiress, Ranulph de Dacre, who was summoned to Parliament in 1321, was ancestor, in the female line, of the Lords Dacre of the South (see Fiennes); and, in the male line, of the Lords Dacre of the North. The latter acquired by marriage the baronies of Greystock and Wemme, and ended in 1569 with George, fifth Lord, whose sisters conveyed his great domain to the Howards. This last Lord Dacre, "being a child in years, and then ward to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, was, by a great mischance, slayne at Thetford, in the house of Sir Richard Fulmerstone, by means of a vaunting horse of woode standing within the same house; upon which horse, as he meant to have vaunted, and the pins at the feet not being made sure, the horse fell upon him, and bruised the brains out of his body."[138]—Stowe. According to a singular family arrangement, not uncommon in those days, this poor boy was, at the time of his death, troth-plighted to the daughter of his guardian, who had married his mother, the widowed Lady Dacre. When she became Duchess of Norfolk, it was agreed that her son should take Lady Margaret Howard to wife, and that her three daughters should marry the Duke's three sons, Lord Arundel, Lord Thomas, and Lord William Howard. Lady Margaret, as we have seen, lost her intended bridegroom, and one of the three sisters also died early; but Anne and Elizabeth Dacre lived to fulfil their appointed destiny, and their brother's property was divided between their husbands. They were very great heiresses. The Countess of Arundel, who was the eldest, had the two baronies of Greystock and Brough in Cumberland, the baronies of Barton and Duffton in Westmoreland, the barony of Wemme with other lands in Shropshire, and the estates in Lancashire, Bedfordshire, and Leicestershire. Elizabeth, the younger, "Bessie with the broad apron," brought to Lord William Howard—the "Belted Will" of Border renown—the baronies of Naworth and Gilsland in Cumberland, the property in the counties of Durham and York (including Hinderskelf, where the stately palace named Castle Howard was afterwards built), and the barony of Morpeth with a great estate in Northumberland—all now possessed by her descendant and representative, the Earl of Carlisle.

Many junior branches survived of the house of De Vaux; for the first Hubert who came into Cumberland had' provided for more than one of his kinsmen. Reginald de Vaux, who, according to Hutchinson, was his brother, received Castle Sowerby, Carlatton, and Hubertby, and was called Reginald de Sowerby; Ralph also held some land in the county; and Robert (another brother) was enfeoffed of Little Dalston, where his descendants, taking the name of their manor, were seated during a long succession of generations. The last was Sir George Dalston, who, having no heir male, sold Dalston Hall in 1761. Several other families "took their beginning" from younger sons of the house of Gilsland; as Vaux of Triermain, of Ainstaplygh, of Catterlen, and of Caldbeck, &c. (vide Hutchinson). Triermain, with the enchanted castle in the Vale of St. John, vanishing and reappearing by magic art, that supplied Sir Walter Scott with the scenery of one of his poems, had been granted by the fourth baron of Gilsland, who died about 1234,10 his brother Ralph. Ralph's posterity continued there for upwards of four hundred years, the line expiring with John de Vaux, whose daughter and heiress, Mabel, about the middle of the seventeenth century, married Christopher Richmond of Highhead Castle, Cumberland. One of the six granddaughters and co-heiresses of Christopher was the wife of Peter Brougham, a great-great uncle of the first Lord Brougham, and had two sons, who died s. p. Yet, when, in 1830, Henry Brougham obtained his peerage, he took the title of Lord Brougham and Vaux.

Another cadet of the baronial house, Robert de Vaux, settled at Harrowden in Northamptonshire, and added to his paternal coat a chevron Azure bearing three roses Or. His descendant, Nicholas, was created Lord Vaux of Harrowden in 1523, but never sat in parliament, as he died within the year. He was in great favour at the court of Henry VII. and Henry VIII., and contributed materially to its splendour.[139] His son, who married the heiress of Sir Thomas Cheney of Irtlingburgh, "attended Cardinal Wolsey on his embassy to make peace between the King of England, the Emperor, and Francis the French king. This peer, like his father, is noticed as having been a poet,"—Banks. The next Lord Vaux, "an enthusiastic devotee, had brought up all his children as rigid Catholics; and his eldest son gave up his native country, title, and estate, to enter a foreign monastery, where he died, in holy orders, during his father's life. One of his daughters married a Roman Catholic gentleman named Brooksby, and, with her husband and her sister Anne, followed the fortunes of the notorious Jesuit Garnet, and were content to share his dangerous and uncertain mode of life."—Jardine's Criminal Trials. The persecutions of the time constantly obliged him to shift his quarters from one hiding-place to another; but wherever he went, they went with him; and with him, in September, 1605, they undertook the celebrated pilgrimage to St. Winifred's Well in Flintshire, that was to precede the immediate execution of the Gunpowder Blot. Anne Vaux, Mrs. Brooksby, Lady Digby, and many other ladies, walked barefoot from Holt to the Holy Well, when all the pilgrims spent the night in prayer. They had started from Sir Everard Digby's house in Buckinghamshire, and "it is material to observe not only that Rookwood, one of the avowed conspirators, was a party to this pilgrimage, but that on their progress the pilgrims rested at the houses of Grant and Winter, at each of which mass was said by Garnet."—Ibid. Some have conjectured that the warning letter to Lord Monteagle was written by Anne Vaux, who was nearly related to his wife; but the handwriting is not hers, and there is no positive proof that she was cognizant of the plot. She herself protested that she was not; nor was she directly implicated by any of the evidence given at the trial. She was certainly blindly devoted to Garnet, and, though neither of them were young people (the priest being fifty, and she forty years of age), her affection for him gave rise to scandal; yet the intercepted letters that he wrote to her from the Tower breathe no warmer feeling than paternal regard. She replied in more passionate terms,[140] but even her letters express little beyond the agony of distress that any religious enthusiast might feel at parting with the spiritual guide and protector on whom she had depended for years. When he was arrested, she followed him to London, and was herself thrown into the Tower and cross-examined; but nothing whatever was elicited from her, and she is supposed to have ended her days in some Continental nunnery.

Her two nephews, Edward and Henry, successively fourth and fifth Lords Vaux, proved the last heirs-male of their ancient house. Edward had early formed a connection with a woman of very evil repute, Lady Elizabeth Howard, Countess of Banbury, who, when the Earl was gathered to his fathers at the ripe age of eighty-eight, married her paramour, and produced two sons, born in her first husband's lifetime, whose existence she had kept secret till then. Lord Vaux was their reputed father; they bore his name; and to Nicholas, the eldest of them, he bequeathed all that he possessed. The Countess "is said to have destroyed the patent of creation of Nicholas Lord Vaux (which was never enrolled), together with divers deeds relating to the entailed estates, to secure them to these bastard sons, and thereby prevent Henry, the last lord, from succeeding to them."—Banks. Having accomplished this first object, she presently set to work to prove that Nicholas was the rightful Earl of Banbury; and as such he sat and voted in the Convention Parliament of 1660. The further history of this strange claim, which was last put forward in 1808, takes rank among the causes celebres in the records of disputed peerages.

Henry, the fifth and last Lord Vaux of Harrowden, who succeeded to nothing but the title and his brother's munificent bequest of £10, died s. p. in 1663. The barony then lapsed between his three sisters: Mary, the wife of Sir George Simeon, Joyce, a nun, and Catherine Lady Abergavenny; and was called out of abeyance in 1838 in favour of Charles Mostyn, the representative of Lady Simeon.

Dauers :

"Rahier d'Avres," on the Dives Roll, is probably the same "Ra' de Alvers" who witnesses the Earl of Leicester's grant to St. Ebrulfs Abbey, and was seated at Shuckburgh, Warwickshire. "The antient Earls of Warwick enfeoft of this place the family of Danvers, Dalvers, or Davers, all which ways it is written in Records, and that not long after the Conquest. For certain it is from the Lib. rub. that Robert de Alvers held three knight's fees of William Earl of Warwick 12 Hen. II. de veteri feoffamento, which Robert de Alvers confirmed the grant of one Robert de Succhebergh, homo suus, which he had made to the church of St. Leonard and the Nuns of Wroccheshale. This Robert de Alvers was descended from Rowland D'Alvers, that came in with the Conqueror, and was ancestor of the Davers of Upton in this county, Dantsey, co. Wilts, Culworth, co. Northumberland, and several other families of that name."—Dugdale's Warwickshire. The name was taken from Alvers or Auvers near Coutances; and its transformation into Danvers is probably attributable to the usual confusion between the letters n and u made by the old copyists. Fulk D'Auvers held lands of the Honour of Breteuil, Normandy, in the time of Philip Augustus. "Robertus de Alvers" appears in Domesday as the holder of a house in Northampton, and is believed by the Abbe De la Rue to be the actual founder of the family. However this may have been, it spread and flourished in many different counties.

"Very soon after the Conquest," says Nichols, in his History of Leicestershire, "the Danvers appear as considerable landowners in Erolesworth.[141] Ralph Danvers held it in fee of the Earl of Leicester in 1296. By the heir-general of Danvers, Joan, the daughter of Nicholas Danvers and Isabel his wife, this lordship, about the beginning of Edward Ill's time, was transferred to the family of Amaury, who bore Gules a Cross engrailed Or fusilly." A branch remained, seated at Swithland in the same county, derived from William Danvers of Shakerston, son of Henry Danvers of Frolesworth, born in 1313—presumably a younger son; whose descendant John (born 1452) married Margaret Walcote, the Lady of Swithland. Another descendant, Sir John, was created a baronet in 1746; and had four sons, who all died childless, and one daughter, Mary, married to the Honourable A. Butler.

The old name, however, lingered on in Leicestershire up to the time of the Commonwealth. "Thrussington Grange is situated near the Foss road, at some distance from the village; and when Oliver Cromwell with his army took the Foss to Newark on his road to Lincolnshire, which goes straight forward on a line not far from Grange House, where John Danvers, a younger brother of the Swithland family, lived at that time with his two daughters, Dorothy and Susanna, who were afterwards his co-heiresses, this so alarmed the old gentleman, that he in a great hurry hid a jug full of gold on the bank of the canal. Whether his memory was treacherous, and he forgot to take it up, or he died in the interim, family tradition doth not mention; but it was found many years after by a shepherd sitting on the bank tending his sheep, when the edges of the vessel appeared that contained the cash. This raised that family all at once to some little eminence; but it has dwindled again almost to its pristine state, for want of knowing what money meant and its true worth."—Ibid. This enigmatical sentence must allude to the representatives of the co-heiresses, who married two brothers of the Hacket family, and left a singular bequest to their parish church: "Having been on a visit in the village, and staying a little too late, they were lost on the Woulds; and at last regained their path to the Grange on hearing the great bell of Hoby ring at eight o'clock; in commemoration of which they jointly settled, from each of their fortunes, a piece of land on Thrussingto